Economy of Aruba
The economy of Aruba is an open system, with tourism providing the largest percentage of the country's income. Because of tourism's rapid growth in the last 80 years, related industries like construction have flourished. Other primary industries include oil storage, as well as offshore banking. Although the island's poor soil and low rainfall limit its agricultural prospects, aloe cultivation and fishing contribute to Aruba's economy. In addition, the country exports art and collectibles, electrical equipment, transport equipment. Aruba's small labor force and low unemployment rate have led to a large number of unfilled job vacancies, despite sharp rises in wage rates in recent years. With such a large part of its economy dependent on tourism, the Aruban government is striving to increase business in other sectors to protect against possible industry slumps, their current focus is on expanding technology and communications. Unlike many Caribbean islands, a plantation economy never developed on Aruba due to its arid climate.
Early Spanish explorers considered the island of little value because the poor soil made growing crops difficult and because their attempts to find gold turned up empty-handed. However, long after the Dutch obtained control of Aruba, they found the gold the Spanish had been seeking. With the discovery of gold on Aruba in 1800, mining became the island's foremost industry. Aruba's economy boomed. However, by 1916 the gold supply had been tapped out, making it impossible for companies to turn a profit; as the gold mining industry waned, so did the economy. First planted on Aruba in 1850, aloes throve in its desert conditions. With a healthy demand for aloe products, it became an important part of Aruba's economy. In fact, for many years, the country was aloe's top exporter, but over the years, many aloe fields were replaced by buildings, diminishing its production and exports declined. The oldest company on the island, Aruba Aloe, has instituted changes in the hopes of becoming Aruba's leading product manufacturer.
It built a new, modern facility, an aloe museum, designed new packaging. Although most of their product line sells in the national market, a 2005 exporting deal with a U. S. company and sales through their website have increased their international market. Despite setbacks caused by the troubled gold and aloe industries, Aruba's economy didn't suffer long; because of its location near Venezuela, the island became an attractive spot for oil refineries. The Lago Oil and Transport Company, owned by Standard Oil of New Jersey, opened in 1929 near the transshipping port of San Nicolaas. Following in their footsteps, the Eagle Oil Refinery opened soon after. Over the next few decades, the oil industry took over as Aruba's primary economic force. With the United States entry into World War II in 1942 the demand for Aviation gasoline further increased and considerable expansion was done at the Lago Refinery soon after the United States entered the war. With this expansion, Lago became one of the largest refineries in the world, only bested by Royal Dutch Shell Isla refinery on Curaçao, a major producer of petroleum products for the Allied war efforts.
The importance of the Lago refinery was well known to the German High Command and on February 16, 1942 the Lago refinery was attacked by the German submarine U-156. Due to mistakes by the German deck gunner the refinery was not damaged but three of the Lago tankers were torpedoed in San Nicolaas harbour; the Eagle Oil Refinery was dismantled in the late 1950s. But the Lago refinery kept going until 1985, when Exxon closed it. In 1991, the Coastal Corporation bought it, scaled down operations, reopened it. Coastal sold the refinery to Valero Energy Corporation in 2004, its reopening didn't raise Aruba's oil industry to its previous heights although it did revive that sector and continued to be a key contributor to the country's economy until 2009 when it was closed. In December 2010, Valero Energy announced plans to reopen the refinery. In 1947, Aruba's government founded a tourist board to explore the possibility of developing a tourism industry. Several years cruise ships began to dock in Oranjestad, Aruba's capital city.
The island's first luxury hotel was built in 1959. Over the years, tourism helped create a prosperous economy; as the oil industry waned, tourism increased in importance. The government offered fiscal incentives to spur growth of hotels and other tourist-oriented businesses, their efforts resulted in a rapid rise in tourism. When a surplus of these jobs couldn't be filled, they placed a one-year moratorium on new hotel construction and new tourist corporations. Following the September 11 attacks, tourism temporarily declined because of grounded flights and travel fears. Aruba stepped up its visible security force in tourist areas to heighten safety and reassure visitors. After a short time, tourism rebounded strongly. Another potential threat to the industry occurred in 2005, when the May 30 disappearance of vacationing Alabama teen Natalee Holloway made international news. Claiming that Aruban authorities weren't taking the case enough, her mother and the Governor of Alabama called for a nationwide boycott of Aruba.
