Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, messages, writings and sounds or information of any nature by wire, optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology, it is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation. Such transmission paths are divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing. Since the Latin term communicatio is considered the social process of information exchange, the term telecommunications is used in its plural form because it involves many different technologies. Early means of communicating over a distance included visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, optical heliographs. Other examples of pre-modern long-distance communication included audio messages such as coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, loud whistles. 20th- and 21st-century technologies for long-distance communication involve electrical and electromagnetic technologies, such as telegraph and teleprinter, radio, microwave transmission, fiber optics, communications satellites.
A revolution in wireless communication began in the first decade of the 20th century with the pioneering developments in radio communications by Guglielmo Marconi, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909, other notable pioneering inventors and developers in the field of electrical and electronic telecommunications. These included Charles Wheatstone and Samuel Morse, Alexander Graham Bell, Edwin Armstrong and Lee de Forest, as well as Vladimir K. Zworykin, John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth; the word telecommunication is a compound of the Greek prefix tele, meaning distant, far off, or afar, the Latin communicare, meaning to share. Its modern use is adapted from the French, because its written use was recorded in 1904 by the French engineer and novelist Édouard Estaunié. Communication was first used as an English word in the late 14th century, it comes from Old French comunicacion, from Latin communicationem, noun of action from past participle stem of communicare "to share, divide out.
Homing pigeons have been used throughout history by different cultures. Pigeon post had Persian roots, was used by the Romans to aid their military. Frontinus said; the Greeks conveyed the names of the victors at the Olympic Games to various cities using homing pigeons. In the early 19th century, the Dutch government used the system in Sumatra, and in 1849, Paul Julius Reuter started a pigeon service to fly stock prices between Aachen and Brussels, a service that operated for a year until the gap in the telegraph link was closed. In the Middle Ages, chains of beacons were used on hilltops as a means of relaying a signal. Beacon chains suffered the drawback that they could only pass a single bit of information, so the meaning of the message such as "the enemy has been sighted" had to be agreed upon in advance. One notable instance of their use was during the Spanish Armada, when a beacon chain relayed a signal from Plymouth to London. In 1792, Claude Chappe, a French engineer, built the first fixed visual telegraphy system between Lille and Paris.
However semaphore suffered from the need for skilled operators and expensive towers at intervals of ten to thirty kilometres. As a result of competition from the electrical telegraph, the last commercial line was abandoned in 1880. On 25 July 1837 the first commercial electrical telegraph was demonstrated by English inventor Sir William Fothergill Cooke, English scientist Sir Charles Wheatstone. Both inventors viewed their device as "an improvement to the electromagnetic telegraph" not as a new device. Samuel Morse independently developed a version of the electrical telegraph that he unsuccessfully demonstrated on 2 September 1837, his code was an important advance over Wheatstone's signaling method. The first transatlantic telegraph cable was completed on 27 July 1866, allowing transatlantic telecommunication for the first time; the conventional telephone was invented independently by Alexander Bell and Elisha Gray in 1876. Antonio Meucci invented the first device that allowed the electrical transmission of voice over a line in 1849.
However Meucci's device was of little practical value because it relied upon the electrophonic effect and thus required users to place the receiver in their mouth to "hear" what was being said. The first commercial telephone services were set-up in 1878 and 1879 on both sides of the Atlantic in the cities of New Haven and London. Starting in 1894, Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi began developing a wireless communication using the newly discovered phenomenon of radio waves, showing by 1901 that they could be transmitted across the Atlantic Ocean; this was the start of wireless telegraphy by radio. Voice and music had little early success. World War I accelerated the development of radio for military communications. After the war, commercial radio AM broadcasting began in the 1920s and became an important mass medium for entertainment and news. World War II again accelerated development of radio for the wartime purposes of aircraft and land communication, radio navigation and radar. Development of stereo FM broadcasting of radio
Carlos Slim Helú is a Mexican business magnate, engineer and philanthropist. From 2010 to 2013, Slim was ranked as the richest person in the world by the Forbes business magazine, he derived his fortune from his extensive holdings in a considerable number of Mexican companies through his conglomerate, Grupo Carso. As of April 2019, he is the fifth-richest person in the world according to Forbes' listing of The World's Billionaires, with him and his family having a net worth estimated at $63.1 billion. He is the richest man in Latin America, his conglomerate includes education, health care, industrial manufacturing, real estate, energy, entertainment, high-technology, retail and financial services. He accounts for 40% of the listings on the Mexican Stock Exchange, while his net worth is equivalent to about 6 percent of Mexico's gross domestic product; as of 2016, he is the largest single shareholder of The New York Times Company. Slim was born on 28 January 1940, in Mexico City, to Julián Slim Haddad and Linda Helú Atta, both Maronite Catholics from Lebanon.
