Guelmim, is a city in southern Morocco called Gateway to the Desert. It is the capital of the Guelmim-Oued Noun region which includes southern Morocco and the northeastern corner of Western Sahara; the population of the city was 187,808 as of the 2014 Moroccan census, making it the largest city in the region. The N1 and N12 highways link it to the nearby region of Souss-Massa. Guelmim is located just north of Asrir, the site of an important trade-route city and the capital of the Saharan tribes, it was known in Arabic sources as Noul Lamta. It is home to a camel market; when hippies "discovered" certain types of colorful African trade beads there in the 1960s, these became known as "Goulamine beads" though they were manufactured in Europe in Venice, Italy. Many of the inhabitants speak the Hassaniya dialect, as it is part of the Sahrawi-inhabited southern region of Morocco. Guelmim has a hot desert climate. Beni Ḥassān Noun River Maqil Tekna Media related to Guelmim at Wikimedia Commons Lexicorient
Senegal the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa. Senegal is bordered by Mauritania in the north, Mali to the east, Guinea to the southeast, Guinea-Bissau to the southwest. Senegal borders The Gambia, a country occupying a narrow sliver of land along the banks of the Gambia River, which separates Senegal's southern region of Casamance from the rest of the country. Senegal shares a maritime border with Cape Verde. Senegal's economic and political capital is Dakar; the unitary semi-presidential republic is the westernmost country in the mainland of the Old World, or Afro-Eurasia, owes its name to the Senegal River, which borders it to the east and north. Senegal covers a land area of 197,000 square kilometres and has an estimated population of about 15 million; the climate is Sahelian, though there is a rainy season. From a Portuguese transliteration of the name of the Zenaga known as the Sanhaja, or a combination of the supreme deity in Serer religion and o gal meaning body of water in the Serer language.
Alternatively, the name could derive from the Wolof phrase "Sunuu Gaal," which means "our boat." The territory of modern Senegal has been inhabited by various ethnic groups since prehistory. Organized kingdoms emerged around the seventh century, parts of the country were ruled by prominent regional empires such as the Jolof Empire; the present state of Senegal has its roots in European colonialism, which began during the mid-15th century, when various European powers began competing for trade in the area. The establishment of coastal trading posts led to control of the mainland, culminating in French rule of the area by the 19th century, albeit amid much local resistance. Senegal peacefully attained independence from France in 1960, has since been among the more politically stable countries in Africa. Senegal's economy is centered on commodities and natural resources. Major industries are fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, construction materials, ship construction and repair.
As in most African nations, agriculture is a major sector, with Senegal producing several important cash crops, including peanuts, cotton, green beans, tomatoes and mangoes. Owing to its relative stability and hospitality are burgeoning sectors. With it being a multiethnic and secular nation, Senegal is predominantly Sunni Muslim with Sufi and animist influences. French is the official language, although many native languages are recognized. Since April 2012, Senegal's president has been Macky Sall. Senegal has been a member of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie since 1970. Archaeological findings throughout the area indicate that Senegal was inhabited in prehistoric times and has been continuously occupied by various ethnic groups; some kingdoms were created around the 7th century: Takrur in the 9th century and the Jolof Empire during the 13th and 14th centuries. Eastern Senegal was once part of the Ghana Empire. Islam was introduced through Toucouleur and Soninke contact with the Almoravid dynasty of the Maghreb, who in turn propagated it with the help of the Almoravids, Toucouleur allies.
This movement faced resistance from ethnicities of the Serers in particular. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the area came under the influence of the empires to the east. In the Senegambia region, between 1300 and 1900, close to one-third of the population was enslaved as a result of captives taken in warfare. In the 14th century the Jolof Empire grew more powerful, having united Cayor and the kingdoms of Baol, Saloum, Futa Tooro and Bambouk, or much of present-day West Africa; the empire was a voluntary confederacy of various states rather than an empire built on military conquest. The empire was founded by Ndiadiane Ndiaye, a part Serer and part Toucouleur, able to form a coalition with many ethnicities, but collapsed around 1549 with the defeat and killing of Lele Fouli Fak by Amari Ngone Sobel Fall. In the mid-15th century, the Portuguese landed on the Senegal coastline, followed by traders representing other countries, including the French. Various European powers—Portugal, the Netherlands, Great Britain—competed for trade in the area from the 15th century onward.
