Arts et Métiers ParisTech
Arts et Métiers ParisTech is a French engineering and research graduate school. It is a general engineering school recognized for leading French higher education in the fields of mechanics and industrialization. Founded in 1780, it is among the oldest French institutions and is one of the most prestigious engineering schools in France; the school has trained 85,000 engineers since its foundation by François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt. It is a "Public Scientific and Professional Institution" under the authority of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research and has the special status of Grand établissement; the École nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers, which adopted the brand name "Arts et Mėtiers ParisTech" in 2007, was a founding member of ParisTech, héSam and France AEROTECH. Arts et Métiers ParisTech consists of eight Teaching and Research Centres and three institutes spread across the country, its students are called Gadz'Arts. The school was founded in Liancourt, Oise, by Duke of Rochefoucauld-Liancourt in 1780.
After 1800, the institution became known as the École d'Arts et Métiers. Under Napoleon's reign, it was known as the "Ecole impériale des Arts et Métiers", he intended to use the school to train "Non-commissioned officers of Industry". The empire decided to move the school to a bigger city, Compiègne, in 1799; when Napoléon Bonaparte visited the castle where the school was located, he thought that it was inappropriate for such an industrial school to occupy the place. He decided to relocate the school to Châlons-en-Champagne in 1806, where two former monasteries were made available to offer much more space. Many students and alumni enlisted in the armed forces during the World War I, it is estimated that of the 6500 gadzarts who joined the army, 1100 died the first year of the conflict. Many campuses were damaged by the war that of Châlons-sur-Marne, in the middle of the Battle of the Marne; the Lille campus was occupied by the Germans and used as a military hospital. The other campuses were closed from 1916–17 and the new Parisian campus was undamaged.
Between the wars, the rapid industrialization of Europe favoured the Gadzarts. The arms race pushed industry to hire more engineers and the gadzarts matched their needs perfectly; the other important factor was the creation of new ranks in the hierarchical working organization. The middle management and upper management positions were perfect for the gadzarts engineers who filled these positions in most industries. During World War II, the school tried to keep a certain level of activity; the only campuses to experience some difficulties were Lille and Châlons-sur-Marne: in 1939 no new students were admitted. The Cluny campus was the target of a roundup in 1943 and a large part of students and staff were deported; the death of Jacques Bonsergent left a mark on the conflict, he became a symbol of resistance to the oppressor. The second school of this kind was founded in 1804 at Beaupréau and transferred to Angers in 1815. Three decades a third school was built in Aix-en-Provence in 1843, in former barracks and monasteries.
At the dawn of the 20th century, the development of the school expanded to three new campuses. In 1891, the ancient abbey of Cluny was chosen to host the activities of the 4th school. To go hand in hand with the industrial revolution, the members of parliament decided to create a 5th campus in Lille, a city, growing; the facilities of Lille were the first ones to be built expressly for the school. The campus of Paris, a long-standing project, was built between 1906 and 1912, it became the biggest campus of the Arts et World War II delayed the school's opening. By the end of the war, the campus had over 500 students. In the middle of the "Trentes Glorieuses", the 7th campus was created near Bordeaux, in the science park of Talence; the modern buildings were operational in 1963. The latest campus established was Metz; the campus was built in the science park, close to the transportation hubs. The school wanted this campus to become an international one, being close to Belgium and Germany, its construction was motivated by partnerships with German and American universities.
Between 1990 and 2000, the 3 institutes of research were created: Chambéry in 1994, Chalons-sur-Saône in 1997 and Bastia in 2000. The school has 2 satellite campuses in Bouc-bel-Air and Laval that are under the authority of the main campuses of Aix-en-provence and Angers; these satellites are linked to the research laboratories of the school. In 1817, the school's military status was removed by royal order and the official goal of the school was set to train qualified technicians. However, in practice, the organisation remained military and the students continued to wear the uniform; this tradition continues today. In 1826, a second royal order confirmed this new status and the military organisation was removed; the students were granted the right to wear the uniform as a civil one. After a third attempt, the students gained the right to form an association of the Arts et Métiers alumni in 1847; the regional campuses were transformed into engineer training institutions in 1907. In 1963, the curriculum was modified in order to recruit new students from the Classes préparatoires.
