Deutsche Welle or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster. The service is available in 30 languages. DW's satellite television service consists of channels in English, German and Arabic. While funded by the German government, the work of DW is regulated by the Deutsche Welle Act, meaning that content is always independent of government influence. DW is a member of the European Broadcasting Union. DW offers updated articles on its news website and runs its own center for international media development, DW Akademie; the broadcaster's stated goals are to convey Germany as a "liberal, democratic state based on the rule of law", to produce reliable news coverage and to provide access to the German language. DW has been broadcasting since 1953, it is headquartered in Bonn. Television broadcasts are produced entirely in Berlin. Both locations create content for DW's news website; as of 2018, around 1,500 employees and 1,500 freelancers from 60 countries work for Deutsche Welle in its offices in Bonn and Berlin.
According to DW, its output reaches 157 million people worldwide every week. The Director-General of DW is Peter Limbourg. DW's first shortwave broadcast took place on 3 May 1953 with an address by the West German President, Theodor Heuss. On 11 June 1953, ARD public broadcasters signed an agreement to share responsibility for Deutsche Welle. At first, it was controlled by Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk. In 1955, NWDR split into Norddeutscher Rundfunk and Westdeutscher Rundfunk, WDR assumed responsibility for Deutsche Welle programming. In 1960, Deutsche Welle became an independent public body after a court ruled that while broadcasting to Germany was a state matter, broadcasting from Germany was part of the federal government's foreign-affairs function. On 7 June 1962 DW joined ARD as a national broadcasting station. Deutsche Welle was headquartered in the West German city of Cologne. After reunification, when much of the government relocated to Berlin, the station's headquarters moved to Bonn. * by Deutschlandfunk With German reunification in 1990, Radio Berlin International, East Germany's international broadcaster ceased to exist.
Some of the RBI staff joined Deutsche Welle and DW inherited some broadcasting facilities, including transmitting facilities at Nauen, as well as RBI's frequencies. DW began as RIAS-TV, a television station launched by the West Berlin broadcaster RIAS in August 1988; the fall of the Berlin Wall the following year and German reunification in 1990 meant that RIAS-TV was to be closed down. On 1 April 1992, Deutsche Welle inherited the RIAS-TV broadcast facilities, using them to start a German and English-language television channel broadcast via satellite, DW, adding a short Spanish broadcast segment the following year. In 1995, it began 24-hour operation. At that time, DW introduced a new logo. Deutsche Welle took over some of the former independent radio broadcasting service Deutschlandfunk's foreign-language programming in 1993, when Deutschlandfunk was absorbed into the new Deutschlandradio. In addition to radio and television programming, DW sponsored some published material. For example, the South-Asia Department published German Heritage: A Series Written for the South Asia Programme in 1967 and in 1984 published African Writers on the Air.
Both publications were transcripts of DW programming. In September 1994, Deutsche Welle was the first public broadcaster in Germany with an internet presence www-dw.gmd.de, hosted by the GMD Information Technology Research Center. For its first two years, the site listed little more than contact addresses, although DW's News Journal was broadcast in RealAudio from Real's server beginning in 1995, Süddeutsche Zeitung's initial web presence, which included news articles from the newspaper, shared the site. In 1996, it evolved into a news website using the URL dwelle.de. Deutsche Welle purchased the domain dw.com, which belonged to DiamondWare, in 2013. DW moved to the www.dw.com domain on 22 June 2015. DW's news site is in seven core languages, as well as a mixture of news and information in 23 other languages in which Deutsche Welle broadcasts. Persian became the site's eighth focus language in 2007. German and European news is DW's central focus, but the site offers background information about Germany and German language courses.
