Internet service provider
An Internet service provider is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet. Internet service providers may be organized in various forms, such as commercial, community-owned, non-profit, or otherwise owned. Internet services provided by ISPs include Internet access, Internet transit, domain name registration, web hosting, Usenet service, colocation; the Internet was developed as a network between government research laboratories and participating departments of universities. Other companies and organizations joined by direct connection to the backbone, or by arrangements through other connected companies, sometime using dialup tools such as UUCP. By the late 1980s, a process was set in place towards commercial use of the Internet; the remaining restrictions were removed by 1991, shortly after the introduction of the World Wide Web. During the 1980s, online service providers such as CompuServe and America On Line began to offer limited capabilities to access the Internet, such as e-mail interchange, but full access to the Internet was not available to the general public.
In 1989, the first Internet service providers, companies offering the public direct access to the Internet for a monthly fee, were established in Australia and the United States. In Brookline, The World became the first commercial ISP in the US, its first customer was served in November 1989. These companies offered dial-up connections, using the public telephone network to provide last-mile connections to their customers; the barriers to entry for dial-up ISPs were low and many providers emerged. However, cable television companies and the telephone carriers had wired connections to their customers and could offer Internet connections at much higher speeds than dial-up using broadband technology such as cable modems and digital subscriber line; as a result, these companies became the dominant ISPs in their service areas, what was once a competitive ISP market became a monopoly or duopoly in countries with a commercial telecommunications market, such as the United States. On 23 April 2014, the U.
S. Federal Communications Commission was reported to be considering a new rule that will permit ISPs to offer content providers a faster track to send content, thus reversing their earlier net neutrality position. A possible solution to net neutrality concerns may be municipal broadband, according to Professor Susan Crawford, a legal and technology expert at Harvard Law School. On 15 May 2014, the FCC decided to consider two options regarding Internet services: first, permit fast and slow broadband lanes, thereby compromising net neutrality. On 10 November 2014, President Barack Obama recommended that the FCC reclassify broadband Internet service as a telecommunications service in order to preserve net neutrality. On 16 January 2015, Republicans presented legislation, in the form of a U. S. Congress H. R. discussion draft bill, that makes concessions to net neutrality but prohibits the FCC from accomplishing the goal or enacting any further regulation affecting Internet service providers. On 31 January 2015, AP News reported that the FCC will present the notion of applying Title II of the Communications Act of 1934 to the Internet in a vote expected on 26 February 2015.
Adoption of this notion would reclassify Internet service from one of information to one of the telecommunications and, according to Tom Wheeler, chairman of the FCC, ensure net neutrality. The FCC is expected to enforce net neutrality in its vote, according to The New York Times. On 26 February 2015, the FCC ruled in favor of net neutrality by adopting Title II of the Communications Act of 1934 and Section 706 in the Telecommunications Act of 1996 to the Internet; the FCC Chairman, Tom Wheeler, commented, "This is no more a plan to regulate the Internet than the First Amendment is a plan to regulate free speech. They both stand for the same concept." On 12 March 2015, the FCC released the specific details of the net neutrality rules. On 13 April 2015, the FCC published the final rule on its new "Net Neutrality" regulations; these rules went into effect on 12 June 2015. Upon becoming FCC chairman in April 2017, Ajit Pai proposed an end to net neutrality, awaiting votes from the commission. On 21 November 2017, Pai announced that a vote will be held by FCC members on 14 December on whether to repeal the policy.
On 11 June 2018, the repeal of the FCC's network neutrality rules took effect. Access provider ISPs provide Internet access, employing a range of technologies to connect users to their network. Available technologies have ranged from computer modems with acoustic couplers to telephone lines, to television cable, Wi-Fi, fiber optics. For users and small businesses, traditional options include copper wires to provide dial-up, DSL asymmetric digital subscriber line, cable modem or Integrated Services Digital Network. Using fiber-optics to end users is called Fiber To The Home or similar names. For customers with more demanding requirements can use higher-speed DSL, metropolitan Ethernet, gigabit Ethernet, Frame Relay, ISDN Primary Rate Interface, ATM and synchronous optical networking. Wireless access is another option, including satellite Internet access. A mailbox provider is an organization that provides services for hosting electronic mail domains with access to storage for mail boxes
Telecommunications in the Bahamas
Telecommunications in the Bahamas includes telephones, radio and the Internet. Access to the Internet is unrestricted. There were no government restrictions on access to the Internet or credible reports that the government monitors e-mail or Internet chat rooms without judicial oversight; the constitution provides for freedom of speech and press, the government respects these rights in practice. An independent press combined with a effective—albeit backlogged—judiciary, a functioning democratic political system ensures freedom of speech and press; the constitution prohibits arbitrary interference with privacy, home, or correspondence, the government respects these prohibitions in practice. Strict and antiquated libel laws dating to British legal codes are invoked. In April 2013, the Bahamas Commissioner of Police Ellison Greenslade warned that the police would press charges against people who post “lewd” or “obscene” pictures on social media websites and Attorney General Allyson Maynard-Gibson announced that the government was working on legislation that will police information posted on the Internet.