However, the U. S. federal government didn't back the proposed boycott. Aruba's reputation as one of the safest islands in the Caribbean may have helped it overcome any negative stigma caused by the case; the amount of tourism in June, 2005 rose by 9% from the previous year. Aruba.com - Official Government Website CIA World Factbook - Aruba
Monarchy of the Netherlands
The monarchy of the Netherlands is constitutional and, as such, the role and position of the monarch are defined and limited by the Constitution of the Netherlands. A large portion of the Dutch Constitution is devoted to the monarch; the Kingdom of the Netherlands has been an independent monarchy since 16 March 1815, but its one-time sovereign provinces have intermittently been "governed" by members of the House of Orange-Nassau and the House of Nassau from 1559 to 1747, since Philip II of Spain appointed William of Orange as stadtholder. William became the leader of the independent Dutch Republic; as stadtholder, he was followed by several of his descendants. In 1747, the function of stadtholder became a hereditary position in all Provinces of the thus "crowned" Dutch Republic; the last stadtholder was William V. His son became the first king as William I; the cycle of monarchs is described in the first section of Chapter 2 of the constitution, dedicated to the government of the Netherlands. The monarchy of the Netherlands passes by right of succession to the heirs of William I.
The heir is determined through two mechanisms: absolute cognatic primogeniture and proximity of blood. The Netherlands established absolute cognatic primogeniture instead of male preference primogeniture by law in 1983. Proximity of blood limits accession to the throne to a person, related to the current monarch within three degrees of kinship. For example, the grandchildren of Princess Margriet of the Netherlands, have no succession rights because their kinship with Beatrix when she was queen was of the fourth degree. Succession is limited to legitimate heirs, precluding a claim to the throne by children born out of wedlock. A special case arises if the king dies while his wife is pregnant: the unborn child is considered the heir at that point, unless stillborn — the child is considered never to have existed. So, if the old king dies while his wife is pregnant with their first child, the unborn child is considered born and becomes the new king or queen. If the pregnancy ends in stillbirth, his or her reign is expunged.
If the monarch is a minor, a regent serves until the monarch comes of age. The regent is customarily the surviving parent of the monarch but the constitution stipulates that custody and parental authority of the minor monarch will be determined by law. There are a number of special cases within the constitution. First, if there is no heir when the monarch dies the States-General may appoint a successor upon the suggestion of the government; this suggestion may be made before the death of the reigning monarch by the monarch himself. Second, some people are excluded from the line of succession, they are: Any heir who marries without the permission of the States-General loses the right of succession. A person, or has become undesirable or unfit as monarch can be removed from the line of succession by an act of the States-General, upon suggestion of the reigning monarch; this clause has never been executed and is considered an "emergency exit". An example would be an heir apparent who suffers a serious accident.
As with most monarchies, the Netherlands cannot be without a monarch — the constitution of the Netherlands does not recognize a situation in which there is no monarch. This is because there must be a head of state in order for the government to function, i.e. there must be someone who carries out the tasks of the constitutional role of the King/Queen. For this reason the new monarch assumes the role the moment the previous monarch ceases to hold the throne; the only exception is if there is no heir at all, in which case the Council of State assumes the role of the monarch pending the appointment of a monarch or regent. The monarch is expected to execute their responsibilities for the good of the nation; the monarch must therefore swear to execute the office faithfully. The monarch must be sworn in as soon as possible after assuming the throne during a joint session of the States-General held in Amsterdam. Article 32 of the Dutch constitution describes a swearing-in in "the capital Amsterdam", which incidentally is the only phrase in the constitution that names Amsterdam as the capital of the Kingdom.
