Submarine communications cable
A submarine communications cable is a cable laid on the sea bed between land-based stations to carry telecommunication signals across stretches of ocean and sea. The first submarine communications cables laid beginning in the 1850s carried telegraphy traffic, establishing the first instant telecommunications links between continents, such as the first transatlantic telegraph cable which became operational on 16 August 1858. Subsequent generations of cables carried telephone traffic data communications traffic. Modern cables use optical fiber technology to carry digital data, which includes telephone and private data traffic. Modern cables are about 1 inch in diameter and weigh around 2.5 tons per mile for the deep-sea sections which comprise the majority of the run, although larger and heavier cables are used for shallow-water sections near shore. Submarine cables first connected all the world's continents when Java was connected to Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia in 1871 in anticipation of the completion of the Australian Overland Telegraph Line in 1872 connecting to Adelaide, South Australia and thence to the rest of Australia.
After William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone had introduced their working telegraph in 1839, the idea of a submarine line across the Atlantic Ocean began to be thought of as a possible triumph of the future. Samuel Morse proclaimed his faith in it as early as 1840, in 1842, he submerged a wire, insulated with tarred hemp and India rubber, in the water of New York Harbor, telegraphed through it; the following autumn, Wheatstone performed a similar experiment in Swansea Bay. A good insulator to cover the wire and prevent the electric current from leaking into the water was necessary for the success of a long submarine line. India rubber had been tried by Moritz von Jacobi, the Prussian electrical engineer, as far back as the early 19th century. Another insulating gum which could be melted by heat and applied to wire made its appearance in 1842. Gutta-percha, the adhesive juice of the Palaquium gutta tree, was introduced to Europe by William Montgomerie, a Scottish surgeon in the service of the British East India Company.
Twenty years earlier, Montgomerie had seen whips made of gutta-percha in Singapore, he believed that it would be useful in the fabrication of surgical apparatus. Michael Faraday and Wheatstone soon discovered the merits of gutta-percha as an insulator, in 1845, the latter suggested that it should be employed to cover the wire, proposed to be laid from Dover to Calais, it was tried on a wire laid across the Rhine between Cologne. In 1849, C. V. Walker, electrician to the South Eastern Railway, submerged a two-mile wire coated with gutta-percha off the coast from Folkestone, tested successfully. Having earlier obtained a concession from the French government, in August 1850 John Watkins Brett's English Channel Submarine Telegraph Company laid the first line across the English Channel, using the converted tug Goliath, it was a copper wire coated with gutta-percha, without any other protection, was not successful. The experiment served to secure renewal of the concession, in September 1851, a protected core, or true, cable was laid by the reconstituted Submarine Telegraph Company from a government hulk, the Blazer, towed across the Channel.
In 1853 further successful cables were laid, linking Great Britain with Ireland and the Netherlands, crossing The Belts in Denmark. The British & Irish Magnetic Telegraph Company completed the first successful Irish link on May 23 between Portpatrick and Donaghadee using the collier William Hutt; the same ship was used for the link from Dover to Ostend in Belgium, by the Submarine Telegraph Company. Meanwhile, the Electric & International Telegraph Company completed two cables across the North Sea, from Orford Ness to Scheveningen, The Netherlands; these cables were laid by the Monarch, a paddle steamer which became the first vessel with permanent cable-laying equipment. In 1858 the steamship Elba was used to lay a telegraph cable from Jersey to Guernsey, on to Alderney and to Weymouth, the cable being completed in September of that year. Problems soon developed with eleven breaks occurring by 1860 due to storms and sand movements and wear on rocks. A report to the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1860 set out the problems to assist in future cable laying operations.
The first attempt at laying a transatlantic telegraph cable was promoted by Cyrus West Field, who persuaded British industrialists to fund and lay one in 1858. However, the technology of the day was not capable of supporting the project. Subsequent attempts in 1865 and 1866 with the world's largest steamship, the SS Great Eastern, used a more advanced technology and produced the first successful transatlantic cable. Great Eastern went on to lay the first cable reaching to India from Aden, Yemen, in 1870. From the 1850s until 1911, British submarine cable systems dominated the most important market, the North Atlantic Ocean; the British had demand side advantages. In terms of supply, Britain had entrepreneurs willing to put forth enormous amounts of capital necessary to build and maintain these cables. In terms of demand, Britain's vast colonial empire led to business for the cable companies from news agencies and shipping companies, the British government. Many of Britain's colonies had significant populations of European settlers, making news about them of interest to the general public in the home country.