"We have to balance freedom of the press with protecting the public,” she added. In April Rodney Moncur was charged with "committing a grossly indecent act" by posting autopsy photographs of a man who died in police custody on his Facebook page. Phone calls to the Bahamas are monitored by the National Security Agency's MYSTIC program. Bahamas BTC, Bahamas Telecommunications Company, primary telecommunications provider for the Bahamas government owned. List of television stations in the Caribbean Television in the Bahamas ZNS-1, Radio Bahamas, state-owned ZNS-TV 13, state-owned This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html. BSNIC, Bahamas Network Information Center. Bahamas Telecommunications Company, website. ZNS Bahamas, website
Telecommunications in Greenland
Telecommunications in Greenland include radio, television and mobile telephones, the Internet. Greenland has, by law, only one service provider for telecommunications and the Internet, TELE Greenland, owned by the Greenlandic Home Rule government. TELE Greenland provides switched telephone and data, land mobile communications, VHF and MF shore-to-ship communication; this type of monopoly is not uncommon in Greenland. Television in Greenland began in the 1960s. Owned transmitters were created to receive TV from Canada and Denmark; this can date as far back. It was possible to receive TV from Canada with a normal household TV antenna, but color transmissions were NTSC and signals were in bad quality and however in some circumstances, television transmissions were not available at all due to factors such as weather conditions or time of day for the people who owned private transmitters. Greenland did not have any local TV service until 1982; the state broadcaster is Kalaallit Nunaata Radioa, which provides one television and one radio service nationwide.
Both broadcast in Danish. Administered as an independent public corporation by the Greenlandic government, KNR has a seven-person board and management committee, they are funded publicly and by advertising. A few private local TV and radio stations are available as Danish public radio rebroadcasts. An umbrella organization in Greenland, known as the STTK, operates local radio and TV stations throughout the country. There are American Forces Network stations, operated by the United States Air Force. Greenlanders owned an estimated 30,000 radios and 30,000 television sets, as of 2002. Calling code: +299 International call prefix: 00 Main lines: 18,900 lines in use, 188th in the world. Mobile cellular: 59,455 lines, 200th in the world. There are no area codes in Greenland, all telephone numbers have 6 digits. There are adequate domestic and international telephone services, provided by cables and microwave radio relay; the system was digitized in 1995. The Greenland Connect submarine cable provides connectivity to Europe via Iceland and to North America via Newfoundland.
TELE Greenland first used satellite communication in 1978 and uses 15 satellite earth stations, all over the Atlantic Ocean. Today, Greenland has more mobile phones than landlines; as of 2007 there are 66.400 active UMTS subscriptions in use in Greenland. In 2007, all NMT networks were shut down. Nova was first to offer 4G. Mobile coverage extends to nearly all inhabited areas in Greenland, but there are some remote areas that do not have mobile coverage. In Greenland, VHF radio-telephone is used. You are talking over a radio instead of a phone. VHF phones are only used on ships, but in Greenland they can used as regular phones. Greenland does not have telephone connection over the whole country, so sometimes it may be easier to use a VHF phone. In 2001, 42% of Greenlanders owned a portable VHF. Greenland has one Internet Service Providers: Tele Greenland. Greenland has one major data center: Tele Greenland Nuuk; the country code for top-level domains is:.gl There are 15,645 Internet hosts which places Greenland 123rd in the world.