In 1677, France gained control of what had become a minor departure point in the Atlantic slave trade—the island of Gorée next to modern Dakar, used as a base to purchase slaves from the warring chiefdoms on the mainland. European missionaries introduced Christianity to the Casamance in the 19th century, it was only in the 1850s that the French began to expand onto the Senegalese mainland after they abolished slavery and began promoting an abolitionist doctrine, adding native kingdoms like the Waalo, Cayor and Jolof Empire. French colonists progressively invaded and took over all the kingdoms except Sine and Saloum under Governor Louis Faidherbe. Yoro Dyao was in command of the canton of Foss-Galodjina and was set over Wâlo by Louis Faidherbe, where he served as a chief from 1861 to 1914. Senegalese resistance to the French expansion and curtailing of their lucrative slave trade was led in part by Lat-Dior, Damel of Cayor, Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof, the Maad a Sinig of Sine, resulting in the Battle of Logandème.
On 4 April 1959 Senegal and the French Sudan merged to form the Mali Federation, which became independent on 20 June 1960, as a result of a transfer of power agreement signed with France on 4 April 1960. Due to internal political difficulties, the Federation broke up on 20 August, when
Religion in Morocco
With 93% of its population being considered religious, Islam is the majority and constitutionally established state religion in Morocco. The vast majority of Muslims in Morocco are Sunni belonging to Maliki school of jurisprudence; the King of Morocco claims his legitimacy as a descendant of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The second-largest religion in the country is Christianity, but most Christians in Morocco are foreigners. There is a Bahá'í community. Only a fraction of the former number of Jews has remained in the country, many having moved to Israel; the Moroccan constitution grants the freedom to worship and congregation, while recognizing Islam as the state religion. But the Moroccan penal code contains many laws that contradict the constitution, including the 220, 222 articles of the penal code of the country, which are used against non-Muslim Moroccans. According to The World Factbook maintained by the American Central Intelligence Agency, 99% of Moroccans are Muslims. Islam reached Morocco in 680 CE, taken to the country by the Arab Umayyad dynasty of Damascus.
The first Islamic dynasty to rule Morocco were the Idrissids. Article 6 of the Moroccan constitution states; the King of Morocco claims his legitimacy as a descendant of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Maliki Sunnite branch of Islam is dominant, while a minority belong to NDM, Zahirism or the Shiite branch. Relations between Sunni and Shiite have been strained in recent years, with a Moroccan crackdown on material and organisations originating from Shia Iran and the group Hezbollah; the Justice and Development Party is an Islamist party. Morocco first experienced Christianity while under Roman rule, as the Empire converted to the faith in its years. Many of the pre-Christian religions were reduced in number as Christianity spread. However, after the arrival of Islam, Christianity ceased to have a significant population in the country. Due to the Spanish and French colonization beginning in the 19th century, Roman Catholicism grew in Morocco, albeit being the European colonists. A small number of Moroccans with origins in these two countries remain in Morocco.
The British, who belonged to the Protestant Anglican Communion, were given permission to build churches of their faith, such as the Church of Saint Andrew, Tangier. Sub-Saharan Africans Catholics from former French colonies, have migrated to Morocco in recent years. Conversions of Moroccan Muslims to Christianity by American Protestants in the remote and mountainous south of the country, have taken place despite the risk of legal consequences; the CIA World Factbook estimates that Christians are 1% of the Moroccan population. On 27 March 2010, the Moroccan magazine TelQuel stated that thousands of Moroccans had converted to Christianity. Pointing out the absence of official data, Service de presse Common Ground, cites unspecified sources that stated that about 5,000 Moroccans became Christians between 2005 and 2010. According to different estimates, there are about 25,000-45,000 Moroccan Christians of Berber or Arab descent converted from Islam. Other sources give a number of a bit more than 1000.