British officials believed that depending on telegraph lines that passed through non-British territory posed a security
Women's rights in Bahrain
Women's rights have been a cornerstone of the political reforms initiated by King Hamad, with women gaining the right to vote and stand as candidates in national elections for the first time after the constitution was amended in 2002. The extension of equal political rights has been accompanied by a conscious drive to promote women to positions of authority within government; the move to give women the vote in 2002 was part of several wide-ranging political reforms that have seen the establishment of a democratically elected parliament and the release of political prisoners. Before 2002, women had no political rights and could neither vote in elections nor stand as candidates. There was, some ambivalence towards the extension of political rights from sections of Bahraini society, not least from women themselves, with 60% of Bahraini women in 2001 opposing extending the vote to women. Although many women stood as candidates in both municipal and parliamentary elections in 2002, none were elected to office.
There were no women candidates in the lists of Islamist parties such as Al Wefaq, Al-Menbar Islamic Society and Asalah. Following the poor performance of women candidates in the parliamentary elections, six women, including one Christian, were appointed to the upper chamber of parliament, the Shura Council. In 2004, Bahrain appointed its first female minister, Dr Nada Haffadh to the position of Health Minister, in 2005, Dr Fatima Albalooshi, the second woman minister was appointed to the cabinet. In 2005, Houda Ezra Nonoo, a Jewish activist, who since 2004 headed the Bahrain Human Rights Watch Society which has campaigned against the reintroduction of the death penalty in Bahrain, was appointed to the Shura Council. In April 2005, Shura member Alees Samaan became the first woman to chair a parliamentary session in the Arab world when she chaired the Shura Council; the head of the main women's organisation, the Supreme Council for Women, Ms Lulwa Al Awadhi, has been given the title of'honorary cabinet minister'.
In June 2006, Bahrain was elected head of the United Nations General Assembly, appointed Haya Rashid Al Khalifa as the Assembly's President, making her the first Middle Eastern woman and the third woman in history to take over the post. Sheikha Haya is a leading Bahraini lawyer and women's rights advocate who will take over the post at a time of change for the world body. UN Secretary General Kofi Annan said of her, "I found her quite impressive. All the member states are determined to work with her and to support her, I think she's going to bring a new dimension to the work here." Several women's rights activists have become political personalities in Bahrain in their own right, or gained international recognition, such as Ghada Jamsheer, named by Forbes magazine as one of the "ten most powerful and effective women in the Arab world" in May 2006. Ghada Jamsheer, the most prominent women's rights activist in Bahrain has called the government's reforms "artificial and marginal". In a statement in December 2006 she said: Bahrain's move was considered to have encouraged women's rights activists in the rest of the Persian Gulf to step up demands for equality.
In 2005, it was announced. Eighteen female candidates contested Bahrain's parliamentary elections on 25 November 2006, with one candidate, Lateefa Al Gaood, winning by default before polling after her two opponents in her constituency dropped out of the race. Most of the women ran for Leftist parties or as independents, with no Islamist party being represented by a woman, although salafist party Asalah was the only group to publicly oppose women's candidature in parliamentary elections. For further information see Bahrain election 2006 women candidates; as there is no unified family law, or Personal Status Law as it is known, Sharia judges have discretion over matters of divorce and child custody. In November 2005, the Supreme Council for Women in an alliance with other women's rights activists, began a campaign for change - organising demonstrations, putting up posters across the island and carrying out a series of media interviews. However, changing the law has been resisted by the leading Shia Islamist party, Al Wefaq, resulting in a major political showdown with women's rights activists.