37,442 people or 64.9% of Greenland's population were able to use the Internet. There were 11,117 fixed broadband subscriptions placing Greenland 146th in the world with a 19.4% penetration rate ranking Greenland 50th in the world. There were 2,803 mobile broadband subscriptions placing Greenland 144th in the world with a 4.9% penetration rate for 111th ranking. Greenland has been allocated 16,384 IPv4 addresses, less than 0.05% of the world's total or 284 addresses per 1000 people. Internet and telephone services rely on the Greenland Connect submarine communications cables for external traffic; as a territory of the Kingdom of Denmark, Greenland has a democratically elected home-rule government whose powers may encompass all matters except foreign and national security affairs, police services, monetary matters. Greenlanders have the same rights throughout the kingdom as other citizens; the Danish government places no restrictions on access to the Internet and there are no credible reports that e-mail or Internet chat rooms are monitored without appropriate legal authority.
Authorities continue to employ an Internet filter designed to block child pornography. In no known cases did the filter affect legitimate sites; the Danish Constitution provides for freedom of speech and press with some limitations such as cases involving child pornography, blasphemy, hate speech, racism, the government respects these rights in practice. In April 2013, the registrar for the.gl domain unilaterally voluntarily suspended resolution of thepiratebay.gl, intended to be a new primary Domain Name for the famous Bittorrent search engine The Pirate Bay. This caused transient inconvenience to some File Sharing Internet users. Internet censorship in Greenland This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2013 edition"; this article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of State. TELE Greenland KNR, Greenlandic Broadcasting Corporation. Greenland Television STTK
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, messages, writings and sounds or information of any nature by wire, optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology, it is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation. Such transmission paths are divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing. Since the Latin term communicatio is considered the social process of information exchange, the term telecommunications is used in its plural form because it involves many different technologies. Early means of communicating over a distance included visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, optical heliographs. Other examples of pre-modern long-distance communication included audio messages such as coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, loud whistles. 20th- and 21st-century technologies for long-distance communication involve electrical and electromagnetic technologies, such as telegraph and teleprinter, radio, microwave transmission, fiber optics, communications satellites.
A revolution in wireless communication began in the first decade of the 20th century with the pioneering developments in radio communications by Guglielmo Marconi, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909, other notable pioneering inventors and developers in the field of electrical and electronic telecommunications. These included Charles Wheatstone and Samuel Morse, Alexander Graham Bell, Edwin Armstrong and Lee de Forest, as well as Vladimir K. Zworykin, John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth; the word telecommunication is a compound of the Greek prefix tele, meaning distant, far off, or afar, the Latin communicare, meaning to share. Its modern use is adapted from the French, because its written use was recorded in 1904 by the French engineer and novelist Édouard Estaunié. Communication was first used as an English word in the late 14th century, it comes from Old French comunicacion, from Latin communicationem, noun of action from past participle stem of communicare "to share, divide out.
Homing pigeons have been used throughout history by different cultures. Pigeon post had Persian roots, was used by the Romans to aid their military. Frontinus said; the Greeks conveyed the names of the victors at the Olympic Games to various cities using homing pigeons. In the early 19th century, the Dutch government used the system in Sumatra, and in 1849, Paul Julius Reuter started a pigeon service to fly stock prices between Aachen and Brussels, a service that operated for a year until the gap in the telegraph link was closed. In the Middle Ages, chains of beacons were used on hilltops as a means of relaying a signal. Beacon chains suffered the drawback that they could only pass a single bit of information, so the meaning of the message such as "the enemy has been sighted" had to be agreed upon in advance. One notable instance of their use was during the Spanish Armada, when a beacon chain relayed a signal from Plymouth to London. In 1792, Claude Chappe, a French engineer, built the first fixed visual telegraphy system between Lille and Paris.
However semaphore suffered from the need for skilled operators and expensive towers at intervals of ten to thirty kilometres. As a result of competition from the electrical telegraph, the last commercial line was abandoned in 1880. On 25 July 1837 the first commercial electrical telegraph was demonstrated by English inventor Sir William Fothergill Cooke, English scientist Sir Charles Wheatstone. Both inventors viewed their device as "an improvement to the electromagnetic telegraph" not as a new device. Samuel Morse independently developed a version of the electrical telegraph that he unsuccessfully demonstrated on 2 September 1837, his code was an important advance over Wheatstone's signaling method. The first transatlantic telegraph cable was completed on 27 July 1866, allowing transatlantic telecommunication for the first time; the conventional telephone was invented independently by Alexander Bell and Elisha Gray in 1876. Antonio Meucci invented the first device that allowed the electrical transmission of voice over a line in 1849.