The ceremony is called the inauguration. The Dutch monarch is not crowned. Note that this ceremony does not equal accession to the throne as this would imply a vacancy of the throne between monarchs, not allowed; the monarch ascends after the previous monarch ceases to reign. The swearing-in only constitutes acceptance in public; the monarch's reign can end in two ways: Death Abdication. Both these events cause the regular mechanisms of succession to go into effect. While the constitution mentions neither possibility explicitly, it does describe what happens after the monarch dies or abdicates. Abdication is
Television, sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program, or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising and news. Television became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers. After World War II, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, television sets became commonplace in homes and institutions. During the 1950s, television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion. In the mid-1960s, color broadcasting was introduced in most other developed countries; the availability of multiple types of archival storage media such as Betamax, VHS tape, local disks, DVDs, flash drives, high-definition Blu-ray Discs, cloud digital video recorders has enabled viewers to watch pre-recorded material—such as movies—at home on their own time schedule.
For many reasons the convenience of remote retrieval, the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the cloud. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions increased in popularity. Another development was the move from standard-definition television to high-definition television, which provides a resolution, higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: 1080p, 720p. Since 2010, with the invention of smart television, Internet television has increased the availability of television programs and movies via the Internet through streaming video services such as Netflix, Amazon Video, iPlayer and Hulu. In 2013, 79 % of the world's households owned; the replacement of early bulky, high-voltage cathode ray tube screen displays with compact, energy-efficient, flat-panel alternative technologies such as LCDs, OLED displays, plasma displays was a hardware revolution that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel LEDs.
Major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. In the near future, LEDs are expected to be replaced by OLEDs. Major manufacturers have announced that they will produce smart TVs in the mid-2010s. Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s. Television signals were distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by coaxial cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and, since the 2000s via the Internet; until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010s. A standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is called a video monitor rather than a television.
The word television comes from Ancient Greek τῆλε, meaning'far', Latin visio, meaning'sight'. The first documented usage of the term dates back to 1900, when the Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi used it in a paper that he presented in French at the 1st International Congress of Electricity, which ran from 18 to 25 August 1900 during the International World Fair in Paris; the Anglicised version of the term is first attested in 1907, when it was still "...a theoretical system to transmit moving images over telegraph or telephone wires". It was "...formed in English or borrowed from French télévision." In the 19th century and early 20th century, other "...proposals for the name of a then-hypothetical technology for sending pictures over distance were telephote and televista." The abbreviation "TV" is from 1948. The use of the term to mean "a television set" dates from 1941; the use of the term to mean "television as a medium" dates from 1927. The slang term "telly" is more common in the UK; the slang term "the tube" or the "boob tube" derives from the bulky cathode ray tube used on most TVs until the advent of flat-screen TVs.
Another slang term for the TV is "idiot box". In the 1940s and throughout the 1950s, during the early rapid growth of television programming and television-set ownership in the United States, another slang term became used in that period and continues to be used today to distinguish productions created for broadcast on television from films developed for presentation in movie theaters; the "small screen", as both a compound adjective and noun, became specific references to television, while the "big screen" was used to identify productions made for theatrical release. Facsimile transmission systems for still photographs pioneered methods of mechanical scanning of images in the early 19th century. Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between 1843 and 1846. Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in 1851. Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium in 1873; as a 23-year-old German university student, Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow proposed and patented the Nipkow disk in 1884.
This was a spinning disk with a spiral pattern of holes in it, so each hole scanned a line of the image. Although he never built a working model
The Netherlands Antilles was a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The country consisted of several island territories located in the Caribbean Sea; the islands were informally known as the Dutch Antilles. The country came into being in 1954 as the autonomous successor of the Dutch colony of Curaçao and Dependencies, was dissolved in 2010; the former Dutch colony of Surinam, although it was close by on the continent of South America, did not become part of Netherlands Antilles but became a separate autonomous country in 1954. All the island territories that belonged to the Netherlands Antilles remain part of the kingdom today, although the legal status of each differs; as a group they are still called the Dutch Caribbean, regardless of their legal status. The islands of the Netherlands Antilles are all part of the Lesser Antilles island chain. Within this group, the country was spread over two smaller island groups: a northern group and a western group. No part of the country was in the southern Windward Islands.