Slim always knew he wanted to be a businessman and began to develop his business and investment acumen at a young age. He received business lessons from his father Julián, who taught him finance and accounting, teaching him how to read financial statements as well as the importance of keeping accurate financial records, a practice that Slim carries on to this day. At the age of 11, Carlos invested in a government savings bond that taught him about the concept of compound interest, he saved every financial and business transaction he made into a personal ledger book which he keeps to this day. At the age of 12, he made his first stock purchase, by purchasing shares in a Mexican bank. By the age of 15, Slim had become a shareholder in Mexico's largest bank. At the age of 17, he earned 200 pesos a week working for his father's company, he went on to study civil engineering at the National Autonomous University of Mexico, where he concurrently taught algebra and linear programming. Though Slim was a civil engineering major, he displayed an interest in economics.
He took economics courses in Chile. Graduating as a civil engineering major, Slim has stated that his mathematical ability and his background of linear programming was a key factor in helping him gain an edge in the business world when reading financial statements. After graduating from college in 1961, Slim began his career as a stock trader in Mexico working 14-hour days. In 1965, profits from Slim's private investments reached US$400,000, allowing him to start the stock brokerage Inversora Bursátil. In addition, he began laying the financial groundwork for Grupo Carso. In 1965 he bought Jarritos del Sur. In 1966, worth US$40 million, he founded Inmobiliaria Carso. Companies in the construction, soft drink, real estate and mining industries were the focus of Slim's early burgeoning business career, he expanded into numerous industries including auto parts, airlines, tobacco, manufacturing of cables and wires and packaging, copper and mineral extraction, cement, hotels, beverage distributors, telecommunications and financial services where Slim's Grupo Financiero Inbursa – which sells insurance and invests the savings, mutual funds and pension plans of millions of ordinary Mexicans.
By 1972, he had established or acquired a further seven businesses in these categories, including one which rented construction equipment. In 1976, he branched out by acquiring a 60 percent share of Galas de México, a small printer of cigarette-pack labels for US$1 million, in 1980, he consolidated his business interests by forming Grupo Galas as the parent company of a conglomerate that had interests in industry, mining, retail and tobacco. In 1981, Slim acquired a majority stake in Cigarros la Tabacelera Mexicana, Mexico's second largest producer and marketer of cigarettes, at a reduced price. In 1982, the Mexican economy contracted rapidly; as many banks were struggling and foreign investors were cutting back on investing and scurrying, Slim began investing and bought many flagship companies at depressed valuations. Buying troubled assets at depressed prices to resell them at an attractive price is a business strategy that Slim has executed throughout his career. Having a keen investment eye for value, Slim adhered to his value investment practices with a long history of buying stakes in companies he sees as undervalued.
Much of Slim's business dealings involved a simple strategy, to buy a business and hang on to it for its cash flow or sell the stake at a greater profit in future, thereby netting the capital gains as well as reinvesting the initial principal into a new business. In addition, his conglomerate structure allows Slim to purchase numerous stakes that it is made nearly recession proof if one or more sectors of the economy do not do well. Slim doesn't address the finer details of the business but instead focuses on business fundamentals where his strategy is buy an asset at an undervalued price for its underlying cash flow and sell his stake for greater profit when the asset gains value, or hang to the business for its cash flow. From the mid 1960s to the early 1980s, Slim and his growing family lived a modest life, while earnings from Slim's many businesses were re-invested in expansion and more acquisitions. Slim acquired companies with strong returns on capital he believed were undervalued and overhauled their management.