However Meucci's device was of little practical value because it relied upon the electrophonic effect and thus required users to place the receiver in their mouth to "hear" what was being said. The first commercial telephone services were set-up in 1878 and 1879 on both sides of the Atlantic in the cities of New Haven and London. Starting in 1894, Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi began developing a wireless communication using the newly discovered phenomenon of radio waves, showing by 1901 that they could be transmitted across the Atlantic Ocean; this was the start of wireless telegraphy by radio. Voice and music had little early success. World War I accelerated the development of radio for military communications. After the war, commercial radio AM broadcasting began in the 1920s and became an important mass medium for entertainment and news. World War II again accelerated development of radio for the wartime purposes of aircraft and land communication, radio navigation and radar. Development of stereo FM broadcasting of radio
Curaçao is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about 65 km north of the Venezuelan coast. It is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the country was part of the Curaçao and Dependencies colony and is now formally called the Country of Curaçao. Curaçao has a population over 160,000 in an area of 444 km2 and its capital is Willemstad. Before the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles on 10 October 2010, Curaçao was administered as the "Island Territory of Curaçao", one of five island territories of the former Netherlands Antilles. In the 16th and 17th centuries, sailors on long voyages would get scurvy from lack of vitamin C. According to some accounts, Portuguese sailors who were ill were left at the island now known as Curaçao; when their ship returned, they had recovered cured from scurvy after eating fruit with vitamin C. From on the Portuguese referred to this as Ilha da Curação. Another explanation is that it is derived from the Portuguese word for heart, referring to the island as a centre in trade.
An unstressed o in Continental Portuguese is pronounced, so the Portuguese word for heart, coração, is pronounced. Spanish traders took the name over as Curaçao, followed by the Dutch. Another explanation is that Curaçao was the name by which the indigenous peoples of the island identified themselves, their autonym. Early Spanish accounts support this theory, as they refer to the indigenous peoples as Indios Curaçaos, or "healing Indians". From 1525, the island was featured on Spanish maps as Curaçote and Curasaore. By the 17th century, it appeared on most maps in Portuguese as Curazao. On a map created by Hieronymus Cock in 1562 in Antwerp, the island was referred to as Qúracao; the original inhabitants of Curaçao were Arawak people. Their ancestors had migrated to the island from the mainland of South America hundreds of years before Europeans arrived, they were believed to have migrated from the Amazon Basin. The first Europeans recorded as seeing the island were members of a Spanish expedition under the leadership of Alonso de Ojeda in 1499.
The Spaniards enslaved most of the Arawak as their labour force. They sometimes forcibly relocated the survivors to other colonies. In 1634, after the Netherlands achieved independence from Spain caused by Eighty Years' War, Dutch colonists started to occupy the island. European powers were trying to establish bases in the Caribbean; the Dutch West India Company founded the capital of Willemstad on the banks of an inlet called the Schottegat. Curaçao had been ignored by colonists; the natural harbour of Willemstad proved to be an ideal spot for trade. Commerce and shipping -- and piracy -- became. In addition, in 1662, the Dutch West India Company made Curaçao a centre for the Atlantic slave trade bringing slaves here for sale elsewhere in the Caribbean and on the mainland of South America. Sephardic Jews with ancestors from the Iberian Peninsula settled here with the Dutch and in then-Dutch Brazil. In the Franco-Dutch War, Count Jean II d'Estrées planned to attack Curaçao, his fleet – 12 men of war, three fireships, two transports, a hospital ship, 12 privateers – met with disaster, losing seven men-of-war and two other ships when they struck reefs off the Las Aves archipelago.
They had made a serious navigational error, hitting the reefs on 11 May 1678, a week after setting sail from Saint Kitts. Curaçao marked the events by a day of thanksgiving, celebrated for decades into the 18th century, to commemorate the island's escape from being invaded by the French. Although a few plantations were established on the island by the Dutch, the first profitable industry established on Curaçao was salt mining; the mineral was a lucrative export at the time and was a major factor for the island being part of international commerce. Many Dutch colonists grew affluent from the slave trade, the city built impressive colonial buildings. Curaçao architecture blends Dutch and Spanish colonial styles; the wide range of historic buildings in and around Willemstad has resulted in the capital being designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Landhouses and West African style kas di pal'i maishi are scattered all over the island; some can be visited. In 1795, a major slave revolt took place under the leaders Tula Rigaud, Louis Mercier, Bastian Karpata, Pedro Wakao.
