Arts et Métiers ParisTech
Arts et Métiers ParisTech is a French engineering and research graduate school. It is a general engineering school recognized for leading French higher education in the fields of mechanics and industrialization. Founded in 1780, it is among the oldest French institutions and is one of the most prestigious engineering schools in France; the school has trained 85,000 engineers since its foundation by François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt. It is a "Public Scientific and Professional Institution" under the authority of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research and has the special status of Grand établissement; the École nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers, which adopted the brand name "Arts et Mėtiers ParisTech" in 2007, was a founding member of ParisTech, héSam and France AEROTECH. Arts et Métiers ParisTech consists of eight Teaching and Research Centres and three institutes spread across the country, its students are called Gadz'Arts. The school was founded in Liancourt, Oise, by Duke of Rochefoucauld-Liancourt in 1780.
After 1800, the institution became known as the École d'Arts et Métiers. Under Napoleon's reign, it was known as the "Ecole impériale des Arts et Métiers", he intended to use the school to train "Non-commissioned officers of Industry". The empire decided to move the school to a bigger city, Compiègne, in 1799; when Napoléon Bonaparte visited the castle where the school was located, he thought that it was inappropriate for such an industrial school to occupy the place. He decided to relocate the school to Châlons-en-Champagne in 1806, where two former monasteries were made available to offer much more space. Many students and alumni enlisted in the armed forces during the World War I, it is estimated that of the 6500 gadzarts who joined the army, 1100 died the first year of the conflict. Many campuses were damaged by the war that of Châlons-sur-Marne, in the middle of the Battle of the Marne; the Lille campus was occupied by the Germans and used as a military hospital. The other campuses were closed from 1916–17 and the new Parisian campus was undamaged.
Between the wars, the rapid industrialization of Europe favoured the Gadzarts. The arms race pushed industry to hire more engineers and the gadzarts matched their needs perfectly; the other important factor was the creation of new ranks in the hierarchical working organization. The middle management and upper management positions were perfect for the gadzarts engineers who filled these positions in most industries. During World War II, the school tried to keep a certain level of activity; the only campuses to experience some difficulties were Lille and Châlons-sur-Marne: in 1939 no new students were admitted. The Cluny campus was the target of a roundup in 1943 and a large part of students and staff were deported; the death of Jacques Bonsergent left a mark on the conflict, he became a symbol of resistance to the oppressor. The second school of this kind was founded in 1804 at Beaupréau and transferred to Angers in 1815. Three decades a third school was built in Aix-en-Provence in 1843, in former barracks and monasteries.
At the dawn of the 20th century, the development of the school expanded to three new campuses. In 1891, the ancient abbey of Cluny was chosen to host the activities of the 4th school. To go hand in hand with the industrial revolution, the members of parliament decided to create a 5th campus in Lille, a city, growing; the facilities of Lille were the first ones to be built expressly for the school. The campus of Paris, a long-standing project, was built between 1906 and 1912, it became the biggest campus of the Arts et World War II delayed the school's opening. By the end of the war, the campus had over 500 students. In the middle of the "Trentes Glorieuses", the 7th campus was created near Bordeaux, in the science park of Talence; the modern buildings were operational in 1963. The latest campus established was Metz; the campus was built in the science park, close to the transportation hubs. The school wanted this campus to become an international one, being close to Belgium and Germany, its construction was motivated by partnerships with German and American universities.
Between 1990 and 2000, the 3 institutes of research were created: Chambéry in 1994, Chalons-sur-Saône in 1997 and Bastia in 2000. The school has 2 satellite campuses in Bouc-bel-Air and Laval that are under the authority of the main campuses of Aix-en-provence and Angers; these satellites are linked to the research laboratories of the school. In 1817, the school's military status was removed by royal order and the official goal of the school was set to train qualified technicians. However, in practice, the organisation remained military and the students continued to wear the uniform; this tradition continues today. In 1826, a second royal order confirmed this new status and the military organisation was removed; the students were granted the right to wear the uniform as a civil one. After a third attempt, the students gained the right to form an association of the Arts et Métiers alumni in 1847; the regional campuses were transformed into engineer training institutions in 1907. In 1963, the curriculum was modified in order to recruit new students from the Classes préparatoires.