In 1964, the first woman was enrolled at the Arts et Métiers. The school became a grande école in 1976 and received the EPSCP status in 1990. In 2007, the school created the PRES ParisTech and adopted the brand name "Arts et Métiers
Information and communications technology
Information and communications technology is an extensional term for information technology that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications and computers, as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware and audiovisual systems, that enable users to access, store and manipulate information. The term ICT is used to refer to the convergence of audiovisual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system. There are large economic incentives to merge the telephone network with the computer network system using a single unified system of cabling, signal distribution, management. ICT is a broad subject and the concepts are evolving, it covers any product that will store, manipulate, transmit, or receive information electronically in a digital form. For clarity, Zuppo provided an ICT hierarchy where all levels of the hierarchy "contain some degree of commonality in that they are related to technologies that facilitate the transfer of information and various types of electronically mediated communications".
Theoretical differences between interpersonal-communication technologies and mass-communication technologies have been identified by the philosopher Piyush Mathur. Skills Framework for the Information Age is one of many models for describing and managing competencies for ICT professionals for the 21st century; the phrase "information and communication technologies" has been used by academic researchers since the 1980s. The abbreviation "ICT" became popular after it was used in a report to the UK government by Dennis Stevenson in 1997, in the revised National Curriculum for England and Northern Ireland in 2000. However, in 2012, the Royal Society recommended that the use of the term "ICT" should be discontinued in British schools "as it has attracted too many negative connotations". From 2014 the National Curriculum has used the word computing, which reflects the addition of computer programming into the curriculum. Variations of the phrase have spread worldwide; the United Nations has created a "United Nations Information and Communication Technologies Task Force" and an internal "Office of Information and Communications Technology".
The money spent on IT worldwide has been estimated as US$3.8 trillion in 2017 and has been growing at less than 5% per year since 2009. The estimate 2018 growth of the entire ICT in is 5%; the biggest growth of 16% is expected in the area of new technologies. The 2014 IT budget of US federal government was nearly $82 billion. IT costs, as a percentage of corporate revenue, have grown 50% since 2002, putting a strain on IT budgets; when looking at current companies' IT budgets, 75% are recurrent costs, used to "keep the lights on" in the IT department, 25% are cost of new initiatives for technology development. The average IT budget has the following breakdown: 31% personnel costs 29% software costs 26% hardware costs 14% costs of external service providers; the estimate of money to be spent in 2022 is just over US$6 trillion. The world's technological capacity to store information grew from 2.6 exabytes in 1986 to 15.8 in 1993, over 54.5 in 2000, to 295 exabytes in 2007, some 5 zettabytes in 2014.
This is the informational equivalent to 1.25 stacks of CD-ROM from the earth to the moon in 2007, the equivalent of 4,500 stacks of printed books from the earth to the sun in 2014. The world's technological capacity to receive information through one-way broadcast networks was 432 exabytes of information in 1986, 715 exabytes in 1993, 1.2 zettabytes in 2000, 1.9 zettabytes in 2007. The world's effective capacity to exchange information through two-way telecommunication networks was 281 petabytes of information in 1986, 471 petabytes in 1993, 2.2 exabytes in 2000, 65 exabytes in 2007, some 100 exabytes in 2014. The world's technological capacity to compute information with humanly guided general-purpose computers grew from 3.0 × 10^8 MIPS in 1986, to 6.4 x 10^12 MIPS in 2007. The following is a list of OECD countries by share of ICT sector in total value added in 2013; the ICT Development Index ranks and compares the level of ICT use and access across the various countries around the world. In 2014 ITU released the latest rankings of the IDI, with Denmark attaining the top spot, followed by South Korea.
