Telecommunications in Ghana
Telecommunications in Ghana include radio, television and mobile telephones, the Internet. Telecommunications is the main economic sector of Ghana according to the statistics of the World Bank due to the Ghana liberal policy around Information and communications technology. Among the main sectors of investments, 65% is for ICT, 8% for communications and 27% is divided for public administration. In 2007 Ghana was served by two state-owned radio networks. Multiple international broadcasters and several cable and satellite TV subscription services were available. In 2010, there were 140 authorised radio stations with 84 in operation and 32 authorised television stations with 26 in operation. Television broadcasters include First Digital TV TV Africa, Metro TV, TV3, GTV, GH One TV and Viasat 1; the Ghana Broadcasting Corporation founded by decree in 1968 is the state agency that provides civilian radio and television services. It was created for the development of the education and entertainment sectors and to enhance the knowledge of the people of Ghana.
After the overthrow of the elected government by Jerry Rawlings in December 1981 the Provisional National Defence Council repealed the liberal media reforms of previous governments, abolished the Third Constitution and the Press Commission, passed laws that prevented criticism of the government or its policies, dismissed editors critical of Rawlings or the provisional council, the Preventive Custody and Newspaper Licensing Law which allowed indefinite detention of journalists without trial, the Newspaper Licensing Law which stifled private media development. Ghanaian press freedom was restored with the promulgation of a new constitution in 1992, presidential and parliamentary elections in November and December 1992, a return to multiparty democratic rule on 7 January 1993; the mass media of Ghana today is among the most liberal in Africa, with Ghana ranking as the third freest in Africa and 30th in the world on the 2013 World Press Freedom Index from Reporters Without Borders. Article 21 of the Constitution of Ghana guarantees freedom of the press and other media, freedom of speech and expression and information.
The prefix code of Ghana for international calls is +233. As of 2012 there were 285,000 fixed telephone lines in use, 120th in the world, 25.6 million mobile cellular lines, 42nd in the world. The telephone system is outdated, with an unreliable fixed-line infrastructure concentrated in Accra and some wireless local loop installed, domestic trunks use microwave radio relay. There are 4 Intelsat satellite earth stations. Microwave radio relay links Ghana to its neighbours; the SAT-3/WASC, Main One, GLO-1, ACE international optical fibre submarine cables provide links to countries along the west coast of Africa and on to Europe and Asia. In 2010 two fixed line and six mobile phone companies were authorised to operate in Ghana of which 5 were operating, 13 satellite providers were authorised of which 8 were operating, 176 VSAT providers were authorised of which 57 were operating, 99 public and private network operators were authorised of which 25 were operating. Authorized telecommunications companies include Mobile Telecommunications Networks, Vodafone Ghana which purchased Telecom Ghana, Tigo which replaced Mobitel, Bharti Airtel and Zain which acquired Western Telesystems Ltd, Glo Mobile Ghana Limited, Expresso Telecom which acquired Kasapa Telecom.
In 2017, Tigo Ghana and Airtel Ghana merged to form AirtelTigo. Competition among multiple mobile-cellular providers has spurred growth, with a mobile phone teledensity in 2009 of more than 80 per 100 persons and rising; the cost of mobile phones is increased by taxes of around 38%. The top-level domain of Ghana is.gh. Ghana was one of the first countries in Africa to connect to the Internet. With an average household download speed of 5.8 Mbit/s Ghana had the third fastest speed on the African continent and the 110th fastest out of 188 countries worldwide in February 2014. In 2009 the number of Internet users stood at 1.3 million, 93rd in the world. In 2012 the number of Internet users reached 17.1 % of the population. In 2012 there were 8.2 million wireless broadband subscriptions. In 2012 there were 59,086 Internet hosts operating in Ghana, 93rd in the world, Ghana had been allocated 332,544 IPv4 addresses, 102nd in the world, with less than 0.05% of the world total, 13.2 addresses per 1000 people.