In 1964, the first woman was enrolled at the Arts et Métiers. The school became a grande école in 1976 and received the EPSCP status in 1990. In 2007, the school created the PRES ParisTech and adopted the brand name "Arts et Métiers
École européenne de chimie, polymères et matériaux
The École européenne de chimie, polymères et matériaux of Strasbourg is a public engineering school in the city of Strasbourg, in Alsace, France. It was founded in 1948, is located on the Cronenbourg Campus of the University of Strasbourg; each year 90 students graduate from the school with a diplôme d'ingénieur. It is a National School of Engineers, part of the University of Strasbourg and a member of the Fédération Gay-Lussac, which recruits from the common polytechnic entrance examination, it is part of the Alsace Tech network of nine engineering schools in Alsace. The ECPM offers its students three specialties: polymers or materials. 1919 - Creation of the chemical institute by the professors T. Muller and H. Gault. Lectures are taught rue Goethe in Strasbourg. 1948 - Creation at the same place of the Ecole nationale supérieure de chimie by the professor H. Forestier. 1962 - The Ecole de chimie has place in new premises on the campus central de l'Esplanade. The first practical sessions from the ENSCS in analytical chemistry begin at the start of the school year 1962.
1968 - The ENSCS becomes a public organization. 1981 - The professor M. Daire introduces the European teaching program. 1986 - The ENSCS becomes Ecole Européenne des hautes études des industries chimiques de Strasbourg 1995 - The EHICS, the Ecole d'application des hauts Polymères and the Magistère matériaux de l'université de Strasbourg-I group together and form the Ecole de chimie, Polymères et Matériaux. 1998-1999 - The ECPM moves to new premises on the University's Cronenbourg campus. 2006 - Strasbourg becomes business cluster of the French chemistry. 2009 - The université Louis Pasteur and the other universities of Strasbourg are joined and form l'Université de Strasbourg 2011 - Opening of the new Classe préparatoire intégrée internationale - CHEM. I. ST. At the start of the school year 2011. → To enter the First year: - The school recruit with the «Concours Communs Polytechniques» or the DEUG. - The admission could be done by an interview with a License 3 in Chemistry or in Physics at the university, a DUT for example, in Chemistry, physical measurements optional materials or chemical engineering.
- For international students, they must have a Bachelor of an equivalent foreign degree. - After 2 years in CPI classes at Rennes, Clermont-Ferrand or in Strasbourg. → To enter the Second year, students can have access at the ECPM having an interview, with a Master M1 in Physics with a speciality in Polymers or materials. → Admission to the CP2i class in the ECPM, after the Baccalaureate, or an equivalent foreign degree for the international students. There is no competitive exam. There are interviews to evaluate the motivations with the people in charge of the Chem. I. St programme. 50 students are selected every year. There are nearly 20% international students; this class allows the students to gain admission to a school of the Fédération Gay Lussac after two years. These 2 years consist of studying engineer's trades in the domain of chemistry. There are 5 CPIs in France: Rennes, Clermont-Ferrand, Lille and Strasbourg at the ECPM The last one was opened at the start of the 2011-12 school year in Strasbourg.
The speciality of this school is that it welcomes a large number of international students, as well as that 20% of the courses are delivered in English and 10% are delivered in German. There are 50 students in each year. To gain admission to the CP2I: French students register on Admission Post-Bac and follow the steps. Students are selected on the basis of a 20-minute interview. International students submit their dossiers directly to the school. International students are selected on the basis of their academic record and an interview. General presentation of CPI-CHEM. I. ST: A strong scientific program: a major part of chemistry and maths during the 2 years with a total, for the first year, of around 700 hours of scientific lesson. We must add Lab Work of this scientific formation, with a total of 102 hours for the first year; the CPI-CHEM. I. ST base of more practical work than in an intensive foundation degree, with high-quality laboratory; the program includes group work to develop the communication, the creativity around scientists projects.