Up to 4000 slaves on the northwest section of the island revolted. More than 1,000 slaves took part in extended gunfights. After a month, the slave owners suppressed the revolt. Curaçao's proximity to South America resulted in interaction with cultures of the coastal areas more than a century after independence of Netherlands from Spain. Architectural similarities can be seen between the 19th-century parts of Willemstad and the nearby Venezuelan city of Coro in Falcón State; the latter has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Netherlands established economic ties with Viceroyalty of New Granada, which includes present-day countries of Colombia and Venezuela. In the 19th century, Curaçaoans such as Manuel Piar and Luis Brión were prominently engaged in the wars of independen
Telecommunications in Peru
Telecommunications in Peru include radio and television and mobile telephones, the Internet. The technical regulator of communications in Peru is the Presidency of the Minister Council, through the Organismo Supervisor de la Inversión Privada en Telecomunicaciones in English, Supervisory Agency for Private Investment in Telecommunications; the Ministry of Transport and Communications grants concessions, authorizations and licenses. The resale of telecommunication services is permitted as a regulated activity. Voice Over IP services are not expressly regulated, but may need a concession or a registry depending on the type of service provided. Carrier interconnection is interconnection fees are regulated; the Peruvian government maintains a Telecommunications Investment Fund to promote universal service within the country's most isolated regions, including rural areas and areas of social interest. Following the successful implementation of mobile number portability, the government requires fixed number portability be launched by July 2014.
All telecommunication services have been liberalized and are rendered under a free competition regime according to the Telecommunications Law. Under Peru's single concession regime all telecom services, including fixed-line, pay TV, Internet, are provided under unified concessions that cover the entire country. Privatization began in 1994 when the state-owned companies Compañía Peruana de Teléfonos S. A. and Entel Perú were auctioned to Telefónica de España. In December 1994, Entel Perú was merged into CPT. In 1995, CPT changed its name to Telefónica del Perú S. A.. Telefónica del Perú continues to dominate the market for basic telephone services; the operation of broadcasting companies is governed by the Law of Television. Spectrum is controlled by the Ministry of Transport and Communications. Radio stations: More than 2,000 radio stations, including a substantial number of indigenous language stations. Radios: 24 million. TV networks: 10 major TV networks of which only one, Television Nacional de Peru, is state-owned.
Television sets: 5.5 million. Pay television subscribers: 967,943. Broadcast television system: NTSC, NTSC broadcasts to be abandoned by 31 December 2017, simulcasting ISDB-Tb. Calling code: +51. International call prefix: 00 Fixed lines: 3.4 million lines in use. Fixed-line teledensity: about 12 per 100 persons. Mobile subscribers: 15.2 million unique subscribers. Mobile lines: 29.4 million, 29.6 million. Mobile teledensity: exceeds 100 telephones per 100 persons, spurred by competition among multiple providers. Domestic system: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations, adequate for most requirements. International communication cables: South America-1 and Pan American submarine cables link to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, the US. International satellite earth stations: 2 Intelsat. Peru's fixed-line penetration is the third lowest in South America after Paraguay. Barriers include widespread poverty, expensive services, little meaningful competition, the geographical barriers imposed by the Andean mountains and Amazon jungles.
Under the name Movistar, Telefónica del Perú dominates the basic telephone market. América Móvil’s Claro occupies second place, while Americatel Peru is third with 1% of the market; the remaining companies have market shares below 0.3%. Mobile penetration is below the regional average with about one quarter of the population having no mobile phone at all, while others in urban areas, have multiple subscriptions. Telefónica, operating as Movistar, is the mobile leader. Vietnam's Viettel is expected to begin offering mobile services in the second half of 2014 and Virgin Mobile is expected to enter the market as a Mobile Virtual Network Operator. Top-level domain:.pe. Internet Service Providers: 158 providers. Internet hosts: 234,102 hosts. Internet users: 11.3 million users, 37th in the world. Fixed broadband: 1.4 million subscriptions, 49th in the world. Mobile broadband: 820,295 subscriptions, 77th in the world. Peru enjoyed a remarkably high dial-up Internet penetration rate, but broadband Internet penetration is more than two-thirds below the average for Latin America and Caribbean countries.