He diversified methodically in numerous i
Rede Globo, or Globo, is a Brazilian free-to-air television network, launched by media proprietor Roberto Marinho on 26 April 1965. It is owned by media conglomerate Grupo Globo. Globo is the largest commercial TV network in Latin America and the second-largest commercial TV network of the world just behind the American ABC Television Network and the largest producer of telenovelas. Globo is headquartered in the Jardim Botânico neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro, where its news division is based; the network's main production studios are located at a complex dubbed Estudios Globo, located in Jacarepaguá, in the same city. Globo is composed of 5 owned-and-operated television stations and 119 affiliates throughout Brazil plus its own international networks, Globo TV International and TV Globo Portugal. In 2007, Globo moved its analog operations to high-definition television production for digital broadcasting. Rede Globo is one of the largest media companies in the world, produces around 2,400 hours of entertainment and 3,000 hours of journalism per year in Brazil.
Through its network, the broadcaster covers 98.6% of Brazil's territory. Recognized for its production quality, the company has been presented with 14 international Emmys; the international operations of Globo include seven pay-per-view television channels and a production and distribution division that distributes Brazilian sports and entertainment content to more than 190 countries around the world. In Brazil, Globo TV presently reaches 99.5% of potential viewers the entire Brazilian population, with 136 broadcasting stations that deliver programming to more than 183 million Brazilians. The network has been responsible for the 20 most-watched TV programs broadcast on Brazilian television, including Avenida Brasil, a 2022 record-breaking telenovela that reached 50 million viewers and was sold to 130 countries. In July 1964, Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro approved a request by Radio Globo to establish a television channel. On 30 December 1957, the National Council of Telecommunication published a decree which granted a channel in Rio de Janeiro to TV Globo Ltda.
Globo started preparing the beginning of its television broadcasting operations. Globo began broadcasting on 1 January 1965 in Rio de Janeiro on channel four; that same day, at about 10:45 a.m. Rubens Amaral formally introduced Rede Globo to viewers in Rio de Janeiro, all over Guanabara State, with the song "Moon River" by Henry Mancini at the start of the children's show, Uni Duni Te. By May of that same year, the live telecast of the Holy Mass, which became its longest running and oldest program, was seen for the first time; the following year, Globo purchased another television station, São Paulo-based TV Paulista, expanding its operations and beginning to dominate national television ratings. In January 1966, Globo broadcast its first major news coverage on flooding in Rio de Janeiro. Jornal da Globo, another trademark show for the network, was the successor to Ultranoticias, the network's first news program that ran until 1964, it featured a broadcast time of 30 minutes and was hosted by Hilton Gomez and Luis Jatoba.
In 1967, Globo began to build its national network with the affiliation of Porto Alegre-based TV Gaúcha. TV Gaúcha would become Globo's affiliate in Florianopolis in the late 1970s, when it received its current name, it is one of Globo's oldest affiliates, active since 1962. Uberlândia's TV Triângulo and Goiânia's TV Anhanguera soon followed in 1967 and 1968; the now extinct TV Guajará, based in Belém, was launched in 1969, was followed by TV Verdes Mares the following year. 1968 was the year in which Globo's branch station in Belo Horizonte, TV Globo Minas, was launched. On 1 September 1969, the country and national television broadcasting changed with the premiere of Jornal Nacional, the nation's first live newscast anchored by Cid Moreira and Hilton Gomez, its theme music, "The Fuzz" by Frank DeVol, became one of the show's trademarks, together with the program logo and the "Boa Noite" closing established by the hosts. Its success was followed by the launch of Jornal Hoje on 21 April 1971, the same day in which its Brasilia station was inaugurated.
The program was shown on the Rede Globo Rio de Janeiro flagship station until 1974 when it became a nationwide midday newscast. It broadcast its first FIFA World Cup in 1970, the same year in which the Rede Excelsior network closed down, absorbed by Globo; the network's famous Plim-Plim interval sound debuted that year. The network's 1976 broadcasting scheduling process developed the Padrão Globo de Qualidade: two soap operas, followed by Globo Repórter newscasts, one to two more drama shows or cinema, comedy programming and others; the process was led by Walter Clark and Jose Bonifacio de Olivera Sobrinho in 1960, when Rede Excelsior was launched. The network's audience share increased in the late 1970s clinching the top ratings spot of Brazil television; this was the reason Silvio Santos, one of the network's original variety show presenters since 1965, backed out of Globo, moved his 11-year-old program to Rede Tupi, while putting up his own network, TVS in the process the next year bringing his own show there.