Moreover, in 2016, a "videxo" program was created. During, the "videxo" student solves a science problem on a board and in the same time someone films him to send the video to the teachers; the goal of this is to promote self-confidence and the scientist reflexion which are important qualities for the future engineer. An international program in a multicultural environment: many students with different cultures and two foreign languages to learn. At the beginning of the formation, students can participate in an English language session for one week in order to learn the fundamentals of the scientific English. Insertions travels are organised in England; the students will participate in lab work in a foreign university. Most of the time the foreign students come from China; the speciality is chosen in the second year. Students have four possibilities: Chemistry: Organic Chemistry: With this speciality, students attain a high level in synthesis and characterization of organic chemistry. Analytical Chemistry: Students are trained in techniques of analysis within the context of quality control.
Polymers: Students are trained to become fle
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Évry is a former commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, prefecture of the department of Essonne. On 1 January 2019, it was merged into the new commune Évry-Courcouronnes, it is located 25.0 km from the center of Paris, in the "new town" of Évry Ville Nouvelle, created in the 1960s, of which it is the central and most populated commune. Significant nearby communes include Courcouronnes, Corbeil-Essonnes, Ris-Orangis, Brétigny-sur-Orge, Draveil; the commune was called Évry-sur-Seine. The name "Évry" comes from the Gallic name Eburacon or Eburiacos, meaning "land of Eburos" the leader of a Gallic tribe in the area before the conquest of Gaul by the Romans. After the conquest, the name was corrupted into Latin Apriacum Medieval Latin Avriacum, Evriacum. In 1881 the name of the commune was changed into Évry-Petit-Bourg at the request of entrepreneur Paul Decauville, owner of Ateliers de Petit-Bourg, a large boiler works located in Évry and at the time the largest employer in the area; the factory owed its name to the hamlet of Petit-Bourg.
On 29 June 1965 the name of the commune was shortened into "Évry" only. Évry had just been chosen to become a "new town" of the suburbs of Paris, destined to host tens of thousands of suburbanites, so the name "Petit-Bourg" was deemed too old fashioned and improper for the new large suburban city of Évry to be built. In 1965 Évry took its current name. Before it was known as "Évry-Petit-Bourg" and had a population of only a few thousand; when Évry was built, Orly was the primary international airport of France, many international companies such as Digital, Hewlett-Packard, Alstom established their head offices in Évry. However, with the expansion of Charles de Gaulle Roissy airport, all the larger companies have moved out, causing the downfall of the many smaller service companies which catered to the lunchtime needs of the thousands of staff who were either displaced or made redundant. Amongst the few international companies remaining are the hotel and catering firm of Accor and the supermarket chain of Carrefour.
Although both have a postal Cedex address in Évry, geographically they are in Courcouronnes. The town has tried to counteract this exodus by increasing the capacity of the commercial center, the Agora, to 235 shops selling the same wares; the economy of the Agora has been hit by the recession. A total of 29 shops and one restaurant are vacant. 24 are on the upper level where the rents are double that of the lower level shops. During the week the car parks are now "pay by the hour" to discourage rail commuters from saturating the parking space during the day to the detriment of shoppers. Weekend parking is free. Another measure taken by the local authorities has been to declare certain quarters a "zone franche" which means that businesses starting up in these areas are exempt from corporation tax along with many other social benefits and aids which makes Évry an attractive town for future entrepreneurs; the Cathedral of the Resurrection, dedicated to Saint Corbinien, is one of the few 20th century cathedrals built in a modern style.