Al Wefaq has stated that neither Chamber of Deputies of Bahrain elected MPs nor the government have authority to change the law because these institutions could'misinterpret the word of God'. Instead, the right to change the law is the sole responsibility of religious leaders. On 9 November 2005, supporters of Al Wefaq claimed to have organised Bahrain's largest demonstration with 120,000 protesting against the introduction of the Personal Status Law, for the maintenance of each religious group having their own divorce and inheritance laws. On the same day an alliance of women's rights organisations held a smaller rally calling for the unified law, which attracted 500 supporters; the issue of the introduction of a unified Personal Status Law has divided civil society into two camps, with women's rights and human rights groups wanting its introduction, opposed by Shia Islamist groups in alliance with the wahabbi Asalah: For: Supreme Council for Women Bahrain Human Rights Society Bahrain Human Rights Watch Society Bahrain Women's Union Women's Petition Bahrain Young Ladies Association National Democratic Action Al Sharaka Bahrain Centre for Human RightsAgainst: Al Wefaq Asalah Islamic Action Party Islamic Awareness Society Capital Transparency Society Women in Bahrain Munira FakhroGeneral: Human rights in Bahrain Women in Arab societies Women in Islam A guide to Bahrain, Your com
The dinar is the currency of Bahrain. It is divided into 1000 fils; the name dinar derives from the Roman denarius. The dinar was introduced in 1965; the Bahraini dinar is abbreviated.د.ب or BD. It is represented with three decimal places denoting the fils. In 1965, coins were introduced in denominations of 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 fils; the 1, 5 and 10 fils were struck with the others in cupro-nickel. The 1 fils coin was not produced after 1966 and no longer circulates. A bimetallic 100 fils coin was introduced in October 1977. In 1992, brass replaced bronze in the 10 fils. A bimetallic 500 fils coin was released in 2000 with the Pearl Monument on the obverse; the coin was discontinued in response to the uprising in Bahrain, which resulted in the demolition of the monument on 18 March 2011, although the Bank stated that minting had ceased some time prior to that. The coin was no longer released back into circulation after reaching banks. For a wider history surrounding currency in the region, see The History of British Currency in the Middle East.
On October 16, 1965, the Bahrain Currency Board introduced notes in denominations of 1⁄4, 1⁄2, 1, 5 and 10 dinars. In 1973, the Bahrain Monetary Agency took over the issuance of paper money, starting in July 1978 with a 20 dinar note, it introduced a new family of notes dated 1973 in Arabic. Denominations of 1⁄2, 1, 5 and 10 dinars were released on 16 December 1979; the 100-fils note of the Bahrain Currency Board was withdrawn in November 1980 and the remainder of the notes were withdrawn on 31 March 1996, remaining exchangeable until one year afterwards. The third issue of notes with the same denominations of 1⁄2 to 20 dinars was released in March 1993; this series was upgraded during 1998 with various modifications to security features. However, a fake order for banknotes had been placed with the Argentinian printer Ciccone Calcografica who did not verify it with the legitimate authorities in Bahrain and obtained genuine banknote paper from Arjo Wiggins to print over 7 million unauthorised replicas of the 20-dinar note, equivalent to US$365 million.
These differed from genuine notes in two respects: different background shading to the Arabic name of the Bahrain Monetary Agency, a large gap between the two Arabic letters in the horizontal serial number. The unauthorised notes were smuggled through various African and European countries by air and presented for exchange in Belgium and the Gulf around June 1998, just as the upgraded 20-dinar note was being released in Bahrain; the large amounts raised suspicions and were soon detected as notes that had not been printed by the authorised printer, De La Rue. The Bahrain Monetary Agency allowed individuals who had mistakenly accepted the unauthorised notes to exchange them for face value at banks between 8-14 June 1998 quickly recalled all 20-dinar notes on 30 July 1998; the unauthorised notes, being replicas of the 1993 design, were without a hologram. Despite this the upgraded notes in purple but with a hologram, released in June 1998 were withdrawn. On 1 August 1998 a new 20-dinar note, of the same design as the upgraded note but in peach colour, was released.
Thus, the genuine June 1998 design was only in circulation for about 7 weeks and is therefore seen by collectors. All other banknotes of the Bahrain Monetary Agency remain exchangeable. On 7 September 2006, the Bahrain Monetary Agency was renamed the Central Bank of Bahrain. On 17 March 2008, the Central Bank of Bahrain introduced its first series of notes reflecting the country's heritage as well as its modern development. On 4 September 2016, the Central Bank of Bahrain introduced upgraded versions of the 10- and 20-dinar notes with enhanced security features and tactile lines added at center right front for the visually impaired. In December 1980, the dinar was pegged to the IMF's special drawing rights. In practice, it is fixed at $1 USD = 0.376 BHD, which translates to 1 BHD = $2.65957 USD and almost 10 Saudi Arabian riyals. This rate was made official in 2001 and Saudi riyals are accepted in Bahrain at any point of sale, with the exception of the Saudi 500 riyal note, only accepted in major supermarkets and electronic shops.