This island sub-group was located to the east of Puerto Rico. There were three islands, collectively known as the "SSS islands": Sint Maarten Saba Sint Eustatius, they lie 800–900 kilometers north-east of the ABC Islands. This island sub-group was located in the southern Caribbean Sea off the north coast of Venezuela. There were three islands collectively known as the "ABC Islands": Aruba Bonaire including an islet called Klein Bonaire Curaçao, including an islet called Klein Curaçao The Netherlands Antilles have a tropical trade-wind climate, with hot weather all year round; the Leeward islands are subject to hurricanes in the summer months, while those islands located in the Leeward Antilles are warmer and drier. Spanish-sponsored explorers discovered both the leeward and windward island groups. However, the Spanish Crown only founded settlements in the Leeward Islands. In the 17th century the islands were conquered by the Dutch West India Company and colonized by Dutch settlers. From the last quarter of the 17th century, the group consisted of six Dutch islands: Curaçao, Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Sint Maarten.
In the past, the present-day British Virgin Islands, St. Croix and Tobago had been Dutch. During the American Revolution Sint Eustatius, along with Curaçao, was a major trade center in the Caribbean, with Sint Eustatius a major source of supplies for the Thirteen Colonies, it had been called "the Golden Rock" because of the number of wealthy merchants and volume of trade there. The British sacked the economy of the island never recovered. Unlike many other regions, few immigrants went to the Dutch islands, due to the weak economy. However, with the discovery of oil in Venezuela in the nineteenth century, British-Dutch Shell Oil Company established refineries in Curaçao, while the U. S. processed Venezuelan crude oil in Aruba. This resulted in booming economies on the two islands, which turned to bust in the 1980s when oil refineries were closed; the various islands were united as a single country — the Netherlands Antilles — in 1954, under the Dutch crown. The country was dissolved on 10 October 2010.
Curaçao and Sint Maarten became distinct constituent countries alongside Aruba which had become a distinct constituent country in 1986. From 1815 onwards Curaçao and Dependencies formed a colony of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Slavery was abolished in 1863, in 1865 a government regulation for Curaçao was enacted that allowed for some limited autonomy for the colony. Although this regulation was replaced by a constitution in 1936, the changes to the government structure remained superficial and Curaçao continued to be ruled as a colony; the island of Curaçao was hit hard by the abolition of slavery in 1863. Its prosperity was restored in the early 20th century with the construction of oil refineries to service the newly discovered Venezuelan oil fields. Colonial rule ended after the conclusion of the Second World War. Queen Wilhelmina had promised in a 1942 speech to offer autonomy to the overseas territories of the Netherlands. During the war, the British and American occupation of the islands—with the consent of the Dutch government—led to increasing demands for autonomy within the population as well.
In May 1948 a new constitution for the territory entered into force, allowing the largest amount of autonomy possible under the Dutch constitution of 1922. Among other things, universal suffrage was introduced; the territory was renamed "Netherlands Antilles". After the Dutch constitution was revised in 1948, a new interim Constitution of the Netherlands Antilles was enacted in February 1951. Shortly afterwards, on 3 March 1951, the Island Regulation of the Netherlands Antilles was issued by royal decree, giving wide autonomy to the various island territories in the Netherlands Antilles. A consolidated version of this regulation remained in force until the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles in 2010; the new constitution was only deemed an interim arrangement, as negotiations for a Charter for th
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, messages, writings and sounds or information of any nature by wire, optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology, it is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation. Such transmission paths are divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing. Since the Latin term communicatio is considered the social process of information exchange, the term telecommunications is used in its plural form because it involves many different technologies. Early means of communicating over a distance included visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, optical heliographs. Other examples of pre-modern long-distance communication included audio messages such as coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, loud whistles. 20th- and 21st-century technologies for long-distance communication involve electrical and electromagnetic technologies, such as telegraph and teleprinter, radio, microwave transmission, fiber optics, communications satellites.