The total cost was 13.72M€. The total surface is 1,600 m2, it is 34m high, it can receive 1,400 people. Pope John Paul II made a visit on 22 August 1997, although car parks were requisitioned as far away as Corbeil-Essonnes, apart from invited guests, fewer than 500 people turned out for the event, which means that Évry may hold the world record for the smallest crowd at a papal appearance. In 2003, the Socialist mayor, Manuel Valls, and, the constituency deputé and a qualified avocat, embarked upon a massive safeguard plan designed to renovate the more defavourised areas which includes much demolition of the obsolete 1960s buildings, the upgrading of the more recent residential structures and schools. 2006 saw the final renovation of the Collège des Pyramides at the cost of 11.43M€ and will receive 571 pupils. In 2007, enlargement and renovation was to begin on the Lycée des Loges; the work was to last three years without interruption of lessons, the budget was set at 40M€. Demolition of several buildings in the Jules Vallès quarter of the Pyramides is in progress.
They will be replaced by "low level" blocks of appartements. At the same time, the university residence is being renovated along with the construction of a "mall" which will link the northern limit of the town with the town centre in preparation for when the tramway will provide a direct transport to Paris as an alternative to the RER railway. On 31 January 2006, in the Sénat during the 14th ceremony of the "Prix du Trombinoscope 2005", Manuel Valls was elected "Local Representative of the Year". With the heavy defeat of the Socialists on the national scale during the 2007 elections, Manuel Valls has taken a prominent position in the party and has been given the nickname of "Le Sarko de la gauche" (the left
École de l'air
The École de l'Air is a military school and grande école training line officers in the French Air Force. It is located at Salon-de-Provence Air Base in France. In 1922, the École du génie of Versailles, was entrusted with the mission to train all officers and aircrew in aeronautics; the École militaire et d’application de l’Aéronautique was set up in 1925. The officer cadets from the non-commissioned officers' corps and young officers from the École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr and École Polytechnique attended training at Versailles for two years. For pilots, their training continued at Avord and Cazaux, where they trained in aerial combat and bombing. President Albert Lebrun created the École de l'Air by Presidential decree in 1933; the school's first class began training November 4, 1935. The school's motto, Faire Face is a tribute to Capitaine Georges Guynemer, a World War I fighter ace In 1937, the school moved into still-unfinished buildings in Salon, Bouches-du-Rhône; the outbreak of World War II forced the school to relocate several times from 1939 to 1945, to sites including Bordeaux and Marrakech.
It was not until 1946. The school received the Legion of Honor and the Croix de Guerre from President Vincent Auriol in 1947. Other specialized schools joined the École de l'Air, including the École du commissariat de l'Air, which trains administrative and financial officers, in 1953, the Cours Spécial de l'École de l'Air, which trains exchange cadets from French-speaking African countries, in 1973. In 1969, the École de l'Air began an exchange program with the United States Air Force Academy, for eight cadets per school each year; the school first accepted women in 1976. Since 2008, The École de l'Air proposes two mastères spécialisés courses in aviation safety aircraft airworthiness and aerospace project management in partnership with the École nationale de l'aviation civile and the Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace. In 2015, The École de l'air launched a MOOC titled Compréhension de l’Arme Aérienne on France Université Numérique's platform. Stéphane Abrial, French General, the previous Commander of Allied Command Transformation Caroline Aigle, first woman fighter pilot in the French Air Force Patrick Baudry, retired Lieutenant Colonel in the French Air Force and a former CNES astronaut Jean-Loup Chrétien, former CNES spationaut Olivier Dassault, French politician serving as a deputy in the French National Assembly Léopold Eyharts, ESA astronaut Jean-Pierre Haigneré, French Air Force officer and a former CNES spationaut Fleury Marius, French aviator Francis Pollet, Director of the Institut Polytechnique des Sciences Avancées Jacques Rosay, Vice President Chief Test Pilot of the aircraft manufacturer Airbus Michel Tognini, French test pilot, brigadier general in the French Air Force, a former CNES and ESA astronaut
Association of MBAs
The Association of MBAs is a global organisation founded in 1967 which focuses on international business school accreditation and membership. Based in London, AMBA is one of the three main global accreditation bodies in business education and styles itself as the world's impartial authority on postgraduate management education, it differs from AACSB in the US and EQUIS in Brussels as it accredits a school's portfolio of postgraduate management programmes but does not accredit undergraduate programmes. AMBA accredits 2% of the world's business schools, is the most international of the three organisations having accredited schools headquartered in 54 countries, compared with the 52 for AACSB and 38 for EQUIS. Business schools can become associated with AMBA in two ways: by applying for accreditation, or by applying for membership of the AMBA Development Network, which confers institutional membership similar to EFMD or AACSB membership. Schools that cannot meet all of the AMBA accreditation criteria join the ADN, which gives them time to prepare for accreditation with support from AMBA and mentoring from an AMBA-accredited school.
