In telecommunication, Long-Term Evolution is a standard for wireless broadband communication for mobile devices and data terminals, based on the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA technologies. It increases the capacity and speed using a different radio interface together with core network improvements; the standard is developed by the 3GPP and is specified in its Release 8 document series, with minor enhancements described in Release 9. LTE is the upgrade path for carriers with both GSM/UMTS networks and CDMA2000 networks; the different LTE frequencies and bands used in different countries mean that only multi-band phones are able to use LTE in all countries where it is supported. LTE is marketed as 4G LTE & Advance 4G, but it does not meet the technical criteria of a 4G wireless service, as specified in the 3GPP Release 8 and 9 document series for LTE Advanced. LTE is commonly known as 3.95G. The requirements were set forth by the ITU-R organization in the IMT Advanced specification. However, due to marketing pressures and the significant advancements that WiMAX, Evolved High Speed Packet Access and LTE bring to the original 3G technologies, ITU decided that LTE together with the aforementioned technologies can be called 4G technologies.
The LTE Advanced standard formally satisfies the ITU-R requirements to be considered IMT-Advanced. To differentiate LTE Advanced and WiMAX-Advanced from current 4G technologies, ITU has defined them as "True 4G". LTE stands for Long Term Evolution and is a registered trademark owned by ETSI for the wireless data communications technology and a development of the GSM/UMTS standards. However, other nations and companies do play an active role in the LTE project; the goal of LTE was to increase the capacity and speed of wireless data networks using new DSP techniques and modulations that were developed around the turn of the millennium. A further goal was the redesign and simplification of the network architecture to an IP-based system with reduced transfer latency compared to the 3G architecture; the LTE wireless interface is incompatible with 2G and 3G networks, so that it must be operated on a separate radio spectrum. LTE was first proposed in 2004 by Japan's NTT Docomo, with studies on the standard commenced in 2005.
In May 2007, the LTE/SAE Trial Initiative alliance was founded as a global collaboration between vendors and operators with the goal of verifying and promoting the new standard in order to ensure the global introduction of the technology as as possible. The LTE standard was finalized in December 2008, the first publicly available LTE service was launched by TeliaSonera in Oslo and Stockholm on December 14, 2009, as a data connection with a USB modem; the LTE services were launched by major North American carriers as well, with the Samsung SCH-r900 being the world's first LTE Mobile phone starting on September 21, 2010, Samsung Galaxy Indulge being the world's first LTE smartphone starting on February 10, 2011, both offered by MetroPCS, the HTC ThunderBolt offered by Verizon starting on March 17 being the second LTE smartphone to be sold commercially. In Canada, Rogers Wireless was the first to launch LTE network on July 7, 2011, offering the Sierra Wireless AirCard 313U USB mobile broadband modem, known as the "LTE Rocket stick" followed by mobile devices from both HTC and Samsung.
CDMA operators planned to upgrade to rival standards called UMB and WiMAX, but major CDMA operators have announced instead they intend to migrate to LTE. The next version of LTE is LTE Advanced, standardized in March 2011. Services are expected to commence in 2013. Additional evolution known as LTE Advanced Pro have been approved in year 2015; the LTE specification provides downlink peak rates of 300 Mbit/s, uplink peak rates of 75 Mbit/s and QoS provisions permitting a transfer latency of less than 5 ms in the radio access network. LTE supports multi-cast and broadcast streams. LTE supports scalable carrier bandwidths, from 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz and supports both frequency division duplexing and time-division duplexing. The IP-based network architecture, called the Evolved Packet Core designed to replace the GPRS Core Network, supports seamless handovers for both voice and data to cell towers with older network technology such as GSM, UMTS and CDMA2000; the simpler architecture results in lower operating costs.