Deutsch, Warum Nicht? is a personal course for learning the German language, created by Deutsche Welle and the Goethe-Institut. In 2001, Deutsche Welle founded the German TV subscription TV channel for North American viewers; the project was shut down after four years owing to low subscriber numbers. It has since been replaced by the DW-TV channel. Unlike most other international broadcasters, DW-TV does not charge terrestrial stations for use of its programming, as a result and other programmes are rebroadcast on numerous public broadcasting stations in several countries, including the United States and New Zealand. In the Philippines, selected Anglophone programmes are shown nationwide on Net 25. Deutsche Welle is still suffering from financial and staffing cuts, its budget was reduced by about €75 million over five years, a
A television set or television receiver, more called a television, TV, TV set, or telly, is a device that combines a tuner and loudspeakers for the purpose of viewing television. Introduced in the late 1920s in mechanical form, television sets became a popular consumer product after World War II in electronic form, using cathode ray tubes; the addition of color to broadcast television after 1953 further increased the popularity of television sets in the 1960s, an outdoor antenna became a common feature of suburban homes. The ubiquitous television set became the display device for the first recorded media in the 1970s, such as Betamax, VHS and DVD, it was the display device for the first generation of home computers and video game consoles in the 1980s. In the 2010s flat panel television incorporating liquid-crystal displays LED-backlit LCDs replaced cathode ray tubes and other displays. Modern flat panel TVs are capable of high-definition display and can play content from a USB device. Mechanical televisions were commercially sold from 1928 to 1934 in the United Kingdom, United States, Soviet Union.
The earliest commercially made televisions were radios with the addition of a television device consisting of a neon tube behind a mechanically spinning disk with a spiral of apertures that produced a red postage-stamp size image, enlarged to twice that size by a magnifying glass. The Baird "Televisor" is considered the first mass-produced television, selling about a thousand units. In 1926, Kenjiro Takayanagi demonstrated the first TV system that employed a cathode ray tube display, at Hamamatsu Industrial High School in Japan; this was the first working example of a electronic television receiver. His research toward creating a production model was halted by the US after Japan lost World War II; the first commercially made electronic televisions with cathode ray tubes were manufactured by Telefunken in Germany in 1934, followed by other makers in France and America. The cheapest model with a 12-inch screen was $445. An estimated 19,000 electronic televisions were manufactured in Britain, about 1,600 in Germany, before World War II.
About 7,000–8,000 electronic sets were made in the U. S. before the War Production Board halted manufacture in April 1942, production resuming in August 1945. Television usage in the western world skyrocketed after World War II with the lifting of the manufacturing freeze, war-related technological advances, the drop in television prices caused by mass production, increased leisure time, additional disposable income. While only 0.5% of U. S. households had a television in 1946, 55.7% had one in 1954, 90% by 1962. In Britain, there were 15,000 television households in 1947, 1.4 million in 1952, 15.1 million by 1968. By the late 1960s and early 1970s, color television had come into wide use. In Britain, BBC1, BBC2 and ITV were broadcasting in colour by 1969. During the first decade of the 21st century, CRT "picture tube" display technology was entirely supplanted worldwide by flat panel displays. By the early 2010s, LCD TVs, which used LED-backlit LCDs, accounted for the overwhelming majority of television sets being manufactured.
Television sets may employ one of several available display technologies. As of the mid-2010s, LCDs overwhelmingly predominate in new merchandise, but OLED displays are claiming an increasing market share as they become more affordable and DLP technology continues to offer some advantages in projection systems; the production of plasma and CRT displays has been completely discontinued. There are four primary competing TV technologies: CRT LCD OLED Plasma The cathode ray tube is a vacuum tube containing one or more electron guns and a fluorescent screen used to view images, it has a means to deflect the electron beam onto the screen to create the images. The images may represent electrical waveforms, radar targets or others; the CRT uses an evacuated glass envelope, large, deep heavy, fragile. As a matter of safety, both the face and back were made of thick lead glass so as to be block most electron emissions from the electron gun in the back of the tube. By the early 1970s, most color TVs replaced leaded glass in the face panel with vitrified barium glass, which blocked electron gun emissions but allowed better color visibility.
This eliminated the need for cadmium phosphors in earlier color televisions. Leaded glass, less expensive, continued to be used in the funnel glass, not visible to the consumer. In television sets and computer monitors, the entire front area of the tube is scanned repetitively and systematically in a fixed pattern called a raster. An image is produced by controlling the intensity of each of the three electron beams, one for each additive primary color with a video signal as a reference. In all modern CRT monitors and televisions, the beams are bent by magnetic deflection, a varying magnetic field generated by coils and driven by electronic circuits around the neck of the tube, although electrostatic deflection is used in oscilloscopes, a type of diagnostic instrument. Digital Light Processing is a type of projector technology; some DLPs have a TV tuner, which makes them a type
Culture of Albania
The Culture of Albania is a term that embodies the artistic, literary, musical and social elements that are representative of Albania and Albanians. Albanian culture has been shaped by the geography and history of Albania, it grew from that of the Illyrians, with their pagan beliefs and specific way of life in the wooded areas of far Southern Europe. Albanians can be culturally and linguistically separated into two groups such as the northern Ghegs and southern Tosks; the line of demarcation between both groups, based on dialect, is the Shkumbin River that crosses Albania from east to west. Outside of Albania, Gheg is spoken by the Albanians of Kosovo, northwestern Macedonia and Croatia. On the other hand, Tosk is spoken by the Albanians of Greece, southwestern Macedonia and southern Italy; the diversity between Ghegs and Tosks can be substantial, both sides identify with the common national and ethnic culture. Albania is the name of the country attested in Medieval Latin; the name has derived from the Illyrian tribe of the Albanoi and their capital in Albanopolis, noted by Ptolemy in ancient times.