All MBA students and alumni of the 257 accredited member schools join AMBA as individual members free of charge. AMBA accredits generalist MBM programmes and DBA programmes, admits as members students and graduates thereof. AMBA's long-serving president until 2017 was the late Sir Paul Judge, the founding benefactor of Cambridge Judge Business School in Cambridge, UK. AMBA's current Chief Executive is Andrew Main Wilson, who joined the organisation from the Institute of Directors in 2013. Bodo Schlegelmilch was elected Chairman of the AMBA Board of Trustees in 2018; the Association of MBAs was founded in 1967 as an MBA alumni club by eight UK graduates from Harvard Business School, Wharton and Columbia, two graduates from the first intake of London Business School. The founders saw a lack of awareness in Europe of the value of the MBA degree, which at that time was an American qualification, they decided to form a lobby and membership group to promote the benefits of postgraduate business education, under the name of Business Graduates Association.
The organisation's development helped shape the growth of management education in Europe and the UK and coincided with the setting up and growth of London Business School and Manchester Business School in Britain. The Association's first Director General was Vice-Admiral David Clutterbuck who assumed this position in 1969. In 1983 BGA began to accredit the growing number of MBA programmes, while preserving its functions as a membership organization. BGA was renamed Association of MBAs in 1987; until 2017, AMBA's president was the late Sir Paul Judge, who helped establish one of the two business schools in Cambridge, UK. The Association of MBAs accredits MBA, DBA degree programmes; when a school applies for accreditation for its MBA programmes, AMBA requires that the entire portfolio of MBA programmes be put up for consideration and will award accreditation only if all programmes meet its criteria. The Association's process of accrediting a school's MBA programmes portfolio includes reviewing compliance AMBA's criteria, most of them qualitative rather than quantitative.
The criteria fall into seven dimensions: development of the institution. Some of the key AMBA criteria for the accreditation of an MBA programme include: all admitted students should have at least three years of full-time post-graduation work experience upon the start of the MBA course. AMBA holds three annual conferences for business school deans and directors: a Global Conference, an Asia Pacific Conference, a Latin America Conference. Participation is open to both non-accredited schools. AMBA hosts an annual Gala Dinner in London, open only to accredited schools. AMBA organises two annual global forums with the purpose of development and training for specific functions within AMBA-accredited business schools such as accreditation managers. AMBA organises webinars and networking events on a regular basis catering to MBA alumni, current MBA students, prospective MBA students and business school admissions departments; these on-campus events are held at accredited business schools and feature distinguished speakers and practitioners in fields such as leadership and innovation.
List of institutions accredited by AMBA Triple accreditation Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business European Quality Improvement System Association of MBAs official website Accredited schools and logos on
The Financial Times is an English-language international daily newspaper owned by Nikkei Inc, headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news. The paper was founded in 1888 by James Sheridan and Horatio Bottomley, merged in 1945 with its closest rival, the Financial News; the Financial Times has over 740,000 digital subscribers. On 23 July 2015, Nikkei Inc. agreed to buy the Financial Times from Pearson for £844m and the acquisition was completed on 30 November 2015. The FT was launched as the London Financial Guide on 10 January 1888, renaming itself the Financial Times on 13 February the same year. Describing itself as the friend of "The Honest Financier, the Bona Fide Investor, the Respectable Broker, the Genuine Director, the Legitimate Speculator", it was a four-page journal; the readership was the financial community of the City of London, its only rival being the older and more daring Financial News. On 2 January 1893 the FT began printing on light salmon-pink paper to distinguish it from the named Financial News: at the time it was cheaper to print on unbleached paper, but nowadays it is more expensive as the paper has to be dyed specially.