A popular Christian program by Brother Rachid has led many former Muslims in North Africa and the Middle East to convert to Christianity. Morocco was a destination for the Jewish diaspora after the destruction of the Second Temple by the Roman Empire. A second wave of Sephardic Jews arrived in the country following the Alhambra Decree of 1492 which expelled all Jews from nearby Spain; the Jews, as well as the Christians, had legal autonomy relating to their own faith in cases when both parties were of the same religion. After the creation of the Jewish state of Israel in 1948, the population of Moroccan Jews decreased due to emigration. Moroccan Jews migrated to other countries, such as the linguistically-similar France and Quebec, Canada. A total of 486,000 Israelis are of Moroccan origin, while the World Factbook estimates that in 2010 only around 6,000 Jews remained in Morocco. Most of them are elderly, with the largest population in Casablanca and the remainder thinly dispersed around the country.
The Baha'i Faith, which originated in the 19th century, is documented as starting its missions in Morocco in 1946, while the country was still under colonial rule. A Ten Year Crusade was initiated to spread the belief, establishing assemblies and schools in Morocco. In the early 1960s, shortly after independence, mass arrests were made of Baha'is, death sentences given to the most prominent believers, sparking international outrage. Most estimates count the Baha'i population in modern Morocco as between 150 and 500. Though the Moroccan society remains religious, irreligious people are increasing in the recent years. In fact, about 7% of the Moroccan population are considered non-religious with 320 000 Moroccans being convinced atheists, this number could be higher since irreligious Moroccans are in the closet in order to avoid troubles with their families and communities; the government plays an active role in determining and policing religious practice for Muslims, disrespecting Islam in public can carry punishments in the forms of fines and imprisonment.
Sunni Islam and Judaism are the only religions recognized by the Moroccan constitution as native to the country, with all other religions being considered "foreign". While foreigners can practice their religion in peace, citizens who practice "foreign religions" face obstacles from the government and social pressure. In particular, Shia Muslims and members of the Bahá'í Faith face discrimination from the government, as do some Christian groups
The Sahrawi, or Saharawi people, are the people living in the western part of the Sahara desert which includes Western Sahara, southern Morocco, most of Mauritania and the extreme southwest of Algeria. As with most peoples living in the Sahara, the Sahrawi culture is mixed, it shows Arab-Berber characteristics, like the privileged position of women, as well as characteristics common to ethnic groups of the Sahel. Sahrawis are composed of many tribes and are speakers of the Hassaniya dialect of Arabic, some of them still speak Berber in Morocco; the Arabic word Ṣaḥrāwī صحراوي means "Inhabitant of the Desert". The word Sahrawi is derived from meaning desert. A man is called a "Sahrawi", a women is called a "Sahrawiya". In other languages it is pronounced in similar or different ways: Berber: Aseḥrawi ⴰⵙⴻⵃⵔⴰⵡⵉ or Aneẓrofan ⴰⵏⴻⵥⵔⵓⴼⴰⵏ English: Sahrawi or Saharawi Spanish: Saharaui French: Sahraoui Italian: Saharaui, Sahrawi or Saharawi Portuguese: Saarauís German: Sahraui Nomadic Berbers of the Senhaja / Zenaga tribal confederation, inhabited the areas now known as Western Sahara, southern Morocco and southwestern Algeria, before Islam arrived in the 8th century CE.