In the process, it would continue the first nationwide variety show telecast t
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent, being behind Asia in both categories. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west; the continent includes various archipelagos. It contains 54 recognised sovereign states, nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition; the majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Africa's average population is the youngest amongst all the continents. Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, Nigeria is its largest by population. Africa central Eastern Africa, is accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade, as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors as well as ones that have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster—the earliest Homo sapiens, found in Ethiopia, date to circa 200,000 years ago.
Africa encompasses numerous climate areas. Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities and languages. In the late 19th century, European countries colonised all of Africa. African nations cooperate through the establishment of the African Union, headquartered in Addis Ababa. Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of then-known northern Africa to the west of the Nile river, in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean; this name seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe, an ancestor of modern Berbers. The name had been connected with the Phoenician word ʿafar meaning "dust", but a 1981 hypothesis has asserted that it stems from the Berber word ifri meaning "cave", in reference to cave dwellers; the same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, a Berber tribe from Yafran in northwestern Libya. Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province it named Africa Proconsularis, following its defeat of the Carthaginians in the Third Punic War in 146 BC, which included the coastal part of modern Libya.
The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land. The Muslim region of Ifriqiya, following its conquest of the Byzantine Empire's Exarchatus Africae preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while "Asia" was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east. A definite line was drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy, indicating Alexandria along the Prime Meridian and making the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between Asia and Africa; as Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of "Africa" expanded with their knowledge. Other etymological hypotheses have been postulated for the ancient name "Africa": The 1st-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus asserted that it was named for Epher, grandson of Abraham according to Gen. 25:4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya. Isidore of Seville in his 7th-century Etymologiae XIV.5.2. Suggests "Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning "sunny".
Massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning "to turn toward the opening of the Ka." The Ka is the energetic double of every person and the "opening of the Ka" refers to a womb or birthplace. Africa would be, for the Egyptians, "the birthplace." Michèle Fruyt in 1976 proposed linking the Latin word with africus "south wind", which would be of Umbrian origin and mean "rainy wind". Robert R. Stieglitz of Rutgers University in 1984 proposed: "The name Africa, derived from the Latin *Aphir-ic-a, is cognate to Hebrew Ophir." Ibn Khallikan and some other historians claim that the name of Africa came from a Himyarite king called Afrikin ibn Kais ibn Saifi called "Afrikus son of Abrahah" who subdued Ifriqiya. Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species originating from the continent. During the mid-20th century, anthropologists discovered many fossils and evidence of human occupation as early as 7 million years ago.
Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis (radiometrically dated to 3.9–3.0 million years BP, Paranthropus boisei and Homo ergaster have been discovered. After the evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens 150,000 to 100,000 years BP in Africa, the continent was populated by groups of hunter-gatherers; these first modern humans left Africa and populated the rest of the globe during the Out of Africa II migration dated to 50,000 years BP, exiting the continent eith
Northeast Region, Brazil
The Northeast Region of Brazil is one of the five official and political regions of the country according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. For the socio-geographic area see Nordeste. Of Brazil's twenty-six states, it comprises nine: Maranhão, Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Alagoas and Bahia, along with the Fernando de Noronha archipelago. Chiefly known as Nordeste in Brazil, this region was the first to be discovered and colonized by the Portuguese and other European peoples, playing a crucial role in the country's history. Nordeste's dialects and rich culture, including its folklore, cuisines and literature, became the most distinguishable across the country. To this day, Nordeste is recognized for its history and culture, as well as for its beautiful natural sights and its hot weather. Nordeste stretches from the Atlantic seaboard in the northeast and southeast and west to the Amazon Basin and south through the Espinhaço highlands in southern Bahia, it encloses the São Francisco River and drainage basin, which were instrumental in the exploration and economic development of the region.