After 57 years of rivalry the Financial Times and the Financial News were merged in 1945 by Brendan Bracken to form a single six-page newspaper. The Financial Times brought a higher circulation while the Financial News provided much of the editorial talent; the Lex column was introduced from Financial News. Pearson bought the paper in 1957. Over the years the paper grew in size and breadth of coverage, it established correspondents in cities around the world, reflecting a renewed impetus in the world economy towards globalisation. As cross-border trade and capital flows increased during the 1970s, the FT began international expansion, facilitated by developments in technology and the growing acceptance of English as the international language of business. On 1 January 1979 the first FT was printed in Frankfurt. Since with increased international coverage, the FT has become a global newspaper, printed in 22 locations with five international editions to serve the UK, continental Europe, the U. S.
Asia and the Middle East. The European edition is distributed in continental Africa, it is printed Monday to Saturday at five centres across Europe reporting on matters concerning the European Union, the Euro and European corporate affairs. In 1994 FT launched a luxury lifestyle magazine. In 2009 it launched a standalone website for the magazine. On 13 May 1995 the Financial Times group made its first foray into the online world with the launch of FT.com. This provided a summary of news from around the globe, supplemented in February 1996 with stock price coverage; the site was funded by advertising and contributed to the online advertising market in the UK in the late 1990s. Between 1997 and 2000 the site underwent several revamps and changes of strategy, as the FT Group and Pearson reacted to changes online. FT introduced subscription services in 2002. FT.com is one of the few UK news sites funded by individual subscription. In 1997 the FT launched a U. S. edition, printed in New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Atlanta and Washington, D.
C. although the newspaper was first printed outside New York City in 1985. In September 1998 the FT became the first UK-based newspaper to sell more copies internationally than within the UK. In 2000 the Financial Times started publishing a German-language edition, Financial Times Deutschland, with a news and editorial team based in Hamburg, its initial circulation in 2003 was 90,000. It was a joint venture with a German publishing firm, Gruner + Jahr. In January 2008 the FT sold its 50% stake to its German partner. FT Deutschland never made a profit and is said to have accumulated losses of €250 million over 12 years, it closed on 7 December 2012. The Financial Times launched a new weekly supplement for the fund management industry on 4 February 2002. FT fund management was and still is distributed with the paper every Monday. FTfm is the world's largest-circulation fund management title. Since 2005 the FT has sponsored the annual"Financial Times" and Goldman Sachs Business Book of the Year Award.
On 23 April 2007 the FT unveiled a "refreshed" version of the newspaper and introduced a new slogan, "We Live in Financial Times."In 2007 the FT pioneered a metered paywall, which lets visitors to its site read a limited number of free articles during any one month before asking them to pay. Four years the FT launched its HTML5 mobile internet app. Smartphones and tablets now drive 19 % of traffic to FT.com. In 2012 the number of digital subscribers surpassed the circulation of the newspaper for the first time and the FT drew half of its revenue from subscriptions rather than advertising. Since 2010 the FT has been available on Bloomberg Terminal. Since 2013 the FT has been available on Wisers platform. In 2016, the Financial Times acquired a controlling stake in Alpha Grid, a London-based media company specialising in the development and production of quality branded content across a range of channels, including broadcast, digital and events. In 2018, the Financial Times acquired a controlling stake in Longitude, a specialist provider of thought leadership and research services to a multinational corporate and institutional client base.
This investment builds on the Financial Times’ recent growth in sev