Before Malta's adoption of the euro on 1 January 2008, it was the third-highest-valued currency unit after the Kuwaiti dinar and Maltese lira. After Malta adopted the euro, the dinar became the second highest-valued currency unit. Note: Rates obtained from these websites may contradict with pegged rate mentioned above Gulf rupee Economy of Bahrain Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf Historical and current banknotes of Bahrain
1990s uprising in Bahrain
The 1990s uprising in Bahrain known as the uprising of dignity was an uprising in Bahrain between 1994 and 1999 in which leftists and Islamists joined forces to demand democratic reforms. The uprising caused forty deaths and ended after Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifa became the Emir of Bahrain in 1999 and a referendum on 14–15 February 2001 massively supported the National Action Charter; the uprising resulted in the deaths of at least one Bahraini soldier. In 1971, Bahrain became independent from Britain and in 1973 the country had its first parliamentary election. However, two years the constitution was suspended and the assembly dissolved by the Amir, Isa bin Salman al-Khalifa after it rejected the State Security Law; the act known as "the precautionary law" was proposed by Ian Henderson. It gave police wide arresting powers and allowed individuals to be held in prison without trial or charge for up to three years for mere suspicion "that they might be a threat to the state". Starting in August 1975, widespread arrests were conducted including members of the dissolved parliament.
The "ruthless system of repression" launched by Henderson lasted for over twenty five years. Repeated allegations of systematic torture, arbitrary arrests of thousands and assassinations made by opposition activists and human rights groups were denied by Henderson who said he "has never been involved in torture nor has he ordered his officers to torture those who have been arrested". In 1992, a petition signed by 280 society leaders, including some of the dissolved parliament members called for the restoration of the national assembly; the government set up a thirty-member appointed "Shura council" assigned with "commenting" on government proposed legislation. Another petition the following month concluded that the newly formed council "does not replace the national assembly as a constitutional and legislative authority". A delegation of six members, half Sunnis and half Shias representing petition organizers met with the Amir who told them Shura council "was all could expect". Like other uprisings during the 1990s, the uprising's stated aims were for democratic reform, it was considered as the first movement in the Arab world where leftists and Islamists joined forces on a common ground calling for restoration of the dissolved parliament and suspended constitution.
Although attempts were made to portray a totalitarian nature of an Islamic fundamentalist ideology, the events and the moderate discourse of their leaders attracted support from all human rights organizations as well as from members of parliament in the UK, France, USA and the EU. The final aim of the uprising was the reinstatement of the 1973 constitution and respect of human rights in Bahrain, while preserving plurality of opinions in society; the uprising began in June 1994, with a picket by unemployed people in front of the ministry of labour. Over 1,500 demonstrator tried to organize a sit-in front of Ministry of Labor protesting the increasing rate of unemployment which had reached 15 percent. Riot police dispersed them using tear gas. Similar incidents occurred in September. Another petition was launched, this time. Organizers said. In November, hundreds of Shia protested against a charity marathon; the route of the marathon was through some Shia villages, who considered the female dressings offensive.
Some protesters threw stones on the marathon, which prompted security forces to conduct a number of arrests. The following month Ali Salman, a protest leader, was arrested after being accused of inciting the incident; the arrest sparked further protests and violence in Sitra. Some protesters used Molotov cocktails to attack "police stations and commercial properties". On the other hand, riot police used tear and rubber bullets, sometimes "fired at street level and from helicopters", it was reported that police used live ammunition on some occasions. By December, the number of detainees was between 600 according to the US Embassy. A number of opposition leaders, including Ali Salman were exiled in January 1995. Protests and arrests continued amid some government statements of releasing prisoners. In February the government said only 300 remain in prison, while activists said the number was as high as 2000; the level of violence and arrests increased again in April. Abdul Amir al-Jamri, the leader of the uprising was arrested on 1 April along with other protest leaders such as Abdulwahab Hussain and Hassan Mushaima.