The top 30 countries in the rankings include most high-income countries where quality of life is higher than average, which includes countries from Europe and other regions such as "Australia, Canada, Macao, New Zealand and the United States. In developing countries, ICT development is constrained by limited capabilities and the objectives of ICT projects are not met. On 21 December 2001, the United Nations General Assembly approved Resolution 56/183, endorsing the holding of the World Summit on the Information Society to discuss the opportunities and challenges facing today's information society. According to this resolution, the General Assembly related the Summit to the United Nations Millennium Declaration's goal of implementing ICT to achieve Millennium Development Goals, it emphasized a multi-stakeholder approach to achieve these goals, using all stakeholders i
École centrale de Lille
Located in the campus of Science and Technology of the University of Lille in Villeneuve-d'Ascq. It is one of the Centrale Graduate Schools, its different curricula lead to the following French & European degrees: Ingénieur Centralien de Lille Masters Recherche & Doctorat Mastères Spécialisés Massive open online course in project management. Academic activities and industrial applied research are performed in French and English languages. Students from a dozen of nationalities participate to the different curricula at École Centrale de Lille. Most of the 1300 graduate engineer students at École Centrale de Lille live in dedicated residential buildings nearby research labs and metro public transports on a science and technology campus, shared with 20,000 students from the University of Lille. École Centrale de Lille was founded as École des arts industriels et des mines de Lille in 1854, the same year when Louis Pasteur became the dean of Faculté des sciences de Lille and pioneered applied research with industry cooperations, with support of scientists such as Charles Frédéric Kuhlmann.
Between 1854 and 1871, students attending the two-year curriculum grew to 90 per annum. Baccalaureate was a prerequisite to admission to the engineering school. In 1872 lectures and research activities in the engineering school were reorganised into a three-year curriculum and developed within its Institut industriel du Nord, with a focus on civil engineering, mechanical engineering and manufacturing engineering. Electrical engineering full courses were added in 1892, automobile design has been taught from 1899 onwards. More than 200 students graduated in year 1914. Aerodynamics studies started in 1930. A stress on automatic control and computers was initiated in 1957. Came courses and research in computer science, supply chain management, materials science, micro-electronics and telecommunications. Since early 20th century, student admission has been based on a competitive exam after attending a classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles or similar undergraduate studies. École Centrale de Lille was located in Lille central district from 1854 to 1875.
Larger buildings with dedicated laboratories were inaugurated in 1875 nearby the Faculté des sciences de Lille. It moved in 1968 in the modern campus of Lille University of Science and Technology, in the south-east suburb of Lille. Admission to the Centralien engineering Programme implemented at École Centrale de Lille is possible after two/three year scientific undergraduate studies and requires success to either: an admission exam for the Bachelor of Science degree: CASTing - Concours d'Admission sur Titre Ingénieur a French nationwide selective exam with numerus clausus: concours Centrale-Supelec a selective application as per TIME double degrees procedures applicable in Europe a selective application as per TIME Overseas double degree procedures applicable for selected Universities and Institutes of Technology in Brasil, Chile, Indonesia, Korea a selective application as per IMCC procedure for one-semester or one-year accredited post-graduate study period in France and USA a specific application process for other international students presented by their originating University.
The Centralien Programme lasts three years and results in a master's degree, augmented with international experience. Thus undergraduate studies + the Centralien Programme account for more than a cumulated 300 ECTS credit in the European education system. However, graduate students enrolled in the TIME double degree procedure are required to spend two-years at École Centrale de Lille and spend two years in the TIME-partner institute for a total of four years resulting in a double master's degree. Not to mention that 18% students attending courses at École Centrale de Lille are international students, all students enrolled in the Centralien Programme have an international exposure with opportunities to perform industry training and internship in enterprises worldwide, study abroad for 1 year in selected partner institutes providing Master courses, or be part of the 2+2 year TIME double degree programme. In addition to the Centralien Programme, École Centrale de Lille provides a range of master's degree cursus in science and engineering that are opened to applicants who have completed their undergraduate studies in other institutes.