In 2010 there were 165 authorised Internet service providers. There are no government restrictions on access to the Internet or reports that the government monitors e-mail or Internet chat rooms without judicial oversight. Individuals and groups engage in the peaceful expression of views via the Internet, including by e-mail. Although the constitution and law provide for freedom of speech and press, the government sometimes restricts those rights; the police arbitrarily detain journalists. Some journalists practice self-censorship; the constitution prohibits arbitrary interference with privacy, home, or correspondence, the government respects these prohibitions in practice. In 2002 the government of Ghana censored Internet media coverage of tribal violence in Northern Ghana. Ghana Internet Exchange New media in Ghana Media in Ghana Terrestrial optical fibre cable projects in Gha
The World Factbook
The World Factbook known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. The official print version is available from the Government Printing Office. Other companies—such as Skyhorse Publishing—also print a paper edition; the Factbook is available in the form of a website, updated every week. It is available for download for use off-line, it provides a two- to three-page summary of the demographics, communications, government and military of each of 267 international entities including U. S.-recognized countries and other areas in the world. The World Factbook is prepared by the CIA for the use of U. S. government officials, its style, format and content are designed to meet their requirements. However, it is used as a resource for academic research papers and news articles; as a work of the U. S. government, it is in the public domain in the United States. In researching the Factbook, the CIA uses the sources listed below.
Other public and private sources are consulted. Antarctic Information Program Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center Bureau of the Census Bureau of Labor Statistics Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs Defense Intelligence Agency Department of Energy Department of State Fish and Wildlife Service Maritime Administration National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Naval Facilities Engineering Command Office of Insular Affairs Office of Naval Intelligence Oil & Gas Journal United States Board on Geographic Names United States Transportation Command Because the Factbook is in the public domain, people are free under United States law to redistribute it or parts of it in any way that they like, without permission of the CIA. However, the CIA requests. Copying the official seal of the CIA without permission is prohibited by U. S. federal law—specifically, the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949. Before November 2001 The World Factbook website was updated yearly. Information available as of January 1 of the current year is used in preparing the Factbook.
The first, edition of Factbook was published in August 1962, the first unclassified version in June 1971. The World Factbook was first available to the public in print in 1975. In 2008 the CIA discontinued printing the Factbook themselves, instead turning printing responsibilities over to the Government Printing Office; this happened due to a CIA decision to "focus Factbook resources" on the online edition. The Factbook has been on the World Wide Web since October 1994; the web version receives an average of 6 million visits per month. The official printed version is sold by the Government Printing Office and National Technical Information Service. In past years, the Factbook was available on CD-ROM, magnetic tape, floppy disk. Many Internet sites use information and images from the CIA World Factbook. Several publishers, including Grand River Books, Potomac Books, Skyhorse Publishing have re-published the Factbook in recent years; as of July 2011, The World Factbook comprises 267 entities, which can be divided into the following categories: Independent countries The CIA defines these as people "politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory."
In this category, there are 195 entities. Others Places set apart from the list of independent countries. There are two: Taiwan and the European Union. Dependencies and Areas of Special Sovereignty Places affiliated with another country, they may be subcategorized by affiliated country: Australia: six entities China: two entities Denmark: two entities France: eight entities Netherlands: three entities New Zealand: three entities Norway: three entities United Kingdom: seventeen entities United States: fourteen entitiesMiscellaneous Antarctica and places in dispute. There are six such entities. Other entities The World and the oceans. There are the World. Areas not covered Specific regions within a country or areas in dispute among countries, such as Kashmir, are not covered, but other areas of the world whose status is disputed, such as the Spratly Islands, have entries. Subnational areas of countries are not included in the Factbook. Instead, users looking for information about subnational areas are referred to "a comprehensive encyclopedia" for their reference needs.