In 2004, NTT Docomo of Japan proposes LTE as the international standard. In September 2006, Siemens Networks showed in collaboration with Nomor Research the first live emulation of an LTE network to the media and investors; as live applications two users streaming an HDTV video in the downlink and playing an interactive game in the uplink have been demonstrated. In February 2007, Ericsson demonstrated for the first time in the world LTE with bit rates up to 144 Mbit/s In September 2007, NTT Docomo demonstrated LTE data rates of 200 Mbit/s with power level below 100 mW during the test. In November 2007, Infineon presented the world’s first RF transceiver named SMARTi LTE supporting LTE functionality in a single-chip RF silicon processed in CMOS In early 2008, LTE test equipment began shipping from several vendors and, at the Mobile World Congress 2008 in Barcelona, Ericsson demonstrated the world’s first end-to-end mobile call enabled by LTE on a small handheld device. M
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between the Balkans, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Western Asia. It is supplied by a number of major rivers, such as the Danube, Southern Bug, Dniester and the Rioni. Many countries drain into the Black Sea, including Austria, Belarus and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Ukraine; the Black Sea has an area of 436,400 km2, a maximum depth of 2,212 m, a volume of 547,000 km3. It is constrained by the Pontic Mountains to the south, Caucasus Mountains to the east, Crimean Mountains to the north, Strandzha to the southwest, Dobrogea Plateau to the northwest, features a wide shelf to the northwest; the longest east–west extent is about 1,175 km. Important cities along the coast include Batumi, Constanța, Istanbul, Novorossiysk, Ordu, Rize, Sevastopol, Sukhumi, Varna and Zonguldak; the Black Sea has a positive water balance. There is a two-way hydrological exchange: the more saline and therefore denser, but warmer, Mediterranean water flows into the Black Sea under its less saline outflow.
This creates a significant anoxic layer well below the surface waters. The Black Sea drains into the Mediterranean Sea, via the Aegean Sea and various straits, is navigable to the Atlantic Ocean; the Bosphorus Strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, the Strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean Sea region of the Mediterranean. These waters separate the Caucasus and Western Asia; the Black Sea is connected, to the North, to the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch. The water level has varied significantly. Due to these variations in the water level in the basin, the surrounding shelf and associated aprons have sometimes been land. At certain critical water levels it is possible for connections with surrounding water bodies to become established, it is through the most active of these connective routes, the Turkish Straits, that the Black Sea joins the world ocean. When this hydrological link is not present, the Black Sea is an endorheic basin, operating independently of the global ocean system, like the Caspian Sea for example.
The Black Sea water level is high. The Turkish Straits connect the Black Sea with the Aegean Sea, comprise the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Black Sea as follows: On the Southwest. The Northeastern limit of the Sea of Marmara. In the Kertch Strait. A line joining Cape Takil and Cape Panaghia. Current names of the sea are equivalents of the English name "Black Sea", including these given in the countries bordering the sea: Abkhazian: Амшын Еиқәа, IPA: Adyghe: Хы шӏуцӏэ, IPA: Bulgarian: Черно море, IPA: Crimean Tatar: Къара денъиз, Qara deñiz IPA: Georgian: შავი ზღვა, translit.: shavi zghva, IPA: Laz and Mingrelian: უჩა ზუღა, IPA:, or ზუღა, IPA:, "Sea" Romanian: Marea Neagră, pronounced Russian: Чёрное мо́рe, IPA: Turkish: Karadeniz, IPA: Ukrainian: Чорне море, IPA: Such names have not yet been shown conclusively to predate the 13th century, but there are indications that they may be older. In Greece, the historical name "Euxine Sea", which holds a different meaning, is still used: Greek: Éfxeinos Póntos.
The principal Greek name "Póntos Áxeinos" is accepted to be a rendering of Iranian word *axšaina-, compare Avestan axšaēna-, Old Persian axšaina-, Middle Persian axšēn/xašēn, New Persian xašīn, as well as Ossetic œxsīn. The ancient Greeks, most those living to the north of the Black Sea, subsequently adopted the name and altered it to á-xenos. Thereafter, Greek tradition refers to the Black Sea as the "Inhospitable Sea", Πόντος Ἄξεινος Póntos Áxeinos, first attested in Pindar; the name was considered to be "ominous" and was changed into the euphemistic name "Hospitable sea", Εὔξεινος Πόντος Eúxeinos Póntos, for the first time attested in Pindar. This became the used designation for the sea in Greek. In contexts related to mythology, the older form Póntos Áxeinos remained favored, it has been erroneously suggested that the name was derived from the color of the water, or was at least related to climatic conditions. Black or dark in this context, referred to a system in which colors represent the cardinal points of the known world.