A revolution in wireless communication began in the first decade of the 20th century with the pioneering developments in radio communications by Guglielmo Marconi, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909, other notable pioneering inventors and developers in the field of electrical and electronic telecommunications. These included Charles Wheatstone and Samuel Morse, Alexander Graham Bell, Edwin Armstrong and Lee de Forest, as well as Vladimir K. Zworykin, John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth; the word telecommunication is a compound of the Greek prefix tele, meaning distant, far off, or afar, the Latin communicare, meaning to share. Its modern use is adapted from the French, because its written use was recorded in 1904 by the French engineer and novelist Édouard Estaunié. Communication was first used as an English word in the late 14th century, it comes from Old French comunicacion, from Latin communicationem, noun of action from past participle stem of communicare "to share, divide out.
Homing pigeons have been used throughout history by different cultures. Pigeon post had Persian roots, was used by the Romans to aid their military. Frontinus said; the Greeks conveyed the names of the victors at the Olympic Games to various cities using homing pigeons. In the early 19th century, the Dutch government used the system in Sumatra, and in 1849, Paul Julius Reuter started a pigeon service to fly stock prices between Aachen and Brussels, a service that operated for a year until the gap in the telegraph link was closed. In the Middle Ages, chains of beacons were used on hilltops as a means of relaying a signal. Beacon chains suffered the drawback that they could only pass a single bit of information, so the meaning of the message such as "the enemy has been sighted" had to be agreed upon in advance. One notable instance of their use was during the Spanish Armada, when a beacon chain relayed a signal from Plymouth to London. In 1792, Claude Chappe, a French engineer, built the first fixed visual telegraphy system between Lille and Paris.
However semaphore suffered from the need for skilled operators and expensive towers at intervals of ten to thirty kilometres. As a result of competition from the electrical telegraph, the last commercial line was abandoned in 1880. On 25 July 1837 the first commercial electrical telegraph was demonstrated by English inventor Sir William Fothergill Cooke, English scientist Sir Charles Wheatstone. Both inventors viewed their device as "an improvement to the electromagnetic telegraph" not as a new device. Samuel Morse independently developed a version of the electrical telegraph that he unsuccessfully demonstrated on 2 September 1837, his code was an important advance over Wheatstone's signaling method. The first transatlantic telegraph cable was completed on 27 July 1866, allowing transatlantic telecommunication for the first time; the conventional telephone was invented independently by Alexander Bell and Elisha Gray in 1876. Antonio Meucci invented the first device that allowed the electrical transmission of voice over a line in 1849.
However Meucci's device was of little practical value because it relied upon the electrophonic effect and thus required users to place the receiver in their mouth to "hear" what was being said. The first commercial telephone services were set-up in 1878 and 1879 on both sides of the Atlantic in the cities of New Haven and London. Starting in 1894, Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi began developing a wireless communication using the newly discovered phenomenon of radio waves, showing by 1901 that they could be transmitted across the Atlantic Ocean; this was the start of wireless telegraphy by radio. Voice and music had little early success. World War I accelerated the development of radio for military communications. After the war, commercial radio AM broadcasting began in the 1920s and became an important mass medium for entertainment and news. World War II again accelerated development of radio for the wartime purposes of aircraft and land communication, radio navigation and radar. Development of stereo FM broadcasting of radio
Dutch Caribbean Coast Guard
The Dutch Caribbean Coast Guard is the coast guard of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the Dutch Caribbean. The unit is a joint effort between all constituent countries within the Kingdom. Prior to the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles, it was known as the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba Coast Guard and a division of the Royal Netherlands Navy. Detection and control: drugs, border control, customs control at sea and environmental surveillance and monitoring of safe shipping. Services: continuous occupation and Rescue Coordination Center, handling of maritime distress and safety radio communications and rescue and supporting maritime contingency. DCCG is a partnership between Aruba, Sint Maarten, Curaçao, the Netherlands; the staff of the Coast Guard is composed of all constituent countries. DCCG is a Kingdom organization directly under the State Council of Ministers of the Kingdom; the Commander of the Naval Forces of the Royal Netherlands Navy in the Caribbean is the commander of DCCG. Ministries from the four parts of the kingdom determine the policy of the Coast Guard.