This criterion was invoked in the 2007 and 2011 editions with the decision to drop the entries for French Guiana, Martinique and Reunion. They were dropped because besides being overseas departments, they were now overseas regions, an integral part of France. Kashmir Maps depicting Kashmir have the Indo-Pakistani border drawn at the Line of Control, but the region of Kashmir administered by China drawn in hash marks. Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus, which the U. S. considers part of the Republic of Cyprus, is not given a separate entry because "territorial occupations/annexations not recognized by the United States Government are not shown on U. S. Government maps."Taiwan/Republic of China The name
Communications in Liberia
Communications in Liberia include the press, television and mobile telephones, the Internet. Much of Liberia's communications infrastructure was destroyed or plundered during the two civil wars. With low rates of adult literacy and high poverty rates and newspaper use is limited, leaving radio as the predominant means of communicating with the public; as it struggles with economic and political constraints, Liberia's media environment is expanding. The number of registered newspapers and radio stations is on the rise despite limited market potential, and politically critical content and investigative pieces do get broadcast. The main newspapers are: The Analyst Daily Observer, private; the Daily Talk FrontPage Africa, private. The Inquirer, private daily. National Chronicle The New Dawn, private daily. New Democrat The New RepublicDefunct newspapers and magazines include: Africa League African Nationalist Africa's Luminary Amulet Daily Listener Footprints Today The Friend Independent Weekly Journal of Commerce and Industry Liberia and West Africa Liberia Herald Liberian Age Liberian Herald Liberian News Liberian Recorder Liberian Star Monrovia Observer Palm Magazine SunTimes Weekly Mirror Whirlwind Radios: 790,000 radio receivers.
Radio stations: 1 state-owned radio station, but no national public service broadcaster. BBC World Service 103 FM. ELBC FM, public. ELWA FM and SW, religious-Christian. LUX 106.6 FM, University of Liberia. Radio Liberia FM, operated by the state-run Liberian Broadcasting System. Radio Veritas FM and SW, religious-Catholic. RFI English FM, the English service of Radio France Internationale. Sky FM STAR Radio FM and SW, operated in partnership with Swiss-based Hirondelle Foundation. Truth FM UNMIL Radio FM, operated by the United Nations mission. Voice of Firestone Liberia 89.5 FM Television sets: 70,000 sets. Television stations: 4 private TV stations, none with national reach. Clar TV, private. DC TV, private. Power TV, private. Real TV, private. Liberia Broadcasting System: Government owned Liberia National Television. Calling code: +231 International call prefix: 00 Main lines: 3,200 lines in use, 213th in the world. Mobile cellular: 2.4 million lines, 138th in the world. Telephone system: the limited services available are found exclusively in the capital Monrovia.
Satellite earth stations: 1 Intelsat. Communications cables: Africa Coast to Europe cable system, links countries along the west coast of Africa to each other and on to Portugal and France; the fixed line infrastructure of Liberia was nearly destroyed during the civil wars. Prior to the passage of the Telecommunications Act of 2007, the state-owned Liberia Telecommunications Corporation held a legal monopoly for all fixed line services in Liberia, remains the sole licensed fixed line telephone service provider in the country. Four licensed GSM cellular mobile service providers operate in the country: Lonestar Cell, CellCom, LiberCell, Comium. 45% of the population has cell phone service. Top-level domain:.lr Internet users: 147,510 users, 162nd in the world. 20,000 users, 194th in the world. Fixed broadband: 78 subscriptions, 193rd in the world. Wireless broadband: Unknown. Internet hosts: 7 hosts, 228th in the world. IPv4: 13,312 addresses allocated, less than 0.05% of the world total, 3.4 addresses per 1000 people.
While Liberia's commercial internet sector is still behind the majority of African countries there are still a few classifieds sites: liberiacommerce.com There are no government restrictions on access to the Internet or reports that the government monitors e-mail or Internet chat rooms. The constitution provides for freedom of speech and press, the government respects these rights in practice. Libel and national security laws place some limits on freedom of speech. Individuals can criticize the government publicly or without reprisal; some journalists practice self-censorship. The constitution prohibits arbitrary interference with privacy, home, or correspondence, the government respects these prohibitions in practice. President Sirleaf endorsed and signed the World Association of Newspapers and News Publishers' Declaration of Table Mountain in Monrovia on 21 July 2012, committing to the core principles of a free press and calling for the repeal of the criminal defamation and insult laws used against journalists.