Admission to Masters' second-year research cursus is possible for applicants who have performed their Master's first year in another institute and wish to focus on a research topic associated to Centrale Lille research labs. Admission to one of the 6 Masters from École Centrale de Lille is possible upon an application assessment process based on academic criteria. Note that Masters/Research workload is 60 ECTS credits and may be the starting point for doctorate studies; these 6 Masters and a larger number of Masters from other Centrale Graduate Schools and from partner institutes are possible as electives for a double degree alongside the Centralien Programme. Admission to one of the 6 Specialized Masters for Master-level specialization and continuing education in specific engineering
The Grandes Écoles of France are higher education establishments that are outside the main framework of the French public university system. The Grandes Écoles are selective and prestigious institutions. Most Grandes Écoles select students for admission as graduates of bachelor degree programs, while others select students at the third year of undergraduate-level study, based chiefly on the student's national ranking in competitive written and oral exams. Candidates for the national exams have completed two years of dedicated preparatory classes for admission. Grandes écoles differ from public universities in France, which have a legal obligation to accept in the first year of undergraduate studies all candidates of the region who hold a corresponding baccalauréat.. Grande écoles do not have large student bodies: most give admission to few hundred students each year. Arts et Métiers ParisTech has the largest student population, with 6,000 students. Studying in some grandes écoles after passing the competitive exams is considered part of public service.
Students pay low or no fees, are paid monthly stipends by some institutions. They are committed to ten years of public service; the business schools charge higher fees. Economically disadvantaged students in grandes écoles may have access to grants and subsidies, just as they would at a public university; the phrase'Grande École' originated in 1794 after the French Revolution, when the National Convention created the École normale supérieure, the mathematician Gaspard Monge and Lazare Carnot created the École centrale des travaux publics and the abbot Henri Grégoire created the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers. The model was the military academy at Mézières, of which Monge was an alumnus; the system of competitive entry was a means to open up higher education to more candidates based on merit. Some schools included in the category have roots in the 17th and 18th century and are older than the phrase'Grande École', dated 1794, their forerunners were schools aimed at graduating civil servants, such as technical officers, mine supervisors and road engineers, shipbuilding engineers.
Five military engineering academies and graduate schools of artillery were established in the 17th century in France, such as the école de l'artillerie de Douai and the école du génie de Mézières, wherein mathematics and sciences were a major part of the curriculum taught by first-rank scientists such as Pierre-Simon Laplace, Charles Étienne Louis Camus, Étienne Bézout, Sylvestre-François Lacroix, Siméon Denis Poisson, Gaspard Monge. In 1802 Napoleon created the École Spéciale Militaire de Saint Cyr, considered a Grande École, although it trains only army officers. During the 19th century, a number of higher education Grandes écoles were established to support industry and commerce, such as École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Étienne in 1816, Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Paris, L'institut des sciences et industries du vivant et de l'environnement in 1826, École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures in 1829. Between 1832 and 1870, the Central School of Arts and Manufactures produced 3,000 engineers, served as a model for most of the industrialized countries.
Until 1864, a quarter of its students came from abroad. Conversely, the quality of French technicians astonished southeastern Europe, the Near East, Belgium; the system of grandes écoles expanded, enriched in 1826 by the Ecole des Eaux et Forêts at Nancy, the Ecole des Arts Industriels at Lille in 1854, the Ecole Centrale Lyonnaise in 1857, the National Institute of Agronomy, reconstituted in 1876 after a fruitless attempt between 1848 and 1855. The training of the lower grades of staff, who might today be called ‘production engineers’, was assured to an greater extent by the development of Ecoles d’Arts et métiers, of which the first was established at Châlons-sur-Marne in 1806 and the second at Angers in 1811, with a third at Aix-en-Provence in 1841; each had room for 300 pupils. There is no doubt that in the 1860s France had the best system of higher technical and scientific education in Europe. During the latter part of the 19th century and in the 20th century, more Grandes écoles were established for education in businesses as well as newer fields of science and technology, including Rouen Business School in 1871, Sciences Po Paris in 1872, École nationale supérieure des télécommunications, Hautes Études Commerciales, Ecole Supérieure des Sciences Economiques et Commerciales École supérieure d'électricité and Supaero.