Black or dark represented the north. The symbolism based on cardinal points was used in multiple occasions and is therefore attested. For example, the "Red Sea", a body of water reported since the time of Herodotus in fact designated the Indian Ocean, together with bodies of water now known as the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. According to the same explanation and reasoning, it is therefore considered to be impossible
LTE Advanced is a mobile communication standard and a major enhancement of the Long Term Evolution standard. It was formally submitted as a candidate 4G to ITU-T in late 2009 as meeting the requirements of the IMT-Advanced standard, was standardized by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project in March 2011 as 3GPP Release 10; the LTE format was first proposed by NTT DoCoMo of Japan and has been adopted as the international standard. LTE standardization has matured to a state where changes in the specification are limited to corrections and bug fixes; the first commercial services were launched in Sweden and Norway in December 2009 followed by the United States and Japan in 2010. More LTE networks were deployed globally during 2010 as a natural evolution of several 2G and 3G systems, including Global system for mobile communications and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System in the 3GPP family as well as CDMA2000 in the 3GPP2 family; the work by 3GPP to define a 4G candidate radio interface technology started in Release 9 with the study phase for LTE-Advanced.
Being described as a 3.9G, the first release of LTE did not meet the requirements for 4G such as peak data rates up to 1 Gb/s. The ITU has invited the submission of candidate Radio Interface Technologies following their requirements in a circular letter, 3GPP Technical Report 36.913, "Requirements for Further Advancements for E-UTRA." These are based on ITU's requirements for 4G and on operators’ own requirements for advanced LTE. Major technical considerations include the following: Continual improvement to the LTE radio technology and architecture Scenarios and performance requirements for working with legacy radio technologies Backward compatibility of LTE-Advanced with LTE. An LTE terminal should be able to work in an LTE-Advanced vice versa. Any exceptions will be considered by 3GPP. Consideration of recent World Radiocommunication Conference decisions regarding frequency bands to ensure that LTE-Advanced accommodates the geographically available spectrum for channels above 20 MHz. Specifications must recognize those parts of the world in which wideband channels are not available.
Likewise,'WiMAX 2', 802.16m, has been approved by ITU as the IMT Advanced family. WiMAX 2 is designed to be backward compatible with WiMAX 1 devices. Most vendors now support conversion of'pre-4G', pre-advanced versions and some support software upgrades of base station equipment from 3G; the mobile communication industry and standards organizations have therefore started work on 4G access technologies, such as LTE Advanced. At a workshop in April 2008 in China, 3GPP agreed the plans for work on Long Term Evolution. A first set of specifications were approved in June 2008. Besides the peak data rate 1 Gb/s as defined by the ITU-R, it targets faster switching between power states and improved performance at the cell edge. Detailed proposals are being studied within the working groups. Three technologies from the LTE-Advanced tool-kit – carrier aggregation, 4x4 MIMO and 256QAM modulation in the downlink – if used together and with sufficient aggregated bandwidth, can deliver maximum peak downlink speeds approaching, or exceeding, 1 Gbps.
Such networks are described as ‘Gigabit LTE networks’ mirroring a term, used in the fixed broadband industry. The target of 3GPP LTE Advanced is to surpass the ITU requirements. LTE Advanced should be compatible with first release LTE equipment, should share frequency bands with first release LTE. In the feasibility study for LTE Advanced, 3GPP determined that LTE Advanced would meet the ITU-R requirements for 4G; the results of the study are published in 3GPP Technical Report 36.912. One of the important LTE Advanced benefits is the ability to take advantage of advanced topology networks; the next significant performance leap in wireless networks will come from making the most of topology, brings the network closer to the user by adding many of these low power nodes — LTE Advanced further improves the capacity and coverage, ensures user fairness. LTE Advanced introduces multicarrier to be able to use ultra wide bandwidth, up to 100 MHz of spectrum supporting high data rates. In the research phase many proposals have been studied as candidates for LTE Advanced technologies.
The proposals could be categorized into: Support for relay node base stations Coordinated multipoint transmission and reception UE Dual TX antenna solutions for SU-MIMO and diversity MIMO referred to as 2x2 MIMO Scalable system bandwidth exceeding 20 MHz, up to 100 MHz Carrier aggregation of contiguous and non-contiguous spectrum allocations Local area optimization of air interface Nomadic / Local Area network and mobility solutions Flexible spectrum usage Cognitive radio Automatic and autonomous network configuration and operation Support of autonomous network and device test, measurement tied to network management and optimization Enhanced precoding and forward error correction Interference management and suppression Asymmetric bandwidth assignment for FDD Hybrid OFDMA and SC-FDMA in uplink UL/DL inter eNB coordinated MIMO SONs, Self Organizing Networks methodologiesWithin the range of system development, LTE-Advanced and WiMAX 2 can use up to 8x8 MIMO and 128-QAM in downlink direction.