Liberia Telecommunications Corporation, the sole provider of fixed line telephone services in Liberia. Cable Consortium of Liberia, a public-private partnership formed in 2010 to own and operate Liberia's cable landing point for the ACE cable system; the Liberian Journal, a US-based Liberian online and print news organization covering issues of interest to Liberians in the Diaspora. Cinema of Liberia This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2014 edition"; this a
Tunisia is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa, covering 163,610 square kilometres. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent, it is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was 11.435 million in 2017. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil, its 1,300 kilometres of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, it is considered to be the only democratic sovereign state in the Arab world.
It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union. In addition, Tunisia is a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe – in particular with France and with Italy – have been forged through economic cooperation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC; the Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574; the Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881.
Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections; the country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, for President on 23 November 2014. The word Tunisia is derived from Tunis; the present form of the name, with its Latinate suffix -ia, evolved from French Tunisie. in turn associated with the Berber root ⵜⵏⵙ, transcribed tns, which means "to lay down" or "encampment". It is sometimes associated with the Punic goddess Tanith, ancient city of Tynes; the French derivative Tunisie was adopted in some European languages with slight modifications, introducing a distinctive name to designate the country. Other languages remained untouched, such as Spanish Túnez. In this case, the same name is used for both country and city, as with the Arabic تونس, only by context can one tell the difference. Before Tunisia, the territory's name was Ifriqiya or Africa, which gave the present-day name of the continent Africa.
Farming methods reached the Nile Valley from the Fertile Crescent region about 5000 BC, spread to the Maghreb by about 4000 BC. Agricultural communities in the humid coastal plains of central Tunisia were ancestors of today's Berber tribes, it was believed in ancient times that Africa was populated by Gaetulians and Libyans, both nomadic peoples. According to the Roman historian Sallust, the demigod Hercules died in Spain and his polyglot eastern army was left to settle the land, with some migrating to Africa. Persians became the Numidians; the Medes settled and were known as Mauri Moors. The Numidians and Moors belonged to the race from; the translated meaning of Numidian is Nomad and indeed the people were semi-nomadic until the reign of Masinissa of the Massyli tribe. At the beginning of recorded history, Tunisia was inhabited by Berber tribes, its coast was settled by Phoenicians starting as early as the 12th century BC. The city of Carthage was founded in the 9th century BC by Phoenicians. Legend says that Dido from Tyre, now in modern-day Lebanon, founded the city in 814 BC, as retold by the Greek writer Timaeus of Tauromenium.
The settlers of Carthage brought their culture and religion from Phoenicia, now present-day Lebanon and adjacent areas. After the series of wars with Greek city-states of Sicily in the 5th century BC, Carthage rose to power and became the dominant civilization in the Western Mediterranean; the people of Carthage worshipped a pantheon of Middle Eastern gods including Tanit. Tanit's symbol, a simple female figure with extended arms and long dress, is a popular icon found in ancient sites; the founders of Carthage established a Tophet, altered in Roman times. A Carthaginian invasion of Italy led by Hannibal during the Second Punic War, one of a series of wars with Rome, nearly crippled the rise of Roman power. From the conclusion of the Second Punic War in 202 BC, Carthage functioned as a client state of the Roman Republic for another 50 years. F
Telecommunications in the Gambia
Telecommunications in the Gambia includes radio, television and mobile telephones, the Internet. Radio: The state-owned Gambia Radio and Television Service has two AM stations and three FM stations. There are seven private FM stations in Serrekunda and Basse. Transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available. Radio sets: 196,000. Television: The Gambia Radio and Television Service operates a single-channel TV service with the main transmitter at Banjul and numerous relay stations. Transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available. Television sets: 4,000. Calling code: +220 International call prefix: 00 Main lines: 64,200 lines in use, 159th in the world. Mobile cellular: 1.5 million lines, 151st in the world. Teledensity: ~80 per 100 persons, combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular. Domestic: Adequate microwave radio relay and open-wire network. State-owned Gambia Telecommunications Company privatized in 2007. International: Microwave radio relay: Links to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau.