Albanians called their country Arbëri or Arbëni and referred to themselves as Arbëreshë or Arbëneshë until the sixteenth century as the toponym Shqipëria and the demonym Shqiptarë replaced Arbëria and Arbëresh. The terms are interpreted as the Land of Eagles and Children of Eagles; the double-headed eagle is the ethnic symbol of all Albanian-speaking people. The symbol appears in a stone carving dating from the tenth century as the Principality of Arbanon was established, it was used as a heraldic symbol by a numerous noble families in Albania at that time. The double-headed eagle appears as a symbol for bravery, valor and heroism. Home of Muslims and Jews, religious tolerance is one of the most important values of the tradition of the Albanian people, it is accepted, that Albanians are well known about those values, about a peaceful coexistence among the believers of different religious communities in the country. Thanks to its long history, Albania is home to many valuable monuments such as among others the remains of Butrint, the medieval cities of Berat and Gjirokastër, the Roman amphitheatre of Durrës, the Illyrian Tombs and Fortress of Bashtovë.
Other examples of important contributions to architecture may be found in Apollonia, Amantia, Shkodër and many others. Despite being a small country, Albania has as three sites on the UNESCO World Heritage Site List and one Intangible Cultural Heritage element; the Codices of Berat are eminently important for the global community and as well the development of ancient biblical and hagiographical literature. Therefore, it was inscribed on the UNESCO's Memory of the World Register in 2005; the Kanun, a comprehensive compilation of Albanian traditional customs and cultural practices, was codified by Lekë Dukagjini in the Middle Ages. Scholars have conjectured that the Kanun might have derived from Illyrian tribal laws, while others have suggested that it has retained elements from Indo-European Prehistoric eras; the Kanun reflects notably the historic development of Albanians through its turbulent history and encompasses in a real statute regulating various aspects of life including customs and wisdom in Albania.
Besa, "to keep the promise", is the Albanian code of honor and a major component of Albanian culture. It is among the highest and most important concept of the Kanun with a ethic connotation; the term contains the given word or keeping of a promise or obligation and the guaranteed agreement among honorable men. Most notably, Besa means being hospitable to every single person. Albania saved and protected 2000 Jewish people during the Holocaust. Rather than hiding the Jews in attics or the woods, the Albanians gave them clothes, gave them Albanian names and treated them as part of the family. In consideration to the long and eventful history of Albania, there are several cultural and religious holidays throughout the country. Albanians, either in Albania and other countries, celebrate their Independence and Flag Day on November 28. Various ceremonies and concerts take place to celebrate the historic day in major cities amongst them in Tirana and Pristina, holding festive and military parades. Christmas is celebrated by those following the religion of Christianity and by Muslims across the country.
A Christmas tree is typical for Albanians. Santa Claus in Albania is called Babagjyshi i Vitit të Ri or Babagjyshi i Krishtlindjeve, who traditionally "comes" to their home on Christmas or New Year's Eve to deliver small gifts to the children; the families eat a large meal together with plenty of traditional foods. Bajram is considered by Muslims as the holiday of forgiveness, moral victory and peace and unity, they sacrifice a sheep for this holiday, giving the meat to their family, friends and to the poor people. Another pagan holiday is Dita e Verës popular in Elbasan and Gjirokastër, it is celebrated on March 14 and is intended to commemorate the end of winter, the rebirth of nature and a rejuvenation of spirit amongst the Albanians. The ritual of the day begins on the previous day with the preparation of sweets such as ballokume cooked in a wood oven. During the evening ballokume, dried figs, turkey legs, boiled eggs and simite are distributed to members of the family. Dita e Mësuesit is celebrated on March 7 since 1887 and is regarded by many Albanians as one of the most important holidays of the country.