Example performance: 100 MHz aggregated bandwidth, LTE-Advanced provides 3.3 Gbit peak download rates per sector of the base station under ideal conditions. Advanced network architectures combined with distributed and collaborative smart ante
Commonwealth of Independent States
The Commonwealth of Independent States is a regional intergovernmental organization of 10 post-Soviet republics in Eurasia formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. It has an area of 20,368,759 km² and has an estimated population of 239,796,010; the CIS encourages cooperation in economical and military affairs and has certain powers to coordinate trade, finance and security. It has promoted cooperation on cross-border crime prevention; the CIS has its origins in the Soviet Union, which replaced the old Russian Empire in 1917 when it was established by the 1922 Treaty and Declaration of the Creation of the USSR by the Russian SFSR, Byelorussian SSR and Ukrainian SSR. When the USSR began to fall in 1991, the founding republics signed the Belavezha Accords on 8 December 1991, declaring the Soviet Union would cease to exist and proclaimed the CIS in its place. A few days the Alma-Ata Protocol was signed, which declared that Soviet Union was dissolved and that the Russian Federation was to be its successor state.
The Baltic states, which regard their membership in the Soviet Union as an illegal occupation, chose not to participate. Georgia withdrew its membership in 2008. Ukraine, which participated as an associate member, ended its participation in CIS statutory bodies on 19 May 2018. Eight of the nine CIS member states participate in the CIS Free Trade Area. Three organizations are under the overview of the CIS, namely the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Eurasian Economic Union. While the first and the second are military and economic alliances, the third aims to reach a supranational union of Russia and Belarus with a common government, currency and so on. In March 1991, Mikhail Gorbachev, the president of the Soviet Union, proposed a federation by holding a referendum to preserve the Union as the Union of Sovereign States; the new treaty signing never happened as the Communist Party hardliners staged an attempted coup in August that year. Following the events of August's failed coup, the republics had declared their independence fearing another coup.
A week after the Ukrainian independence referendum was held, which kept the chances of the Soviet Union staying together low, the Commonwealth of Independent States was founded in its place on 8 December 1991 by the Byelorussian SSR, the Russian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, when the leaders of the three republics met at the Belovezhskaya Pushcha Natural Reserve, about 50 km north of Brest in Belarus, signed the "Agreement Establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States", known as the Creation Agreement. The CIS announced that the new organization would be open to all republics of the former Soviet Union, to other nations sharing the same goals; the CIS charter stated that all the members were sovereign and independent nations and thereby abolished the Soviet Union. On 21 December 1991, the leaders of eight additional former Soviet Republics signed the Alma-Ata Protocol which can either be interpreted as expanding the CIS to these states or the proper foundation or refoundation date of the CIS, thus bringing the number of participating countries to 11.
Georgia joined two years in December 1993. At this point, 12 of the 15 former Soviet Republics participated in the CIS; the three Baltic states did not, reflecting their governments' and people's view that the post-1940 Soviet occupation of their territory was illegitimate. The CIS and Soviet Union legally co-existed with each other until 26 December 1991, when Soviet President Gorbachev stepped down dissolving the Soviet Union; this was followed by Ivan Korotchenya becoming Executive Secretary of the CIS on the same day. After the end of the dissolution process of the Soviet Union and the Central Asian republics were weakened economically and faced declines in GDP. Post-Soviet states underwent economic privatisation; the process of Eurasian integration began after the break-up of the Soviet Union to salvage economic ties with Post-Soviet republics. On 22 January 1993, the Charter of the CIS were signed, setting up the different institutions of the CIS, their functions, the rules and statutes of the CIS.