The new faith was spread by Berbers themselves, Arab immigration in the first centuries of Islamic expansion was minimal. It is not known when the camel was introduced to the region, but it revolutionized the traditional trade routes of North Africa. Berber caravans transported salt and slaves between North and West Africa, the control of trade routes became a major ingredient in the constant power struggles between various tribes and sedentary peoples. On more than one occasion, the Berber tribes of present-day Mauritania and Western Sahara would unite behind religious leaders to sweep the surrounding governments from power founding principalities, dynasties, or vast empires of their own; this was the case with the Berber Almoravid dynasty of Morocco and Andalusia, several emirates in Mauritania. In the 11th century, the Bedouin tribes of the Beni Hilal and Beni Sulaym emigrated westwards from Egypt to the Maghreb region. In the early 13th century, the Yemeni Maqil tribes migrated westwards across the entirety of Arabia and northern Africa, to settle around present-day Morocco.
They were badly received by the Zenata Berber descendants of the Merinid dynasty, among the tribes pushed out of the territory were the Beni Hassan. This tribe entered the domains of the Sanhaja, over the following centuries imposed itself upon them, intermixing with the population in the process. Berber attempts to shake off the rule of Arab warrior tribes occurred sporadically, but assimilation won out, after the failed Char Bouba Uprising, the Berber tribes would without exception embrace Arab or Muslim culture and claim Arab heritage; the Arabic dialect of the Beni Ḥassān, remains the mother-tongue of Mauritania and Moroccan-controlled Western Sahara to this day, is spoken in southern Morocco and western Algeria, among affiliated tribes. Berber vocabulary and cultural traits remain common, despite the fact that many if not all of the Sahrawi/Moorish tribes today claim Arab ancestry; the modern Sahrawi are Arabs of Bani Hassan or Berber with Arabs as an additional ethnicity whose cultural volume is bigger than its genetic one.
The people inhabit the westernmost Sahara desert, in the area of modern Mauritania, Western Sahara, parts of Algeria. As with most Saharan peoples, the tribes reflect a mixed heritage, combining Berber and other influences, including ethnic and cultural characteristics found in many ethnic groups of the Sahel; the latter were acquired through mixing with Wolof and other populations of the southern Sahel, through the acquisition of slaves by wealthier nomad families. In pre-colonial times, the Sahara was considered Blad Essiba or "the land of dissidence" by the Moroccan central government and Sultan of Morocco in Fez, by the authorities of the Deys of Algiers; the governments of the pre-colonial sub-Saharan empires of Mali and Songhai appear to have had a similar relationship with the tribal territories, which were once the home of undisciplined raiding tribes and the main trade route for the Saharan caravan trade. Central governments had little control over the region, although the Hassaniya tribes would extended "beya" or allegiance to prestigious rulers, to gain their political backing or, in some cases, as a religious ceremony.
The Moorish populations of what is today northern Mauritania established a number of emirates, claiming the loyalty of several different tribes and through them exercising semi-sovereignty over traditional grazing lands. This could be considered the closest thing to centralized government, achieved by the Hassaniya tribes, but these emirates were weak, conflict-ridden and rested more on the willing consent of the subject tribes than on any capacity to enforce loyalty. Modern distinctions drawn between the various Hassaniya-speaking Sahrawi-Moorish groups are political, but cultural differences dating from different colonial and post-colonial histories are apparent. An important divider is whether the tribal confederations fell under French or Spanish colonial rule. France conquered m
Western Sahara is a disputed territory on the northwest coast and in the Maghreb region of North and West Africa controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and occupied by neighboring Morocco. Its surface area amounts to 266,000 square kilometres, it is one of the most sparsely populated territories in the world consisting of desert flatlands. The population is estimated at just over 500,000, of which nearly 40% live in Laayoune, the largest city in Western Sahara. Occupied by Spain until the late 20th century, Western Sahara has been on the United Nations list of non-self-governing territories since 1963 after a Moroccan demand, it is the most populous territory on that list, by far the largest in area. In 1965, the UN General Assembly adopted its first resolution on Western Sahara, asking Spain to decolonize the territory. One year a new resolution was passed by the General Assembly requesting that a referendum be held by Spain on self-determination. In 1975, Spain relinquished the administrative control of the territory to a joint administration by Morocco and Mauritania.