Satellite earth station: 1 Intelsat. Communications cables: Africa Coast to Europe fiber-optic submarine cable. Top-level domain:.gm Internet users: 229,122 users, 151st in the world. Fixed broadband: 497 subscriptions, 188th in the world. Wireless broadband: 22,435 subscriptions, 131st in the world. Internet hosts: 656 hosts, 179th in the world. IPv4: 21,504 addresses allocated, less than 0.05% of the world total, 11.7 addresses per 1000 people. The Gambia is not individually classified by the OpenNet Initiative, but is classified as engaged in selective Internet filtering based on the limited descriptions in the ONI 2009 profile for the sub-Saharan Africa region. There are no government restrictions on access to the Internet or reports that the government monitors e-mail or Internet chat rooms without appropriate legal authority. Individuals and groups can engage in the peaceful expression of views via the Internet, including by e-mail. However, Internet users reported they could not access the Web sites of foreign online newspapers Freedom, The Gambia Echo and Jollofnews, which criticized the government.
The constitution and law provide for freedom of press. According to the Observatory for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders, "the environment for independent and opposition media remained hostile, with numerous obstacles to freedom of expression, including administrative hurdles, arbitrary arrest and detention and judicial harassment against journalists, the closure of media outlets, leading to self-censorship." Individuals who publicly or criticized the government or the president risked government reprisal. In March 2011 President Jammeh warned independent journalists that he would "not compromise or sacrifice the peace, stability and the well being of Gambians for the sake of freedom of expression." Accusing some journalists of being the "mouthpiece of opposition parties," he vowed to prosecute any journalist who offended him. The National Intelligence Agency was involved in arbitrary closure of media outlets and the extrajudicial detention of journalists. In 2007 a Gambian journalist living in the US was convicted of sedition for an article published online.
The constitution and law prohibit arbitrary interference with privacy, home, or correspondence, but the government does not respect these prohibitions. Observers believe the government monitors citizens engaged in activities that it deems objectionable. In recent years before the 2016 election social media like Whatsapp and Skype have been temporarily blocked in The Gambia. Since 30 November 2016, the evening before the presidential election, internet access, mobile communication and phone calls have been shut down by all providers, as ordered by the president of The Gambia. Africell, mobile telecommunications company operating in The Gambia, Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Gamtel, the Gambia Telecommunications Company. Qcell, Qcell Gambia Co. Ltd. the Gambia Telecommunications Company. Comium, Comium Gambia Co. Ltd. Telecommunications Company, is owned subsidiary of the Comium Group Luxemburg. Netpage Ltd. Netpage Gambia Co. Ltd. Telecommunications Company. Quantum Ltd. QuantumNet Gambia Co. Ltd.
Telecommunications Company. Vizocom, a global satellite internet provider with coverage in the African continent This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2013 edition"; this article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of State. Department Of State For Communications Information Technology. Gamtel, Gambia Telecommunications Company. Gamcel, mobile phone company. Gambia Radio & Television Services. Africell Gambia, mobile phone company
Telecommunications in Mali
Mali, a large, multicultural country in West Africa ranks low in the Human Development Index. The infrastructure of Communications in Mali, while underdeveloped, is crucial to the nation. Prior to the 19th century, the area which became Mali was criscrossed by trade and communication links, the most important being the Niger River, important southern terminals of the Trans-Saharan trade routes. Only the most basic infrastructure was constructed during the period of French Colonialism. During the first two decades of independence, Mali received major technical and financial support from the former Soviet Union and their allies in the area of radio and television broadcasting. Since the 1980s, the government has instituted major infrastructural drives funded by European government partners, to improve and expand communications. Cellular phone usage, due to the vast and sparsely populated distances in the north and west, has grown tremendously since the 1990s. Internet connectivity low by developed world standards, has been the focus of decentralised commune based development projects since the year 2000, while the government participates in the UN's Global Alliance for ICT and Development and the Connect Africa projects to further computer and internet availability in the country.