One month after their arrest, the government started jailhouse negotiations with opposition leaders. About twenty one-or-two-hour meetings were conducted in four months between activists one side and Henderson, his deputy. An agreement named "the Initiative" was reached in which opposition leaders would calm people in exchange for releasing all of those not convicted in courts; the government agreed that at a stage after establishment of security, it would start a political dialogue with opposition. Protests paused, however they resumed after the government denied such an agreement existed. In December 1995 and January 1996, two bombs exploded in a shopping mall and a hotel without causing any casualties. Opposition leaders were arrested. No charges were filed against them. Bombings continued in the following months collecting the lives of eight people; the number of deaths by this time reached twenty four, including several de
Internet in Bahrain
Bahrain has been connected to the internet since 1995, made it available to its citizens. The country's domain suffix is'.bh'. A 2004 study showed a liberal filtering system is used in Bahrain, one which can be bypassed, however more recent events have shown more sophisticated and pervasive filtering. In January 2009, Bahrain has started blocking a vastly increased number of sites through the Information Affairs Authority; the new filtering has had a noticeable impact in internet access speeds for all traffic. In 2010, there were 55 % of the population. According to the World Bank, over 90% of the population is connected to the internet between 2010-2014; this rose to 96.4% in 2015, thus making Bahrain the country with the highest internet penetration percentage in the Middle East. The growth in fixed telephone lines and the Internet has made Bahrain a regional information and communications technology leader; the country's connectivity score is 210.4 percent per person, while the regional average in Arab States of the Persian Gulf is 135.37 percent.
The number of Bahraini Internet users has risen from 40,000 in 2000 to 250,000 in 2008, or from 5.95 to 33 percent of the population. The telecom market witnessed a remarkable development in November 2008 when Mena Telecom launched its nationwide WiMAX network, a service that provides high speed wireless voice and data services. To encourage creativity in domestic online content, in 2005 Bahrain launched an e-content award organized by the eGovernment Authority in Bahrain and the Bahrain Internet Society; the goal of the award is to select quality online content and to promote creativity and innovation in the development of new media applications in Bahrain. Bahrain’s online community is small but dynamic; as of January 2008, there were over 535 websites based in Bahrain. Internet users in Bahrain use the Internet to debate sensitive issues and to exchange content, not available in the traditional media; the authorities have blocked a number of news, human rights, humor Web sites run by Bahrainis and by non-Bahrainis, but users manage to access them using proxies.
Bahrain’s telecom market is regulated by the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority, established by Legislative Decree No. 48 of 2002 to protect the interests of subscribers and users and to promote effective and fair competition among established and new licensed operators. As of 2008, the TRA has licensed 22 Internet Service Providers, the largest of, Batelco. Batelco: Regional telecommunications company specialising in a broad range of communications services including mobile and international telephony, business network services and satellite services etc. Zain: Regional telecommunications company specialising in a broad range of communications services including mobile and international telephony, business network services and satellite services. Inet Email: E-mail service provided by Bahrain Telecommunications CompanyVIVA: Providers of mobile phone services in Bahrain. Bahrain Internet Exchange: Body established by government decree to connect Internet Service Providers, in order to increase local traffic and content, as well as reduce the cost of purchasing international bandwidth.
Kalaam Telecom/> Etisalcom: Providers of integrated ICT solutions for consumers & businesses. Mena Telecom: Telecommunications company based in Manama. Mena Telecom is now being acquired by VIVA BahrainNorth Star Communications: Providers of Internet, IP Telephony services. Nuetel Communications: Alternative telecommunications provider that offers converged services including voice, Internet & television over a single broadband connection. Rapid Telecom: Provides Dedicated / Broadband Internet, Leased lines over Fiber Optics as well as Microwave and international telephony and complete ICT solution services. Lightspeed Communications: Lightspeed Communications is Bahrain's first alternative fixed-line telecommunications operator, offering value-added and innovative services for residential and business customers. Services offered includes Internet. Lightspeed was bought over by Kalaam Telecom; the Ministry of Information has established a special unit which monitors Web sites for possible blocking.