To streamline policy formulation the Coast Guard's Commission has been formed. This committee consists of officials from different ministries; the Coast Guard Commission ensures budgets and annual reports. The judicial policy of the Coast Guard is determined by the three Ministers of Justice of the countries of the Kingdom. Controlling the Coast Guard executive in judicial matters is done through the Prosecutors-General of Aruba, Curacao, St Maarten, the Caribbean Netherlands; the Secretary of Defense is on behalf of the State Ministers in charge of managing and controlling DCCG. DCCG has three Coast Guard support centers: on Curaçao and Sint Maarten. From here, the Coast Guard patrol boats patrol in the waters around the islands; the flying units of the Coast Guard are stationed at Curaçao. The Coast Guard Center / RCC itself is located at the Parera naval base. DCCG has its own units and makes use of defense resources. DCCG has several private owned types of patrol boats and aircraft; the three Coast Guard cutters, the Jaguar, the Panther and Puma, are Damen Stan 4100 patrol vessels.
They are designed for service in the coastal waters of the Caribbean islands. The cutters are suitable for carrying out all coast guard tasks. With the onboard RHIB, boarding operations can be performed; the cutter is over 41 metres long, has a crew of eleven and a speed exceeding 26 knots. Each boat has radar, infrared cameras, night vision binoculars, an ION-scan, a fixed 12,7mm Machinegun and a rotatable water cannon. Furthermore, they are equipped with video equipment to collect evidence; the DCCG is planning on replacing the cutters by 2018. The inshore boats are deployed within a mile from the coast; the boats of the type RHIB Sea 700 are in service in the Coast Guard since September 13, 1997. They have a curb and therefore suitable for carrying out boarding operations on other boats without damaging them. In addition, the boats, with a speed above 40 knots, are quick and well able to chase suspicious boats and arrest suspects; the Coast Guard has six of these boats. The Coast Guard SuperRhibs.
These high-speed boats, capable of speeds in excess of 40 knots and maneuverable, are suitable for carrying out boarding operations. The crew of the SuperRHIB can be up to six people; the SuperRHIBs have a length of 12.2 metres, a width of 3.3 metres, a height of 3.3 metres and a weight of 6,000 pounds. Whereas the inshore boats operate close to shore, the SuperRHIBs operate at much wider and longer distance at sea; the inboard diesel engines and the longer form of the hull allow the SuperRHIB to deal with worse weather conditions while maintaining good sailing characteristics. DCCG employs two AgustaWestland AW139 helicopters for high speed chase, search and rescue operations; the AgustaWestland AW139 helicopters are stationed at Coast Guard Air Station Hato. Since the autumn of 2007, the DCCG has two Bombardier Dash 8 Maritime Patrol Aircraft; these planes are built to the specific needs of DCCG, based on the Coast Guard tasks such as Search And Rescue and environmental monitoring. These two Dash 8 aircraft equipped with modern means of day and at night to obtain optimal results in the performance of its duties.