It honors the opening of th
Economy of Albania
The economy of Albania went through a process of transition from a centralized economy to a market-based economy on the principles of the free market. Albania is an Upper-middle-income country and a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, World Trade Organization, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation. Albania is an Upper-middle-income country with an economy based on the service and industrial sectors; the country is rich in natural resources, the economy is bolstered by agriculture, food processing, oil, chemicals, basic metals, hydro power, textile industry, petroleum extraction. The strongest sectors are energy, metallurgy and tourism. Primary industrial exports are clothing, chrome and refined fuels; the tourism sector is traditionally a notable source of income of the people of the nation during the summer months, but more during the winter months as well, due to an increase in popularity of snow sports such as skiing.
With over 3.8 million tourists annually, tourism generates revenue in excess of €1,5 billion. Albania is ranked among the top 25 most popular tourist destinations in Europe, was voted one of the world's top tourism destination in 2014 by The New York Times and Lonely Planet. Following the collapse of the communist regime in 1990, Albania was marked by a mass exodus of refugees to Italy and Greece; the country attempted to transition to autarky, but this has succeeded. Attempts at reform began in earnest in early 1992 after real GDP growth of more than 50% from its peak in 1989; the country suffers from high organized crime and high corruption rates. The democratically elected government that assumed office in April 1992 launched an ambitious economic reform program to halt economic deterioration and put the country on the path toward a market economy. Key elements included price and exchange system liberalization, fiscal consolidation, monetary restraint, a firm income policy; these were complemented by a comprehensive package of structural reforms including privatization and financial sector reform, creation of the legal framework for a market economy and private sector activity.
Most agriculture, state housing, small industry were privatized. This trend continued with the privatization of transport and small and medium-sized enterprises. In 1995, the government began privatizing large state enterprises. After reaching a low point in the early 1990s, the economy expanded again, reaching its 1989 level by the end of the decade; this is a chart of Gross Domestic Product of Albania in US dollars based on Purchasing Power Parity from estimates by the International Monetary Fund. For purchasing power parity comparisons, the US dollar is exchanged at 49 leks. Mean wages were $300.83 per month in 2009. Albania is a low income country by Western European standards, with GDP per capita lower than all countries in the EU. According to Eurostat, Albania's GDP per capita stood at 35 percent of the EU average in 2008; the current unemployment rate is 12.4%. Results of Albania's efforts were encouraging. Led by the agricultural sector, real GDP grew by an estimated 111% in 1993, 89% in 1994, more than 119% in 1995, with most of this growth in the private sector.
Annual inflation dropped from 25% in 1991 to zero. The Albanian currency, the lek, stabilized. Albania became less dependent on food aid; the speed and vigour of private entrepreneurial response to Albania's opening and liberalizing was better than expected. Beginning in 1995, progress stalled, with negligible GDP growth in 1996 and a 59% contraction in 1997. A weakening of government resolve to maintain stabilization policies in the election year of 1996 contributed to renewal of inflationary pressures, spurred by the budget deficit which exceeded 0.12%. Inflation approached 0.20% in 1996 and 0.50% in 1997. The collapse of financial pyramid schemes in early 1997 – which had attracted deposits from a substantial portion of Albania's population – triggered severe social unrest which led to more than 1,500 deaths, widespread destruction of property, an 0.08% drop in GDP. The lek lost up to half of its value during the 1997 crisis, before rebounding to its January 1998 level of 0.00143 to the dollar.