Since France has had a unique dual higher education system, with small and middle-sized specialized graduate schools operating alongside the traditional university system. Some fields of study are nearly exclusive to one part of this dual system, such as medicine in universités only, o
École centrale de Lyon
The École centrale de Lyon is a research university in greater Lyon, France. Founded in 1857 by François Barthélemy Arlès-Dufour in response to the increasing industrialization of France, it is one of the oldest graduate schools in France; the university is part of the Grandes Écoles, a prestigious group of French institutions dedicated to engineering, scientific research, business education. The current 45-acre campus is located in the city of Ecully; the École centrale de Lyon is traditionally known for its research and education in applied science and engineering. It excels in the research fields of acoustics and nanotechnology, is continuously ranked in the top five Grandes Écoles for the quality of its engineering graduate programs; the school is well-reputed for educating and training skilled engineers through many specialized graduate programs with a strong emphasis on laboratory instruction. Students graduate with a degree known as the diplôme d'ingénieur, an academic title protected by the French government and equivalent to a Master of Science, or with a Ph.
D. upon completion of their doctoral studies. The École centrale de Lyon has strong ties with top institutions in Europe including Imperial College London and Darmstadt University of Technology; the university is one of the founding members of the Centrale Graduate School network. It is a founding member of University of Lyon's center for Research and Higher Education, which has over 120,000 students. Thus, it shares many of its Ph. D. programs with other institutions part of University of Lyon such as INSA Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Claude Bernard University Lyon 1. It was founded in 1857 on a private initiative by Désiré Girardon, its first president; the founding vision was to educate multidisciplinary engineers for the emerging industry. The institution was given to the French State Ministry of Education in 1947. Located downtown Lyon, it was transferred to Écully, its current location. 1857: Birth of the Lyons Central School for Industry and Commerce, on the initiative of Desire Girardon, a professor at La Martiniere School, an institution for the teaching of advanced industrial science and based on the methods of La Martiniere school.
The school was located at the course of Bourbon. 3 November 1857: Opening of the school with 14 students, who are promoting an issue, that of 1860. 1860: The first class graduated, it will be followed by a promotion of 17 students. 1869: Transfer of School Augagneur dock. 1887: The school was placed under the patronage of the Chamber of Commerce of Lyon. 1901: Transfer street Chevreul on land donated by the city of Lyon in the person of its mayor, Edouard Herriot. 1930: First woman in a promotion. 1947: Assignment of the school to the state. 1949: Creation of the student association. 1963: Establishment of joint competition with the Ecole centrale de Paris. 1967: Transfer in Ecully, creation of a campus in the "American". 1968: First agreement with the School of Darmstadt. 1970: New name: École centrale de Lyon and first class of over 100 engineering students. 1980: First agreements with Japan and the United States. 1983: First batch of over 200 engineering students. 1990: Creation of the Intergroup schools "Central", the first agreement with China.
1992: School is a Public Establishment Scientific and Cultural Professional, the first agreement with the countries of Central and Eastern. 1996: Creation of the European university network for dual degrees. 2000: First agreements with countries in South America. 2001: First batch of over 300 students. 2002: Opening an office in Shenzhen, China. 2003: Opening of the Franco-Russian center for technology transfer. 2005: Creation of central Beijing. 2007: Intergroup is the group of central cchools with Lille, Marseille and Paris. 2006-2007-2008: 150th anniversary of the Ecole centrale de Lyon. 2009: Yin Yang - Alliance project between Central and Lyon Business School EM LYON. 2011: Agreement with France AEROTECH The centralien program is the main academic program offered by the École centrale de Lyon, as a Centrale Graduate School. It is quite different from typical college studies; the engineering degree of École centrale de Lyon is a Master of Science degree. The defining characteristic of the curriculum is that it is multidisciplinary, with studies focusing on all math and physics derived engineering specialties: mechanics, materials, fluid mechanics, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, civil engineering, computer science, telecommunications and micro-nano-biotechnology.