The Charter defined that all countries having ratified the Agreement on the Establishment of the CIS and its relevant Protocol would be considered to be founding states of the CIS, as well as that only countries ratifying the Charter would be considered to be member states of the CIS. Other states can participate as associate members or observers, if accepted as such by a decision of the Council of Heads of State to the CIS. All the founding states, apart from Ukraine and Turkmenistan, ratified the Charter of the CIS and became member states of it. Ukraine and Turkmenistan kept participating in the CIS, without being member states of it. Ukraine became an associate member of the CIS Economic Union in April 1994, Turkmenistan became an associate member of the CIS in August 2005. Georgia left the CIS altogether in 2009 and Ukraine stopped participating in 2018. During a speech at Moscow State University in 1994, the President of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, suggested the idea of creating a "common defense" space within the CIS Nazarbayev idea was seen as a way to bolster trade, boost investments in the region, serve as a counterweight to t
Media of Armenia
The media of Armenia refers to mass media outlets based in the Republic of Armenia. Television and newspapers are all operated by both state-owned and for-profit corporations which depend on advertising and other sales-related revenues; as of 2018, there were few indicators of a independent media. The Constitution of Armenia guarantees freedom of speech, yet media freedom remains restricted, among threats of violence, strong political inferences, expensive defamation lawsuits. Armenia ranks 78th in the 2015 Press Freedom Index report compiled by Reporters Without Borders, between Lesotho and Sierra Leone. Article 27 of the Constitution of Armenia guarantees freedom of freedom of the press; the Constitution guarantees the "Freedom of mass media and other means of mass information shall be guaranteed" and that "The state shall guarantee the existence and activities of an independent and public radio and television service. Article 47 of the Constitution of Armenia prohibits incitement to national and religious hatred, propaganda of violence.
The Constitution establishes the right to seek, receive and disseminate information and provide foreigners with the same rights to information as citizens. Yet, law is most unevenly applied or disapplicated. Criminal liability for defamation was eliminated in 2010, but the civil code established high monetary penalties, up to 2,000 times the minimum salary. A draft amendment that would make online media liable for defamatory comments was put forward in 2014. Specialised media laws include the Telecommunication Law and the Law on Television and Radio Broadcasting; the latter guarantees right to freedom of selection and broadcast of TV and radio programme and forbids censorship. It establishes the Public TV and Radio Company as a state enterprise with special status; the same law establishes the National Commission of Television and Radio as an independent agency for the regulation of licensing and monitoring of private TV and radio companies. The 2010 new Law on Television and Radio was negatively assessed by the OSCE RFoM, as failing to promote media pluralism in the digital age, despite amendments.
The shortcomings include "a limit to the number of broadcast channels. Yet, its implementation has stalled. 2014 amendments aimed at to no avail yet. While courts have been responsive, government departments have declined access requests, many Soviet-era files remain classified. Other relevant laws for the media sector include the Law on Advertising and the Law on Freedom of Information; the latter established the right to access public information and detailed the lawful limitations to such right. Broadcast media require licenses from the National Commission on Television and Radio, composed of 8 members for a 6-years mandate; the licensing systems hinders media diversity. Print and online media are exempt from licenses. There is no law protecting their sources in Armenia. In June 2014, a Yerevan court ruled against Hraparak and iLur.am, in favour of Armenia's Special Investigation Service, establishing that publishing information on ongoing investigation without prior authorization is a criminal offense.
The ruling was criticised. There is no specific Press Council in Armenia. Journalists and media outlets can be prosecuted in court, have one month to explain errors and convince the court of its innocence. TV is the main medium in Armenia, most of its channels are controlled or friendly with the government, as broadcast media require a license; the print sector is small and in decline. Russian-language media are available. Ownership of the media is opaque. Public media outlets receive preferential treatment from the authorities, while private media are not financially sustainable and rely on their owners and sponsors, hindering editorial independence. Armenpress is the only one state-owned news agency. There are seven private agencies: Noyan Tapan, Arka, PanArmenian, News-Armenia and Photolur. In 2009, Armenia registered 328 magazines. All main press publications are politically affiliated, with negative consequences on editorial independence. Daily circulation numbers are low, ranging between 1,500 and 3,000.