There are some 112,000 fixed line telephone lines in Mali, far outstripped by 14.613 million mobile cellular phone lines. There are two major mobile telephone operators and Malitel. In June 2003, legislation passed allowing other private telecommunications operators to enter the market. Telephone system: domestic system unreliable but improving. Mali has since 1994. Foreign funding, some commercial funding have helped to established 160 FM stations in Mali, though many of those are small community "suitcase radio stations". Private radio are required to be members of URTEL, the radio union https://web.archive.org/web/20070312082256/http://urtel.radio.org.ml/. The state operated radio, is ORTM, which operates 2 FM stations and 1 television station, with repeaters throughout the country. Note: The shortwave station in Bamako has seven frequencies and five transmitters and relays broadcasts for China Radio International Radios: 570,000 Television broadcast stations: 1 Televisions: 45,000 Top-level domain:.ml Internet users: 414,985 users or 2.9% of the population.
Internet usage is low by international standards, ranked 123 of 125 by the UN in 2002. Internet Service Providers: 13. There are an estimated 25 private internet service providers. An association has been formed called AFIM, intended to represent these providers. SOTELMA the state telecom, provides dial-up telephone services. Many operators offer dial-up internet service, wireless internet services. Most ISPs are small Bamako based providers with a VSAT connection, a cyber cafe and use wireless systems to share their service with their clients. Bamako has at least 21 wireless providers, ranging from small VSAT operators, to sophisticated, multi-access point, full services providers. Telephone numbers in Mali Office de Radiodiffusion-Télévision du Mali: State Radio and Television broadcaster. Union des Radios et Televisions Libres Media of Mali Peter Coles, Turn your radio on. New Scientist, 7 October 1995. Mali: Freedom House report. Six radio station staff freed on completing sentences: Mali. Reporters Without Borders, 26 September 2006.
Silicon Mali. Silvia Sansoni, Forbes 02.04.02. VOA Training African Affiliates: Broadcasters’ Fiscal Health Key ‘To Guarantee Pluralism’. Voice of America, 13 September 2005 Mali Market Information Study FOOD SECURITY II COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT between U. S. AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT and MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY: IN-COUNTRY TIME PERIOD: JULY 1987 - DECEMBER 1994. Statistical evidence is consistent with anecdotal reports from both farmers and traders that the SIM radio broadcasts have fundamentally changed bargaining relationships between traders and farmers, forcing traders to offer more competitive prices in isolated rural markets. Cécile Leguy. Revitalizing the Oral Tradition: Stories Broadcast by Radio Parana. Research in African Literatures, Fall 2007, Vol. 38, No. 3, Pages 136-147. Radio Bamakan - Mali. InteRadio, Vol. 5, No.2, June 1993. PanAfriL10n page on Mali
Transport in Algeria
As the tenth-largest country in the world, the largest in Africa and in the Mediterranean region, Algeria has a vast transportation system which include many transportation infrastructures. There are a total of 3,973 km of railways: 2,888 km is 1,435 mm standard gauge, with 283 km of that being electrified and 215 km of that being double tracked. There are a total of 1,085 km of 1,055 mm gauge track. SNTF operates the railways, whilst a new, separate organisation, has been created to manage infrastructure investment; the High Plateau line is a major new project to build an east-west line across the country, parallel to the Rocade Nord. A 690-km line from Béchar to Oran is opened on 15 July. Planning starts on suburban electrification at 25 kV AC. A new 204-kilometre railway under construction from Tébessa to Aïn M'Lila; the 8 km Algiers bypass line between Djasr Kasentina and Oued Smar is being upgraded. 18 May 2006 SNTF is to spend $US5 billion in the next five years on improvements. It has awarded a 39-month-duration contract worth €248.3 million to a joint Algerian and Spanish consortium which will double the Annaba-Ramdane Djamal portion of the 626 km Algiers-Annaba line and upgrade the track for 160 km/h operation.