A war erupted between those countries and a Sahrawi nationalist movement, the Polisario Front, which proclaimed the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic with a government in exile in Tindouf, Algeria. Mauritania withdrew its claims in 1979, Morocco secured de facto control of most of the territory, including all the major cities and natural resources; the United Nations considers the Polisario Front to be the legitimate representative of the Sahrawi people, maintains that the Sahrawis have a right to self-determination. Since a United Nations-sponsored ceasefire agreement in 1991, two thirds of the territory has been administered by the Moroccan government, with tacit support from France and the United States, the remainder by the SADR, backed by Algeria. Internationally, countries such as Russia have taken a ambiguous and neutral position on each side's claims, have pressed both parties to agree on a peaceful resolution. Both Morocco and Polisario have sought to boost their claims by accumulating formal recognition from African and Latin American states in the developing world.
The Polisario Front has won formal recognition for SADR from 46 states, was extended membership in the African Union. Morocco has won support for its position from several African governments and from most of the Muslim world and Arab League. In both instances, recognitions have, over the past two decades, been extended and withdrawn according to changing international trends; as of 2017, no other member state of the United Nations has officially recognized Moroccan sovereignty over parts of Western Sahara. However, a number of countries have expressed their support for a future recognition of the Moroccan annexation of the territory as an autonomous part of the Kingdom. Overall, the annexation has not garnered as much attention in the international community as many other disputed annexations. Western Sahara is located on the northwest coast in West Africa and on the cusp of North Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean to the northwest, Morocco proper to the north-northeast, Algeria to the east-northeast, Mauritania to the east and south.
The land is some of the most inhospitable on the planet. The land along the coast is low flat desert and rises in the north, to small mountains reaching up to 600 metres on the eastern side. While the area can experience flash flooding in the spring, there are no permanent streams. At times a cool off-shore current can produce heavy dew; the interior experiences extreme summer heat with average highs reaching as high as 43–45 °C in July and in August. The earliest known inhabitants of Western Sahara were the Gaetuli. Depending on the century, Roman-era sources describe the area as inhabited by Gaetulian Autololes or the Gaetulian Daradae tribes. Berber heritage is still evident from regional and place-name toponymy, as well as from tribal names. Other early inhabitants of Western Sahara may be the Bafour and the Serer; the Bafour were replaced or absorbed by Berber-speaking populations which merged in turn with the migrating Beni Ḥassān Arab tribes. The arrival of Islam in the 8th century played a major role in the development of the Maghreb region.
Trade developed further, the territory may have been one of the routes for caravans between Marrakesh and Tombouctou in Mali. In the 11th century, the Maqil Arabs settled in Morocco. Towards the end of the Almohad Caliphate, the Beni Hassan, a sub-tribe of the Maqil, were called by the local ruler of the Sous to quell a rebellion. During Marinid dynasty rule, the Beni Hassan rebelled but were defeated by the Sultan and escaped beyond the Saguia el-Hamra dry river; the Beni Hassan were at constant war with the Lamtuna nomadic Berbers of the Sahara. Over
Christianity in Morocco
Christians in Morocco constitute less than 1% of the country's population of 33,600,000. Most of the Christian adherents are Protestants; the U. S. State Department estimates the number of Moroccan Christians as more than 40,000. Pew-Templeton estimates the number of Moroccan Christians at 20,000; the number of the Moroccans who converted to Christianity are estimated between 8,000-40,000. Article 3 of the Moroccan constitution "guarantees to all the free exercise of beliefs", but the Moroccan criminal code prohibits conversions to other religions than Islam. Conversions of Muslims to Christianity occurred during the colonial period, when laws against such conversions did not exist. According to Article 220 of the Moroccan Penal Code, "anyone who employs incitements to shake the faith of a Muslim or to convert him to another religion" incurs a sentence of 3 to 6 months' imprisonment and a fine of 200 to 500 dirhams. Any attempt to induce a Muslim to convert is illegal. Foreign missionaries either limit their proselytizing to non-Muslims or attempt to conduct their work discreetly.