In the country's media landscape, the most popular daily newspapers include: the leading liberal newspaper Aravot, Haykakan zhamanak, Hayastani Hanrapetutyun - the official gazette of the government, published since 1990 - and Azg. Periodicals published in Russian are very popular in Armenia and include: the newspaper Golos Armenii, the weekly Novoe vremya and Respublika Armenia. Other noteworthy publications are the daily Jamanak, published in Istanbul and Chorrord ishghanutyu
Georgia is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, to the southeast by Azerbaijan; the capital and largest city is Tbilisi. Georgia covers a territory of 69,700 square kilometres, its 2017 population is about 3.718 million. Georgia is a unitary semi-presidential republic, with the government elected through a representative democracy. During the classical era, several independent kingdoms became established in what is now Georgia, such as Colchis and Iberia; the Georgians adopted Christianity in the early 4th century. The common belief had an enormous importance for spiritual and political unification of early Georgian states. A unified Kingdom of Georgia reached its Golden Age during the reign of King David IV and Queen Tamar in the 12th and early 13th centuries. Thereafter, the kingdom declined and disintegrated under hegemony of various regional powers, including the Mongols, the Ottoman Empire, successive dynasties of Iran.
In the late 18th century, the eastern Georgian Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti forged an alliance with the Russian Empire, which directly annexed the kingdom in 1801 and conquered the western Kingdom of Imereti in 1810. Russian rule over Georgia was acknowledged in various peace treaties with Iran and the Ottomans and the remaining Georgian territories were absorbed by the Russian Empire in a piecemeal fashion in the course of the 19th century. During the Civil War following the Russian Revolution in 1917, Georgia became part of the Transcaucasian Federation and emerged as an independent republic before the Red Army invasion in 1921 which established a government of workers' and peasants' soviets. Soviet Georgia would be incorporated into a new Transcaucasian Federation which in 1922 would be a founding republic of the Soviet Union. In 1936, the Transcaucasian Federation was dissolved and Georgia emerged as a Union Republic. During the Great Patriotic War 700,000 Georgians fought in the Red Army against the German invaders.
After Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, a native Georgian, died in 1953, a wave of protest spread against Nikita Khrushchev and his de-Stalinization reforms, leading to the death of nearly one hundred students in 1956. From that time on, Georgia would become marred with blatant corruption and increased alienation of the government from the people. By the 1980s, Georgians were ready to abandon the existing system altogether. A pro-independence movement led to the secession from the Soviet Union in April 1991. For most of the following decade, post-Soviet Georgia suffered from civil conflicts, secessionist wars in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, economic crisis. Following the bloodless Rose Revolution in 2003, Georgia pursued a pro-Western foreign policy; this strengthened state institutions. The country's Western orientation soon led to the worsening of relations with Russia, culminating in the brief Russo-Georgian War in August 2008 and Georgia's current territorial dispute with Russia. Georgia is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development.
It contains two de facto independent regions and South Ossetia, which gained limited international recognition after the 2008 Russo-Georgian War. Georgia and most of the world's countries consider the regions to be Georgian territory under Russian occupation. "Georgia" stems from the Persian designation of the Georgians – gurğān, in the 11th and 12th centuries adapted via Syriac gurz-ān/gurz-iyān and Arabic ĵurĵan/ĵurzan. Lore-based theories were given by the traveller Jacques de Vitry, who explained the name's origin by the popularity of St. George amongst Georgians, while traveller Jean Chardin thought that "Georgia" came from Greek γεωργός; as Prof. Alexander Mikaberidze adds, these century-old explanations for the word Georgia/Georgians are rejected by the scholarly community, who point to the Persian word gurğ/gurğān as the root of the word. Starting with the Persian word gurğ/gurğān, the word was adopted in numerous other languages, including Slavic and West European languages; this term itself might have been established through the ancient Iranian appellation of the near-Caspian region, referred to as Gorgan.
The native name is Sakartvelo, derived from the core central Georgian region of Kartli, recorded from the 9th century, in extended usage referring to the entire medieval Kingdom of Georgia by the 13th century. The self-designation used by ethnic Georgians is Kartvelebi; the medieval Georgian Chronicles present an eponymous ancestor of the Kartvelians, Kartlos, a great-grandson of Japheth. However, scholars agree that the word is derived from the Karts, the latter being one of the proto-Georgian tribes that emerged as a dominant group in ancient times; the name Sakartvelo consists of two parts. Its root, kartvel-i, specifies an inhabitant of the core central-eastern Georgian region of Kartli, or Iberia as it is known in sources of the Eastern Roman Empire. Ancient Greeks and Romans referred to early western Georgians as Colchians and eastern Georgians as Iberians; the Georgian circumfix sa-X-o is a standard geographic construction designating "the area where X dwell", where X is an ethnonym. To
The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System is a third generation mobile cellular system for networks based on the GSM standard. Developed and maintained by the 3GPP, UMTS is a component of the International Telecommunications Union IMT-2000 standard set and compares with the CDMA2000 standard set for networks based on the competing cdmaOne technology. UMTS uses wideband code division multiple access radio access technology to offer greater spectral efficiency and bandwidth to mobile network operators. UMTS specifies a complete network system, which includes the radio access network, the core network and the authentication of users via SIM cards; the technology described in UMTS is sometimes referred to as Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access or 3GSM. Unlike EDGE and CDMA2000, UMTS requires new base stations and new frequency allocations. UMTS supports maximum theoretical data transfer rates of 42 Mbit/s when Evolved HSPA is implemented in the network. Users in deployed networks can expect a transfer rate of up to 384 kbit/s for Release'99 handsets, 7.2 Mbit/s for High-Speed Downlink Packet Access handsets in the downlink connection.