SNTF is to electrify 420 km of the route west of Annaba at 25 kV AC, including the branches from Ramdane Djamel to Skikda and Beni Mansour to Bejaia, as well as the line from Khemis Miliana to Oran. 18 May 2006 - By early 2009, it is hoped to open the first 16.3 km section of the new light rail line in Algeria's capital city, linking Carl du Ruisseau to Bordj El Kiffan. Under construction: there are 3 projects to build tramway networks in 3 major cities: Alger and Constantine. CAF is to supply 17 non-tilting diesel multiple-units based on the RENFE Series 598 tilting trains. Algiers and Constantine are the only cities in the country with a tram line in operation. Tram projects have been launched in both Setif and Batna in the east and Sidi Bel-Abbes in the west, Ouargla in the South; the government, wanting to diversify the country's future in rail transport, has assigned the Algiers Subway Company to the projects. Algiers tramway Oran Tramway Constantine tramway There are 71,656 kilometers of paved roads including 1394 kilometers of expressways and 32,344 kilometers of unpaved roads for a total road system of 104,000 kilometers.
Algeria has two routes in the Trans-African Highway network, including the Trans-Sahara Highway, soon to be complete as a paved road running from north to south through the country. The country has embarked in the construction of a new East-West highway. Motorway network in Algeria is expanding along with other kinds of infrastructure, though this is only true for the Northern region of the country, where most of its population lives, and this infrastructure is pretty well developed for North African standards. East-West Highway; this is the most important road infrastructure in the country, because it expands from Ain El Assel, on the border with Tunisia to Zouj Beghal, on the border with Morocco. Along its way, it links the cities of Constantine, Sétif, Blida, Sidi Bel Abbes and Tlemcen, it has a length of 1155 km. Highway of the Hauts Plateaux is a highway of 1020 km under construction in Algeria in parallel to the East–West Highway, it through the wilayas of Tlemcen on the border with Morocco, Tiaret, Medea, M'sila, Oum El Bouaghi and Tebessa on the border with Tunisia.
National Highway 4. Extends from Oran to Boufarik, total length: 384 km, it is a motorway on its extent from Oran to Zaghloul, length: 35 km. National Highway 5, it is a motorway on its extent from Dar El Beïda to Ammal. Length: 82 km. National Highway 11, it is a motorway running from Alger to Cherchell. Length: 65 km. National Highway 12, it is a motorway running from Si Mustapha to Tizi Ouzou. Length: 57 km. There are 456 kilometers of crude oil pipeline, 298 kilometers of refined petroleum pipeline, 2,948 kilometers of natural gas pipeline. There are 4 gas exportation pipelines, two existing ones to Spain and Italy and 2 under construction, Medgaz between Oran and Almería, Spain and GALSI between Annaba and Sardinia, Italy. Both pipelines will be extended to Germany. Algiers, Arzew, Bejaia, Béni Saf, Djendjen, Jijel, Oran, Ténès Total: 110 by type: bulk carrier 3, general cargo 13, oil tanker 9, other 85 An extensive air service used an estimated 137 airports and airstrips in 2004; as of 2005, a total of 52 had paved runways, there was one heliport.
The main international airport, Houari Boumedienne Airport, is about 20 km from Algiers. Constantine, Annaba and Oran have smaller modern airports that can accommodate jet aircraft. Air Algérie, the national airline, provides international service. In 2003, a total of about 3.293 million passengers were carried on domestic and international flights. Algeria This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html