In spite of these limitations, a 2015 study estimates some 3,000 believers in Christ from a Muslim background. Christianity in Morocco appeared during the Roman times, when it was practiced by Christian Berbers in Roman Mauretania Tingitana, although it disappeared after the Islamic conquests. According to tradition, the martyrdom of St. Marcellus took place on 28 July 298 at Tingis. Since the Tetrarchy, Mauretania Tingitana became part of the Diocese of Hispaniae and hence in the Praetorian Prefecture of the Gauls, remained so until its conquest by the Vandals. Lucilius Constantius is recorded as governor in the mid to late fourth century. Prior to independence, Morocco was home to half a million European Christians. During the French protectorate in Morocco, European Christians formed half the population of the city of Casablanca. Since independence in 1956, the European population has decreased substantially. Between the last years of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, an estimated 250,000 Spaniard Catholics lived in Morocco.
Most Spaniards left Morocco after independence and their numbers were reduced to about 13,000. Today the expatriate Christian community consists of 5,000 practicing members, although estimates of Christians residing in the country at any particular time range up to 25,000. Most Christians reside in the Casablanca and Rabat urban areas; the majority of Christians in Morocco are foreigners, although Voice of the Martyrs reports there is a growing number of native Moroccans converting to Christianity in the rural areas. Many of the converts are baptized secretly in Morocco’s churches. There are around 30,000 Catholics in Morocco, most of them are European expatriates, with a big majority of French and Spanish from colonization and post-independence, the second group is composed of Sub-Saharan immigrants students. Whilst most areas of Africa have independent Anglican dioceses and provinces, the western part of North Africa, including the Anglican Church of Morocco, is part of the Diocese of Europe, itself part of the Province of Canterbury in the Church of England.
There are one in Casablanca and one in Tangier. Small groups of Anglicans have worshiped together in Marrakech, but there is no Anglican Church established here; the Anglican Church of Saint Andrew, Tangier has become a tourist attraction due to certain well-known figures buried in its churchyard. The church is an early twentieth-century replacement for an earlier smaller building, built with the express permission of the King of Morocco, on land donated by him; the Anglican Church of St John the Evangelist, Casablanca, is centrally located, near to the Hyatt Regency, a landmark hotel in the city centre. It has a well-established congregation, holds two services every Sunday morning to accommodate all worshipers. There is a catechetical programme for children. On 27 March 2010, the Moroccan magazine TelQuel stated that thousands of Moroccans had converted to Christianity. Pointing out the absence of official data, Service de presse Common Ground, cites unspecified sources that stated that about 5,000 Moroccans became Christians between 2005 and 2010.
According to different estimates, there are about 25,000-45,000 Moroccan Christians of Berber or Arabized Berber descent converted from Islam. A still higher estimate credits a Christian program by Brother Rachid with involvement in the conversion of many Muslims in North Africa and the Middle East to Christianity, including 150,000 in Morocco. There are three functioning Eastern Orthodox churches in Morocco: a Greek Orthodox Church in Casablanca and Russian Orthodox Churches in Rabat and Casablanca. There is a new parish of Orthodox Moroccans without a building, the numbers are growing. Brothers Athanasios and Elia head this parish. Arab Christians Berber Christians Islam in Morocco Bahá'í Faith in Morocco History of the Jews in Morocco Baida, Jamaa. Présence chrétienne au Maroc, XIXe-XXe siècles. Édition & impressions Bouregreg communication. ISBN 9954-423-97-4. CIPC - Casablanca International Protestant Church permanent dead link] TTC - Tanger Tuesday Church MMC - Marrakech Monday Church RIC - Rabat International Church EEAM The Evangelical Church of Morocco ECAM The Catholic Church in Morocco AECAM Aumonerie
A nomad is a member of a community of people without fixed habitation who move to and from the same areas, including nomadic hunter-gatherers, pastoral nomads, tinker or trader nomads. As of 1995, there were an estimated 30–40 million nomads in the world. Nomadic hunting and gathering, following seasonally available wild plants and game, is by far the oldest human subsistence method. Pastoralists raise herds, driving them, or moving with them, as if with an Apuzzo, in patterns that avoid depleting pastures beyond their ability to recover. Nomadism is a lifestyle adapted to infertile regions such as steppe, tundra, or ice and sand, where mobility is the most efficient strategy for exploiting scarce resources. For example, many groups in the tundra are reindeer herders and are semi-nomadic, following forage for their animals. Sometimes described as "nomadic" are the various itinerant populations who move about in densely populated areas living not on natural resources, but by offering services to the resident population.