The new government, installed in July 1997, has taken strong measures to restore public order and to revive economic activity and trade. Albania is undergoing an intensive macroeconomic restructuring regime with the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank; the need for reform is profound. In 2000, the oldest commercial bank, Banka Kombetare Tregtare/BKT was privatized. In 2004, the largest commercial bank in Albania—then the Savings Bank of Albania—was privatised and sold to Raiffeisen Bank of Austria for US$124 million. Macroeconomic growth has averaged around 59% over the last five years and inflation is low and stable; the government has taken measures to curb violent crime, adopted a fiscal reform package aimed at reducing the large gray economy and attracting foreign investment. The economy is bolstered by annual remittances from abroad representing about 15% of GDP from Albanians residing their weekends in Greece and Italy; the agricultural sector, which accounts for over half of employment but only about one-fifth of GDP, is limited to small family operations and subsistence farming because of lack of modern equipment, unclear property rights, the prevalence of small
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
Vlorë is the third most populous city of Albania. It is the capital of the surrounding Vlorë County. Located on the southeastern Adriatic Sea, it is one of the country's southernmost dominant economic and cultural centers. Vlorë was founded as an Ancient Greek colony in the sixth century BC under the name of Aulon and has been continuously inhabited since, it became the seat of a bishopric. In modern times, the city served as the capital of Albania. Notably Albanian Declaration of Independence was proclaimed here on November 28 in 1912. Culturally and economically it is one of the most significant cities of southwestern Albania. Vlorë is home to Albania's second largest port, the Port of Vlorë; the modern name for the city in Albanian is Vlora, pronounced as and. In Gheg Albanian it is known as Vlona, pronounced as and. Vlorë was created in antiquity as a Greek colony in the territory of Illyria, its first name was Aulón, meaning "channel, glen" and a translation of another indigenous name. The medieval and modern Greek name is Avlonas, is the source of the Latin Aulona, Italian name Valona and of the obsolete English Avlona.
During the Ottoman era the city of Vlorë was known in Turkish as Avlonya. Due to its strategic position on the Adriatic Sea the Bay of Vlorë, which forms a natural harbor, Vlorë occupied a significant place in classical antiquity as a base for trade by many peoples. Vlorë is considered as one of the oldest cities in the region; the city was named Aulōn. It is one of several colonies on the Illyrian coast, mentioned for the first time by Ptolemy. Other geographical documents, such as the Tabula Peutingeriana and Hierocles' Synecdemus mention it; the city served as an important port of the Roman Empire. Aulon became. Among the known bishops are Nazarius in 458 and Soter in 553; the diocese at that time belonged to the papal Pentarchy. In 733, it was annexed with the eastern Illyricum, to the Patriarchate of Constantinople, yet it is not mentioned in any Notitiae Episcopatuum of that Church; the bishopric had been suppressed for though the Bulgarians had been in possession of this country for some time, Avlona is not mentioned in the "Notitiae episcopatuum" of the Bulgarian Patriarchate of Achrida.
During the Roman period, a Latin see was established and Eubel mentions several of its bishops. Several of the Latin bishops mentioned by Michel Le Quien, whom Konrad Eubel mentions under the See of Valanea in Syria, belong either to Aulon in Greece or to this Aulon in Albania, Aulon, no longer being a residential bishopric, is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see, a suffragan bishop of Durrës, being distinguished from a Greek titular see called Aulon by the use for it of the adjective Aulonitanus, while the adjective regarding the Aulon in Euboea is Aulonensis; the diocese was nominally restored as Valona in Curiate Italian. It was a bishopric from the fifth century until the Bulgarian rule; the city played a significant role in the conflicts during the 11th and 12th centuries between the Latin Norman Kingdom of Sicily, which established a Latin bishopric, the Byzantine Empire. After it was captured by the Ottoman Empire in 1417, it became a sanjak centre in Rumelia Eyalet as Avlonya.
At the time the city had about 10,000 inhabitants. In the 16th century, it served as an important congregation center for Sephardi Jewish refugees from Spain and Portugal. During the early period of Ottoman rule, Vlorë became an international port centered on a high volume of trade between western Europe and the Ottoman state. In 1851 it suffered from an earthquake. On November 28, 1912, Ismail Qemali declared the Albanian National Awakening in Vlorë, during the First Balkan War; the city became Albania's first capital following its independence, but was invaded by Italy in 1914, during the World War I. The city remained occupied by Italian forces until a Albanian rebellion forced the Italians out of Albania in 1920. Italy invaded Vlorë again in 1939; the city remained under Italian occupation until Italy surrendered to the allies in 1943. Subsequently, Nazi Germany occupied the city until 1944; the city was liberated in 1944 by communist forces under Enver Hoxha. During the World War II, Sazan Island became the site of a German and Italian submarine base and naval installations.