The government has indicated an interest in setting up a commission to monitor the press and Internet content to "report any incitement to confessionnalism." Government efforts to monitor Web sites have been confirmed by media reports that cite an official source saying that in addition to Web sites being monitored on a daily basis, the use of circumvention techniques to update banned Web sites is being watched. Telecommunication Regulatory Authority - Kingdom of Bahrain, “Legislative Decree no. 48 of 2002 Promulgating the
A monopoly exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity. This contrasts with a monopsony which relates to a single entity's control of a market to purchase a good or service, with oligopoly which consists of a few sellers dominating a market. Monopolies are thus characterized by a lack of economic competition to produce the good or service, a lack of viable substitute goods, the possibility of a high monopoly price well above the seller's marginal cost that leads to a high monopoly profit; the verb monopolise or monopolize refers to the process by which a company gains the ability to raise prices or exclude competitors. In economics, a monopoly is a single seller. In law, a monopoly is a business entity that has significant market power, that is, the power to charge overly high prices. Although monopolies may be big businesses, size is not a characteristic of a monopoly. A small business may still have the power to raise prices in a small industry.
A monopoly is distinguished from a monopsony, in which there is only one buyer of a product or service. A monopoly should be distinguished from a cartel, in which several providers act together to coordinate services, prices or sale of goods. Monopolies and oligopolies are all situations in which one or a few entities have market power and therefore interact with their customers, or suppliers in ways that distort the market. Monopolies can be established by a government, form or form by integration. In many jurisdictions, competition laws restrict monopolies. Holding a dominant position or a monopoly in a market is not illegal in itself, however certain categories of behavior can be considered abusive and therefore incur legal sanctions when business is dominant. A government-granted monopoly or legal monopoly, by contrast, is sanctioned by the state to provide an incentive to invest in a risky venture or enrich a domestic interest group. Patents and trademarks are sometimes used as examples of government-granted monopolies.
The government may reserve the venture for itself, thus forming a government monopoly. Monopolies may be occurring due to limited competition because the industry is resource intensive and requires substantial costs to operate. In economics, the idea of monopoly is important in the study of management structures, which directly concerns normative aspects of economic competition, provides the basis for topics such as industrial organization and economics of regulation. There are four basic types of market structures in traditional economic analysis: perfect competition, monopolistic competition and monopoly. A monopoly is a structure in which a single supplier sells a given product. If there is a single seller in a certain market and there are no close substitutes for the product the market structure is that of a "pure monopoly". Sometimes, there are many sellers in an industry and/or there exist many close substitutes for the goods being produced, but companies retain some market power; this is termed monopolistic competition.
In general, the main results from this theory compare price-fixing methods across market structures, analyze the effect of a certain structure on welfare, vary technological/demand assumptions in order to assess the consequences for an abstract model of society. Most economic textbooks follow the practice of explaining the perfect competition model because this helps to understand "departures" from it; the boundaries of what constitutes a market and what does not are relevant distinctions to make in economic analysis. In a general equilibrium context, a good is a specific concept including geographical and time-related characteristics. Most studies of market structure relax a little their definition of a good, allowing for more flexibility in the identification of substitute goods. Profit Maximizer: Maximizes profits. Price Maker: Decides the price of the good or product to be sold, but does so by determining the quantity in order to demand the price desired by the firm. High Barriers: Other sellers are unable to enter the market of the monopoly.
Single seller: In a monopoly, there is one seller of the good, who produces all the output. Therefore, the whole market is being served by a single company, for practical purposes, the company is the same as the industry. Price Discrimination: A monopolist can change the price or quantity of the product, he or she sells higher quantities at a lower price in a elastic market, sells lower quantities at a higher price in a less elastic market. Monopolies derive their market power from barriers to entry – circumstances that prevent or impede a potential competitor's ability to compete in a market. There are three major types of barriers to entry: economic and deliberate. Economic barriers: Economic barriers include economies of scale, capital requirements, cost advantages and technological superiority. Economies of scale: Decreasing unit costs for larger volumes of production. Decreasing costs coupled with large initial costs, If for example the industry is large enough to support one company of minimum efficient scale other companies entering the industry will operate at a size, less than MES, so cannot produce at an average cost, competitive with the dominant company.
If long-term aver
Prime Minister of Bahrain
In Bahrain, the Prime Minister is the head of government of the country. According to the Constitution of Bahrain, the Prime Minister is appointed directly by the King, needs not be an elected member of the Council of Representatives. Bahrain has had only one Prime Minister since the country's independence, Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa, the uncle of the reigning King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa. Politics of Bahrain