These groups are known as "peripatetic nomads". A nomad is a person with no settled home, moving from place to place as a way of obtaining food, finding pasture for livestock, or otherwise making a living; the word nomad comes from a Greek word. Most nomadic groups follow a fixed seasonal pattern of movements and settlements. Nomadic peoples traditionally travel on foot. Today, some nomads travel by motor vehicle. Most nomads live in other portable shelters. Nomads keep moving for different reasons. Nomadic foragers move in search of game, edible plants, water. Australian Aborigines, Negritos of Southeast Asia, San of Africa, for example, traditionally move from camp to camp to hunt and gather wild plants; some tribes of the Americas followed this way of life. Pastoral nomads make their living raising livestock such as camels, goats, sheep or yaks; these nomads travel to find more camels and sheep through the deserts of Arabia and northern Africa. The Fulani and their cattle travel through the grasslands of Niger in western Africa.
Some nomadic peoples herders, may move to raid settled communities or avoid enemies. Nomadic craftworkers and merchants travel to serve customers, they include the Lohar blacksmiths of India, the Romani traders, the Irish Travellers. Most nomads travel in groups of bands or tribes; these groups are based on formal agreements of cooperation. A council of adult males makes most of the decisions. In the case of Mongolian nomads, a family moves twice a year; these two movements occur during the summer and winter. The winter location is located near mountains in a valley and most families have fixed winter locations, their winter locations have shelter for the animals and are not used by other families while they are out. In the summer they move to a more open area. Most nomads move in the same region and don't travel far to a different region. Since they circle around a large area, communities form and families know where the other ones are. Families do not have the resources to move from one province to another unless they are moving out of the area permanently.
A family can move on its own or with others and if it moves alone, they are no more than a couple of kilometers from each other. Nowadays there are no tribes and decisions are made among family members, although elders consult with each other on usual matters; the geographical closeness of families is for mutual support. Pastoral nomad societies do not have large population. One such society, the Mongols, gave rise to the largest land empire in history; the Mongols consisted of loosely organized nomadic tribes in Mongolia and Siberia. In the late 12th century, Genghis Khan united them and other nomadic tribes to found the Mongol Empire, which stretched the length of Asia; the nomadic way of life has become rare. Many governments dislike nomads because it is difficult to control their movement and to obtain taxes from them. Many countries have converted pastures into cropland and forced nomadic peoples into permanent settlements. Nomads move from campsite to following game and wild fruits and vegetables.
Hunting and gathering describes early people's subsistence living style. Following the development of agriculture, most hunter-gatherers were either displaced or converted to farming or pastoralist groups. Only a few contemporary societies are classified as hunter-gatherers. Pastoral nomads are nomads moving between pastures. Nomadic pastoralism is thought to have developed in three stages that accompanied population growth and an increase in the complexity of social organization. Karim Sadr has proposed the following stages: Pastoralism: This is a mixed economy with a symbiosis within the family. Agropastoralism: This is when symbiosis is between clans within an ethnic group. True Nomadism: This is when symbiosis is at the regional level between specialised nomadic and agricultural populations; the pastoralists are sedentary to a certain area, as they move between the permanent spring, summer and winter pastures for their livestock. The nomads moved depending on the availability of resources. Nomadic pastoralism seems to have