These speeds are faster than the 9.6 kbit/s of a single GSM error-corrected circuit switched data channel, multiple 9.6 kbit/s channels in High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data and 14.4 kbit/s for CDMAOne channels. Since 2006, UMTS networks in many countries have been or are in the process of being upgraded with High-Speed Downlink Packet Access, sometimes known as 3.5G. HSDPA enables downlink transfer speeds of up to 21 Mbit/s. Work is progressing on improving the uplink transfer speed with the High-Speed Uplink Packet Access. Longer term, the 3GPP Long Term Evolution project plans to move UMTS to 4G speeds of 100 Mbit/s down and 50 Mbit/s up, using a next generation air interface technology based upon orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing; the first national consumer UMTS networks launched in 2002 with a heavy emphasis on telco-provided mobile applications such as mobile TV and video calling. The high data speeds of UMTS are now most utilised for Internet access: experience in Japan and elsewhere has shown that user demand for video calls is not high, telco-provided audio/video content has declined in popularity in favour of high-speed access to the World Wide Web—either directly on a handset or connected to a computer via Wi-Fi, Bluetooth or USB.
UMTS combines three different terrestrial air interfaces, GSM's Mobile Application Part core, the GSM family of speech codecs. The air interfaces are called UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access. All air interface options are part of ITU's IMT-2000. In the most popular variant for cellular mobile telephones, W-CDMA is used, it is called "Uu interface", as it links User Equipment to the UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network Please note that the terms W-CDMA, TD-CDMA and TD-SCDMA are misleading. While they suggest covering just a channel access method, they are the common names for the whole air interface standards. W-CDMA or WCDMA, along with UMTS-FDD, UTRA-FDD, or IMT-2000 CDMA Direct Spread is an air interface standard found in 3G mobile telecommunications networks, it supports conventional cellular voice, text and MMS services, but can carry data at high speeds, allowing mobile operators to deliver higher bandwidth applications including streaming and broadband Internet access. W-CDMA uses the DS-CDMA channel access method with a pair of 5 MHz wide channels.
In contrast, the competing CDMA2000 system uses one or more available 1.25 MHz channels for each direction of communication. W-CDMA systems are criticized for their large spectrum usage, which delayed deployment in countries that acted slowly in allocating new frequencies for 3G services; the specific frequency bands defined by the UMTS standard are 1885–2025 MHz for the mobile-to-base and 2110–2200 MHz for the base-to-mobile. In the US, 1710–1755 MHz and 2110–2155 MHz are used instead, as the 1900 MHz band was used. While UMTS2100 is the most deployed UMTS band, some countries' UMTS operators use the 850 MHz and/or 1900 MHz bands, notably in the US by AT&T Mobility, New Zealand by Telecom New Zealand on the XT Mobile Network and in Australia by Telstra on the Next G network; some carriers such as T-Mobile use band numbers to identify the UMTS frequencies. For example, Band I, Band IV, Band V. UMTS-FDD is an acronym for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System - frequency-division duplexing and a 3GPP standardized version of UMTS networks that makes use of frequency-division duplexing for duplexing over an UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access air interface.
W-CDMA is the basis of Japan's NTT DoCoMo's FOMA service and the most-commonly used member of the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System family and sometimes used as a synonym for UMTS. It uses the DS-CDMA channel access method and the FDD duplexing method to achieve higher speeds and support more users compared to most used time division multiple access and time division duplex schemes. While not an evolutionary upgrade on the airside, it uses the same core network as the 2G GSM networks deployed worldwide, allowing dual mode mobile operation al