The region lies within the earth's tropical zone and encompasses Caatinga, Atlantic Forest and part of the Cerrado ecoregions. The climate is hot and semi-arid, varying from xeric in Caatinga, to mesic in Cerrado and hydric in the Atlantic Forest; the Northeast Region represents 18% of Brazilian territory, has a population of 53.6 million people, 28% of the total population of the country, contributes 13.4% of Brazil's GDP. Nearly three quarters of the population live in urban areas clustered along the Atlantic coast and about 15 million people live in the hinterland, it is an impoverished region: 58% of the population lives in poverty, defined as less than $2/day. Each of the states' capitals are its largest cities, they include Recife, Fortaleza and São Luís, all lying on the Atlantic coast, each with a population above a million inhabitants. Nordeste has nine international airports, the region has the second largest number of passengers in Brazil; the Zona da Mata comprises the rainforest zones of Nordeste in the humid eastern coast, where the region's largest capital cities are located.
The forest area was much larger before suffering from centuries of exploration. For many years, sugar cane cultivation in this region was the mainstay of Brazil's economy, being superseded only when coffee production developed in the late 19th century; the sugar cane is cultivated on large estates and the owners of these had and maintain tremendous political influence. Since the escarpment does not generate any further rainfall on its slopes from the lifting of the trade winds, annual rainfall decreases inland. After a short distance, there is no longer enough rainfall to support tropical rainforest since the rainfall is erratic from year to year; this transitional zone is known as the agreste and because it is located on the steep escarpment, was not used whilst flatter land was abundant. Today, with irrigation water available, the agreste, as its name suggest, is a major farming region. Despite containing no major city, it contains well developed medium large cities such as Caruaru, Campina Grande and Arapiraca.
In Portuguese, the word sertão first referred to the vast hinterlands of Asia and South America that Lusitanian explorers encountered. In Brazil, the geographical term referred to backlands away from the Atlantic coastal regions where the Portuguese first settled in South America in the early sixteenth century. Geographically, the Sertão consists of low uplands that form part of the Brazilian Highlands. Most parts of the sertão are between 200 and 500 meters above sea level, with higher elevations found on the eastern edge in the Planalto da Borborema, where it merges into a sub-humid region known as agreste, in the Serra da Ibiapaba in western Ceará and in the Serro do Periquito of central Pernambuco. In the north, the Sertão extends to the northern coastal plains of Rio Grande do Norte state, whilst in the south it fades out in the northern fringe of Minas Gerais; because the Sertão lies close to the equator, temperatures remain nearly uniform throughout the year and are tropical extremely hot in the west.
However, the sertão is distinctive in its low rainfall compared to other areas of Brazil. Because of the cool temperatures in the South Atlantic Ocean, the intertropical convergence zone remains north of the region for most of the year, so that most of the year is dry. Although annual rainfall averages between 500 and 800 millimeters over most of the sertão and 1300 millimeters on the northern coast at Fortaleza, it is confined to a short rainy season; this season extends from January to April in the west, but in the eastern sertão it occurs from March to June. However, rainfall is erratic and in some years the rains are minimal, leading to catastrophic drought. Meio-Norte is a transition area between the high rainfalls region of Amazon Rainforest and the semi arid region of Sertão covering the state of Maranhão and half of Piaui; the Northeast region comprises the drainage basins of the São Francisco, Canindé, Parnaíba Rivers. Geographically, Nordeste consists chiefly of an eroded continental craton with many low hills and small ranges.
The highest peaks are around 1,850 metres in Bahia, while further north there are no
Fortaleza is the state capital of Ceará, located in Northeastern Brazil. It belongs to microregion of Fortaleza. Located 2285 km from Brasilia, the federal capital, the city has developed on the banks of the creek Pajeú, its name is an allusion to Fort Schoonenborch, which gave rise to the city, built by the Dutch during their second stay in the area between 1649 and 1654; the motto of Fortaleza, present in its coat of arms is the Latin word Fortitudine, which means "with strength/courage". In 2013, Fortaleza was the twelfth richest city in the country in GDP and second in the Northeast, with 49 billion reais, it has the third richest metropolitan area in the North and Northeast regions. It is an important industrial and commercial center of Brazil, the nation's eighth largest municipality in purchasing power. According to the Ministry of Tourism, the city reached the mark of second most desired destination of Brazil and fourth among Brazilian cities in tourists received; the BR-116, the most important highway of the country, starts in Fortaleza.