Barriers include widespread poverty, limited literacy, limited computer ownership and access, rugged topography and most significant, a lack of meaningful competition which has made broadband Internet access in Peru one of the slowest and most expensive in the region. In 2011 the OpenNet Initiative reported no evidence of Internet filtering in all areas for which it tests. There are no government restrictions on access to the Internet or credible reports that the government monitors e-mail or Internet chat rooms without appropriate legal authority. Individuals and groups engage including by e-mail; the chief impediment to Internet access is a lack of infrastructure. The constitution provides for freedom of speech and press, the government respects these rights. An independent press and a functioning democratic political system combine to promote freedom of speech and press. A number of journalists and media outlets
Communications in Argentina
Communications in Argentina gives an overview of the postal, Internet, radio and newspaper services available in Argentina. The national postal service, Correo Argentino, was established in 1854, privatized in 1997, re-nationalized in 2003. There are no standard abbreviations for provinces' names; the format of the postal code was expanded in 1998 to include more specific information on location within cities. See Argentine postal code for details; the network was developed by ITT, grew following the system's nationalization in 1948 and the creation of the ENTel State enterprise. Its limitations notwithstanding, ENTel gave Argentines the widest access to phone service in Latin America. Following ENTel's privatization in 1990, a new numbering plan was enacted, the number of lines grew to cover the majority of households. A sizable minority of households, do not have land line telephone service, however; the growth of the mobile telephone market since the beginning of the economic recovery in 2003 has been impressive, with new customers now preferring a comparatively cheap cellular phone to land line household service.
As of January 2010, there are 9.2 million land lines, 50 million cellular phones and 143,000 public phones in the country. The domestic telephone trunk network is served by microwave radio relay and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations, it carries a monthly traffic of about 1.3 billion local calls, 400 million inter-city calls and around 24 million outgoing international calls. International communications employ satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat; this system is replaced with a domestic fiber optic ring connecting the main cities. This link runs at 2.5 Gbit/s. From these head central offices, local calls are routed through 10 Gbit/s fiber optic links, or 3 × 155 Mbit/s microwave links; these links are spaced at about 30 km. Some of these links are spaced at 60 km and this makes communications unreliable in certain weather conditions. According to a report released in January 2006 by INDEC, mobile phone lines increased by 68.8% during 2005. Eleven million mobile phones were sold that year and, by these serviced three-quarters of the population over 14.
A growing minority of users are children under 14, something that has raised concern and debate in Argentine society. A private study conducted by Investigaciones Económicas Sectoriales, covering January–October 2006, found a 51.2% growth compared to the same period of 2005. Most of the phones are imported from Mexico; the monthly volume of calls made with these units more than doubles the number made on land lines. In the 1990s the Argentine telephone system was sold to two private corporations looking to invest in the local market: Telefónica, a telco from Spain, Telecom Argentina, owned by Telecom Italia and the Argentine Werthein family; the country was divided in two zones, within which one of the companies was the exclusive provider of the service. The service was deregulated in several steps, first allowing the participation of other companies to provide international phone call services mobile services and the domestic service. Telecom has Arnet. Other ISPs, such as Flash, hire the facilities of Telefónica.
Several newcomer companies in the telephone market offer high-speed broadband access, Voice over IP and other services to a restricted market group. The number of Internet users in the country as of 2011 has been estimated at 27 million, the number of registered domain names was approx. 1.7 million in August 2008 and the number of internet hosts in 2009, 6,025,000. Besides monthly-paid Internet connections, in Argentina there are a number of Internet service providers that have commercial agreements with the telephone companies for charging a higher communication rate to the user for that communication, though without any monthly fixed fee. There were around 12 million PCs registered in Argentina in 2011; the number of residential and business internet networks totaled around 5.7 million in 2011, of which around 5.5 million were broadband connections ADSL. The number of dial-up users has decreased drastically since 2005 in favor of broadband internet access; this latter service grew from under 800,000 networks in late 2005, to nearly 2.6 million by December 2007, to over 5 million by late 2010.
Wireless and satellite networks expanded markedly during 2008-09, totaled over 1.5 million in March 2011. Among residential users, 38.3% were located in Buenos Aires Province, 26.0% in the city of Buenos Aires, 8.2% in Córdoba and 7.4% in Santa Fe Province. Among companies and organizations, 788,000 connection contracts were valid as of March 2