The large majority of the students are admitted after two to three years of classes préparatoires, known as "mathematics superior" and "mathematics special", which are an undergraduate courses with exclusive emphasis on math and physics. These undergraduate students must take a nationwide competitive entrance examination to enter a Centrale Graduate School, including Ecole centrale de Lyon. Ecole centrale de Lyon recruits among the top 6% of the students in classes preparatoires, who represent themselves 7% of higher education students, which makes it a selective and prestigious institution. A few seats are available each year to select students from French universities after completion of three or four years of post high-school education. A significant contingent
Réseau Express Régional
The Réseau Express Régional abbreviated RER, is a hybrid suburban commuter/rapid transit system serving Paris and its suburbs. The RER combines the operations and roles of a local city-centre underground rail system and suburbs-to-city-center commuter rail. Inside the city center, the RER functions much like the Métro, but is faster as it has fewer stops; this has made it a model for proposals to improve transit within other cities. The network consists of five lines: A, B, C, D and E; the network has 257 stations and has several connections with the Paris Métro within the city of Paris. The lines are identified by letters to avoid confusion with the Métro lines, which are identified by numbers; the RER is still expanding: Line E, which opened in 1999, is planned for westward extension in two phases by 2020–2022. The RER contains 257 stations, 33 of which are within the city of Paris, runs over 587 km of track, including 76.5 km underground. Each line passes through the city exclusively underground and on dedicated tracks.
The RER is operated by RATP, the transport authority that operates most public transportation in Paris, by SNCF, the national rail operator. In spite of this, the system uses a single fare structure and no transfer is needed between sections run by the two operators. Total traffic on the central sections of lines A and B, operated by RATP, was 452 million people in 2006. RATP manages 65 RER stations, including all stations on Line A east of Nanterre-Préfecture and those on the branch to Saint-Germain-en-Laye, it operates stations on Line B South of Gare du Nord. Other stations on the two lines and those on lines C, D and E are operated by SNCF. Of the RER stations operated by RATP, 9 have interchanges with Métro lines, 9 allow transfer to SNCF's Transilien service; the origins of the RER can be traced back to the 1936 Ruhlmann-Langewin plan of the Compagnie du chemin de fer métropolitain de Paris for a "métropolitain express". The company's post-war successor, RATP, revived the scheme in the 1950s, in 1960 an interministerial committee decided to go ahead with the construction of an east-west line.
Subsequently, the central part of the RER was completed between 1962 and 1977 in a large-scale civil engineering project whose chief supervisor was Siavash Teimouri. As its instigator, RATP was granted authority to run the new link; the embryonic RER was not properly conceived until the 1965 Schéma directeur d'aménagement et d'urbanisme, which envisioned an H-shaped network with two north-south routes. Between 1969 and 1970 RATP purchased the Vincennes and Saint-Germain lines from SNCF, as the basis for the east-west link. Only a single north-south route crossing the Left Bank has so far come to fruition, although the Métro's line 13 has been extended to perform a similar function. In the first phase of construction, the Vincennes and Saint-Germain lines became the ends of the east-west Line A, the central section of, opened station by station between 1969 and 1977. On its completion, Line A was joined by the initial southern section of the north-south Line B. During this first phase, six new stations were built, three of which are underground.
Construction was inaugurated by Robert Buron Minister for Public Works, at the Pont de Neuilly on 6 July 1961, four years before the publication of the official network blueprint. The rapid expansion of the La Défense business district in the west made the western section of the first line a priority. Nation, the first new station, was opened on 12 December 1969 and temporarily became the new western terminus of the Vincennes line; the section from Étoile to La Défense was opened a few weeks later. It was subsequently extended eastward to the newly built Auber station on 23 November 1971, westward to Saint-Germain-en-Laye on 1 October 1972; the latter extension was achieved by a connection to the existing Saint-Germain-en-Laye line, the oldest railway line into Paris, at Nanterre. The RER network came into being on 9 December 1977 with the joining of the eastern Nation-Boissy segment and the western Auber-Saint-Germain-en-Laye segment at Châtelet – Les Halles; the southern Ligne de Sceaux was extended from Luxembourg to meet Line A at Châtelet – Les Halles, becoming the new Line B.