The municipality is part of the Common Market of Mercosur Cities, the Brazilian state capital, closest to Europe, 5608 km from Lisbon, Portugal. To the north of the city lies the Atlantic Ocean. Residents of the city are known as Fortalezenses. Fortaleza is one of the three leading cities in the Northeast region together with Recife and Salvador; the city was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Fortaleza's history began on February 2, 1500, when Spaniard Vicente Pinzón landed in Mucuripe's cove and named the new land Santa Maria de la Consolación; because of the Treaty of Tordesillas, the discovery was never sanctioned. Colonisation began in 1603, when the Portuguese Pero Coelho de Souza constructed the Fort of São Tiago and founded the settlement of Nova Lisboa. After a victory over the French in 1612, Martins Soares Moreno expanded the Fort of São Tiago and changed its name to Forte de São Sebastião. In 1630 the Dutch invaded the Brazilian Northeast and in 1637 they took the Fort of São Sebastião and ruled over Ceará.
In battles with the Portuguese and natives in 1644 the fort was destroyed. Under captain Matthias Beck the Dutch West Indies Company built a new fortress by the banks of river Pajeú. Fort Schoonenborch opened on August 19, 1649. After the capitulation of Pernambuco in 1654, the Dutch handed over this fortress to the Portuguese, who renamed it Fortaleza da Nossa Senhora de Assunção, after which the city of Fortaleza takes its name. Fortaleza was founded as a village 1726, becoming the capital of Ceará state in 1799. During the 19th century, Fortaleza was consolidated as an urban centre in Ceará, supported by the cotton industry. With the transformation of the city into a regional export center and with the increase of direct navigation to Europe, the customs building of Fortaleza was built in 1812. Silva Paulet played an important role in the structural evolution of the city, erecting works like the Fortaleza de Nossa Senhora da Assunção in 1812, in the place of what remained of the old fort, the public promenade in 1820, besides having been the author of the first urban plan of the city in 1812.
In 1824, the city was targeted by the revolutionaries of Confederation of the Equator. In the second half of the century, as a result of the fertile cotton era, the city was seized by a great period of urban development and construction of remarkable equipment, such as the Lyceum of Ceará and the Lighthouse of Mucuripe in 1845, Santa Casa de Misericórdia in 1861, the Prainha Seminary in 1864, the water supply system in 1866, the public library in 1867, the public prison in 1870, the Ceará Railroad Network, the Fortaleza port on the Ponte Metálica, textile factories, intellectual centers and Communication vehicles, for example; the period was marked as the belle époque of Fortaleza, representing a time of economic consecration, reflected in areas such as architecture and intellectual production. Between the years 1846 and 1877, the city went through a period of enrichment and infrastructural improvement. In order to discipline the growth of the city, Adolpho Herbster continued the urban planning scheme conceived by Silva Paulet in 1818, characterized by a checkerboard street grid, inspired by the reforms carried out in Paris by Baron Haussman, designed the topographic plan of the fortress and suburbs in 1875 a definitive landmark of municipal urbanism.
In the 1870s and 1880s, the Ceará Abolitionist Movement and the republican ideals that culminated in the liberation of the slaves in Ceará on March 25, 1884, four years before the Golden Law came into being and were strengthened. The main event of the abolitionist cause of Ceará in the capital was the popular uprising, between January 27 and 31, 1881, led by the Dragon-headed raiders, who ended the slave trade in the capital, fueling the state libertarian impetus and National level; the intellectuals of the literary movement of the Spiritual Bakery, which emerged in 1892 contributed to the diffusion of progressive ideas in Fortaleza. In the twentieth century, Fortaleza underwent significant urban changes, with improvements and the rural exodus to the city, with growth towards the end of the decade of 1910, this made the city the seventh most populated city in Brazil. In 1922, Fortaleza reached its fi