These resources include specially designed for hatch'es dropping life rafts and drift / marker buoys, a high power searchlight in the nose of the aircraft with the aim to see and be seen in search situations, a communication and interlink software system. All these resources make it the ideal airplane is a coordinating role between various units and the RCC. Besides these functions, both Dash 8 can be deployed before and after hurricane passages to move people and resources to those areas that need help. For these missions the Dash 8 will be converted into transport aircraft configurations; the West Indies Guard Ship is a ship of the Royal Netherlands Navy that rotates about every six months. It is a frigate but it can be another naval vessel; this vessel carries a NHIndustries NH90 helicopter for search and rescue tasks and pursuit of suspect vessels. A special boarding team from the U. S. Coast Guard can be embarked on board the WIGS, authorized to carry out boardings beyond the territorial waters of the Dutch Caribbean islands.
This cooperation between Aruba, Curaçao, the Netherlands, Sint Maarten, the United States, other actors is forma
Geography of Aruba
Aruba is an island in the south of the Caribbean in the Caribbean Sea. It is westernmost island of the ABC Islands and of the Leeward Antilles, it is located at 12°30′N 69°58′W, 25 km north of the coast of Venezuela and 68 km northwest of Curaçao. The island has a coast line of 68.5 km. Mount Jamanota of 188 m is the highest point. Politically, Aruba is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Oranjestad is the largest settlement with a population of 32,748. Aruba's terrain is flat with a few hills. There are some little ways of no inland water. Aruba's best-known geographical feature is its white-sand beaches, which are the basis of an active tourism industry, the mainstay of the island's economy. Aruba is situated on the Caribbean Plate Caribbean Tectonic Plate. Aruba, as well as the rest of the ABC islands and Trinidad and Tobago, lies on the continental shelf of South America, is thus geologically considered to lie in South America; the core of the island is made up of Turonian submarine and subaerial basalts which were formed in the Caribbean large igneous province.
These basalts were intruded by a pluton shortly after their eruption. The shore areas are limestone that capped hills and ridges, with cliffs on the northern and northeastern coasts and coral reefs on the southern coast. Aruba's terrain is entirely flat,Rock formations characterize the interior of the island; the two most known rock formations are Ayo Rock Formations and Casibari, both are tourist attractions. Along the northern coast it is more hilly in the Arikok National Park; the highest elevation, so-called Mount Jamanota, is only 188 m above sea level and the Arikok itself is 186 m. The Hooiberg is 165 m. While the Hooiberg is not the highest point on the island, it does look so, because of the flat surroundings it lies in; the Hooiberg can be seen from nearly every point of the island and is so known it has its on place on the Coat of arms of Aruba. Aruba has three deepwater harbors located at Oranjestad, Aruba-Oranjestad and San Nicolaas; the southern coastal area is known for its white-sand beaches and the calm waters surrounding Aruba are clear, making it a popular tourist destination.
While its northern coast is rocky and formed by corral plateaus with many small sandy bay like openings called'Bocas', Papiamento for mouths. The sea is rough and dark blue compared with the southern coastal areas and swimming here is discouraged. Aruba’s hot semi-arid climate varies little seasonally, with an average annual temperature of 28.1 °C, varying from about 26.7 °C in January to 29.2 °C in September. The rainy season occurs between October and December, but exhibits high variability due to the powerful influence of the Southern Oscillation. During strong El Niño years like 1911/1912, 1930/1931, 1982/1983 and 1997/1998 annual rainfall can be as little as 150 millimetres or 6 inches, while in contrast, as much as 1,000 millimetres or 39 inches may fall during a strong La Niña year like 1933/1934, 1970/1971, 1988/1989, 1999/2000 or 2010/2011; the highest monthly totals during these La Niña events are between 400 millimetres. Most rain brought by the prevailing easterly winds of the region falls on the Windward Islands of the Lesser Antilles, leaving Aruba in a rain shadow.
Rainfall averages 472 mm or less annually, the island’s residents rely on one of the world’s largest desalination plants for most of their drinking water. The island is divided into eight regions: Noord/Tanki Leendert Oranjestad West Oranjestad Oost Paradera Santa Cruz Savaneta San Nicolas Noord San Nicolas Nicolas Zuid Wikimedia Atlas of Aruba "Map of Aruba". Map of Aruba Maps of Aruba