After World War II with Albania falling under the communist regime, the port was leased out to the Soviet Union for use as a submarine base. During 1960 and 1961 it served as a theater in the aftermath of the fall out between Albanian dictator Enver Hoxha and Nikita Khrushchev. Albania denounced the USSR as'revisionist' and took Chinese side in the world communist movement split. In April 1961 the Soviet Union resenting being pushed out, after considerable investment in the
Radio broadcasting is transmission by radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format, either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both; the signal types can be digital audio. The earliest radio stations did not carry audio. For audio broadcasts to be possible, electronic detection and amplification devices had to be incorporated; the thermionic valve was invented in 1904 by the English physicist John Ambrose Fleming. He developed a device he called an "oscillation valve"; the heated filament, or cathode, was capable of thermionic emission of electrons that would flow to the plate when it was at a higher voltage. Electrons, could not pass in the reverse direction because the plate was not heated and thus not capable of thermionic emission of electrons. Known as the Fleming valve, it could be used as a rectifier of alternating current and as a radio wave detector; this improved the crystal set which rectified the radio signal using an early solid-state diode based on a crystal and a so-called cat's whisker.
However, what was still required was an amplifier. The triode was patented on March 4, 1906, by the Austrian Robert von Lieben independent from that, on October 25, 1906, Lee De Forest patented his three-element Audion, it wasn't put to practical use until 1912 when its amplifying ability became recognized by researchers. By about 1920, valve technology had matured to the point where radio broadcasting was becoming viable. However, an early audio transmission that could be termed a broadcast may have occurred on Christmas Eve in 1906 by Reginald Fessenden, although this is disputed. While many early experimenters attempted to create systems similar to radiotelephone devices by which only two parties were meant to communicate, there were others who intended to transmit to larger audiences. Charles Herrold started broadcasting in California in 1909 and was carrying audio by the next year.. In The Hague, the Netherlands, PCGG started broadcasting on November 6, 1919, making it, arguably the first commercial broadcasting station.
In 1916, Frank Conrad, an electrical engineer employed at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, began broadcasting from his Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania garage with the call letters 8XK. The station was moved to the top of the Westinghouse factory building in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Westinghouse relaunched the station as KDKA on November 2, 1920, as the first commercially licensed radio station in America; the commercial broadcasting designation came from the type of broadcast license. The first licensed broadcast in the United States came from KDKA itself: the results of the Harding/Cox Presidential Election; the Montreal station that became CFCF began broadcast programming on May 20, 1920, the Detroit station that became WWJ began program broadcasts beginning on August 20, 1920, although neither held a license at the time. In 1920, wireless broadcasts for entertainment began in the UK from the Marconi Research Centre 2MT at Writtle near Chelmsford, England. A famous broadcast from Marconi's New Street Works factory in Chelmsford was made by the famous soprano Dame Nellie Melba on 15 June 1920, where she sang two arias and her famous trill.
She was the first artist of international renown to participate in direct radio broadcasts. The 2MT station began to broadcast regular entertainment in 1922; the BBC was amalgamated in 1922 and received a Royal Charter in 1926, making it the first national broadcaster in the world, followed by Czech Radio and other European broadcasters in 1923. Radio Argentina began scheduled transmissions from the Teatro Coliseo in Buenos Aires on August 27, 1920, making its own priority claim; the station got its license on November 19, 1923. The delay was due to the lack of official Argentine licensing procedures before that date; this station continued regular broadcasting of entertainment and cultural fare for several decades. Radio in education soon followed and colleges across the U. S. began adding radio broadcasting courses to their curricula. Curry College in Milton, Massachusetts introduced one of the first broadcasting majors in 1932 when the college teamed up with WLOE in Boston to have students broadcast programs.
Broadcasting service is – according to Article 1.38 of the International Telecommunication Union´s Radio Regulations – defined as «A radiocommunication service in which the transmission are intended for direct reception by the general public. This service may include sound transmissions, television transmissions or other types of transmission.» Definitions identical to those contained in the Annexes to the Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union are marked "" or "" respectively. A radio broadcasting station is associated with wireless transmission, though in practice broadcasting transmission take place using both wires and radio waves; the point of this is that anyone with the appropriate receiving technology can receive the broadcast. In line to ITU Radio Regulations each broadcasting station shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily. Broadcasting by radio takes several forms; these include FM stations. There are several subtypes, namely commercial broadcasting, non-commercial educational public broadcasting and non-profit varieties as well as community radio, student-run campus radio stations, and