The system of line letters was introduced to the public on this occasion, though it had been used internally by RATP and SNCF for some time. A second phase, from the end of the 1970s, was carried out more slowly. SNCF gained the authorisation to operate its own routes, which became lines C, D and E. Extensive sections of suburban tracks were added to the network, but only four new stations were built. In this time period, the network was completed in the following stages: Line C was added in 1979, involving the construction of a link between Invalides and Musée d'Orsay. Line B was extended to Gare du Nord in 1981 with a new deep tunnel from Châtelet – Les Halles, it was subsequently extended further northward. Line D was completed in 1995 with the construction of a deep tunnel between Châtelet – Les Halles and Gare de Lyon. No new building work was necessary at Châtelet – Les Halles, as additional platforms for Line D had been built at the time of the station's construction 20 years earlier. Line E was added in 1999, connecting the north-east with Gare Saint-Lazare by means of a new deep
École des ponts ParisTech
École des Ponts ParisTech is a university-level institution of higher education and research in the field of science and technology. Founded in 1747 by Daniel-Charles Trudaine, it is one of the oldest and one of the most prestigious French Grandes Écoles, its primary mission has been to train engineering officials and civil engineers but the school now offers a wide-ranging education including computer science, applied mathematics, civil engineering, finance, innovation, urban studies and transport engineering. École des Ponts is today international: 43% of its students obtain a double degree abroad, 30% of an ingénieur cohort is foreign. It is headquartered in Marne-la-Vallée, is a founding member of ParisTech and of the Paris School of Economics; the school is under the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Energy of France. Following the creation of the Corps of Bridges and Roads in 1716, the King's Council decided in 1747 to found a specific training course for the state's engineers, as École royale des ponts et chaussées.
In 1775, the school took its current name as École nationale des ponts et chaussées, by Daniel-Charles Trudaine, in a moment when the state decided to set up a progressive and efficient control of the building of roads and canals, in the training of civil engineers. The school's first director, from 1747 until 1794, was Jean-Rodolphe Perronet, civil service administrator and a contributor to the Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert. Without lecturer, fifty students taught themselves geometry, algebra and hydraulics. Visits of building sites, cooperations with scientists and engineers and participation to the drawing of the map of the kingdom used to complete their training, four to twelve years long. During the First French Empire run by Napoleon I from 1804 to 1814, a number of members of the Corps of Bridges and Roads took part in the reconstruction of the French road network that had not been maintained during the Revolution, in large infrastructural developments, notably hydraulic projects.
Under the orders of the emperor, French scientist Gaspard Riche de Prony, second director of the school from 1798 to 1839, adapts the education provided by the school in order to improve the training of future civil engineers, whose purpose is to rebuild the major infrastructures of the country: roads, but administrative buildings and fortifications. Prony is now considered as a influential figure of the school. During the twenty years that followed the First Empire, the experience of the faculty and the alumni involved in the reconstruction influenced its training methods and internal organisation. In 1831, the school opens its first laboratory, which aims at concentrating the talents and experiences of the country's best civil engineers; the school gradually becomes a place of reflection and debates for urban planning. As a new step in the evolution of the school, the decree of 1851 insists on the organisation of the courses, the writing of an annual schedule, the quality of the faculty, the control of the students’ works.
For the first time in its history, the school opens its doors to a larger public. At this time, in France, the remarkable development of transports, roads and canals is influenced by engineers from the school, who modernised the country by creating the large traffic networks, admired in several European countries. After the Second World War, the school focused on developing the link between economics and engineering; as civil engineering was requiring higher financial investments, the state needed engineers to be able to understand the economic situation of post-war Europe. From on, the program of the school had three different aspects: scientific and technic and economic; the number of admitted students increased in order to provide both the Corps of Bridges and Roads and the private sector trained young engineers. At the time, technical progress and considerable development of sciences and techniques used in building and the protection of the environment imposed a change of strategy in the training programme.
More specialisations were progressively created and the overall programme was adapted to national issues. École des Ponts ParisTech offers high-level programmes in an extensive range of fields, with traditional competences in mathematics, computer science, civil engineering, economics, environment, town & regional planning and innovation. École des Ponts ParisTech is among the schools called "généralistes", which means that students receive a broad, management-oriented and non-specialised education. The school offers specialized/research masters and PhDs, it has opened a design school, with programmes in innovation and startup creation. This undergraduate-graduate engineering programme is the original and main programme offered by the school, it is quite different from typical university or college studies and specific to the French system of Grandes Écoles. The Ingénieur degree of École des Ponts – the Diplôme d'Ingénieur – is equivalent to a Master of Science. Admissions for engineering students is done