Intelsat Corporation—formerly INTEL-SAT, INTELSAT, Intelsat—is a communications satellite services provider. Formed as International Telecommunications Satellite Organization, it was—from 1964 to 2001—an intergovernmental consortium owning and managing a constellation of communications satellites providing international broadcast services; as of March 2011, Intelsat operates a fleet of 52 communications satellites, one of the world's largest fleet of commercial satellites. They claim to serve around 1,500 customers and employ a staff of 1,100 people. John F. Kennedy instigated the creation of INTELSAT with his speech to the United Nations on the 25th of September 1961. Less than a year John F. Kennedy signed the Communications Satellite Act of 1962. INTELSAT was formed as International Telecommunications Satellite Organization and operated from 1964 to 2001 as an intergovernmental consortium owning and managing a constellation of communications satellites providing international broadcast services.
In 2001, the international satellite market was commercialized, the US predominant role in INTELSAT was privatized after 2001 as Intelsat was formed up as a private Luxembourg corporation. The International Governmental Organization began on 20 August 1964, with 7 participating countries; the 1964 agreement was an interim arrangement on a path to a more permanent agreement. The permanent international organization was established in 1973, following inter-nation negotiations from 1969 to 1971; the most difficult issue to "resolve concerned the shift from management of the system by a national entity to management by the international organization itself."On 6 April 1965, INTELSAT's first satellite, the Intelsat I, was placed in geostationary orbit above the Atlantic Ocean by a Delta D rocket. In 1973, the name was changed and there were 81 signatories. INTELSAT was "governed by two international agreements: The Agreement setting forth the basic provisions and principles and structure of the organization, signed by the governments through their foreign ministries, an Operating Agreement setting forth more detailed financial and technical provisions and signed by the governments or their designated telecommunications entities."—in most cases the latter are the ministries of communications of the party countries, but in the case of the United States, was the Communications Satellite Corporation, a private corporation established by federal legislation to represent the US in international governance for the global communication satellite system.
INTELSAT at that time directly owned and managed a global communications satellite system, structurally consisted of three parts: the Assembly of Parties—meeting every two years and concerned with aspects "primarily of interest to the Parties as sovereign States."—with each country having one vote. The Meeting of Signatories—meeting annually and composed of all the signatories to the Operating Agreement—primarily working on financial and program matters, with each countries' signatory having one vote. A Board of Governors, meeting at least four times each year, making decisions on design, establishment and maintenance of the in-space assets, appointed by signatories, but weighted to each signatories "investment share" in the space assets; the 1973 Agreement called for a seven-year transition from national to international management, but continued until 1976 to carve out "technical and operational management of the system the Communications Satellite Corporation served as the Manager of the global system under the interim arrangements in force from 1964 to 1973."
Phases of the transition resulted in full international governance by 1980. Financial contribution to the organization, it's so-called "investment share," was proportional to each member's use of the system, determined annually. Intelsat provides service to over 600 Earth stations in more than 149 countries and dependencies. By 2001, INTELSAT had over 100 members, it was this year that INTELSAT privatized and changed its name to Intelsat. Since its inception, Intelsat has used several versions of its dedicated Intelsat satellites. Intelsat completes each block of spacecraft independently, leading to a variety of contractors over the years. Intelsat’s largest spacecraft supplier is Space Systems/Loral, having built 31 spacecraft, or nearly half of the fleet; the network in its early years was not as robust. A failure of the Atlantic satellite in the spring of 1969 threatened to stop the Apollo 11 mission. During the Apollo 11 moonwalk, the moon was over the Pacific Ocean, so other antennas were used, as well as INTELSAT III, in geostationary orbit over the Pacific.
By the 1990s, building and launching satellites was no longer a government domain and as country-specific telecommunications systems were privatized, several private satellite operators arose to meet the growing demand. In the U. S. satellite operators such as PanAmSat, Orion Communications, Columbia Communications, Globalstar, TRW and others formed under the umbrella of the Alliance for Competitive International Satellite Services to press for an end to the IGOs and the monopoly position of COMSAT the US signatory to Intelsat and Inmarsat. In March 2001, the US Congress passed the Open Market Reorganisation for the B
Rafael Vicente Correa Delgado is an Ecuadorian politician and economist who served as President of Ecuador from 2007 to 2017. The leader of the PAIS Alliance political movement, Correa is a democratic socialist and his administration focused on the implementation of left-wing policies. Internationally, he served as president pro tempore of the Union of South American Nations. Born to a lower middle-class mestizo family in Guayaquil, Correa studied economics at the Universidad Católica de Santiago de Guayaquil, the University of Louvain, the University of Illinois, where he received his PhD. Returning to Ecuador, in 2005 he became the Minister for the Economy under President Alfredo Palacio lobbying Congress for increased spending on health and education projects. Correa won the presidency in the 2006 general election on a platform criticizing the established political elites. Taking office in January 2007, he sought to move away from Ecuador's neoliberal economic model by reducing the influence of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund.
He declared Ecuador's national debt illegitimate and announced that the country would default on over $3 billion worth of bonds. He oversaw the introduction of a new constitution, being re-elected in 2009 and again 2013 general election. During Correa's presidency, he was part of the wider Latin American pink tide, a turn toward leftist governments in the region, allying himself with Hugo Chávez's Venezuela and brought Ecuador into the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas in June 2009. Using its own form of 21st century socialism, Correa’s administration increased government spending, reducing poverty, raising the minimum wage and increasing the standard of living in Ecuador. By the end of Correa's tenure, reliance on oil, public expenditures, 2016 earthquakes, international pressure caused Ecuador's economy to enter a recession, resulting in government spending being slashed. Between 2006 and 2016, poverty decreased from 36.7% to 22.5% and annual per capita GDP growth was 1.5 percent. At the same time, inequalities, as measured by the Gini index, decreased from 0.55 to 0.47.
On 3 July 2018, a judge in Ecuador ordered the arrest of Correa after he failed to appear in court during a trial surrounding the kidnapping of a political opponent. Correa, who lived in Belgium at the time, denied the allegations regarding the kidnapping. Correa's father was Rafael Correa Icaza, born in the Province of Los Ríos, while his mother is Norma Delgado Rendón, he had three siblings. Having grown up in the coastal city of Guayaquil, he has described his family background as being that of the "lower middle class"; when Correa was five, his father was arrested and imprisoned for three years after attempting to smuggle illegal narcotics into the United States. Publicly acknowledging this incident while president, Correa stated that "I do not condone what he did drug smugglers are not criminals, they are single mothers or unemployed people who are desperate to feed their families". Correa was 18 years of age. While living in Guayaquil, Correa was involved in the Boy Scout program. At the age of 17, his family faced financial hardship, but a family friend was able to pay for him to be educated at an elite local school, where he excelled.
During his secondary studies he was president of the Lasallian Student Cultural Association. Correa obtained a scholarship to study at the Catholic University of Santiago de Guayaquil, a private higher education institution in Guayaquil, where he obtained an undergraduate degree in economics in 1987.. When attending UCSG, he was elected President of the Association of Students of Economy and Administration and on, President of the Federation of Students of the same education center, a position which in 1986 allowed him to preside over the Private Universities Students Federation of Ecuador. Following the conclusion of his studies at UCSG, Correa worked for a year in a mission at a kindergarten run by the Salesian order in Zumbahua, Cotopaxi Province, where he taught Catholicism and mathematics, it was here that he furthered his faith in Catholicism, developed a working understanding of the Quechua language spoken by most of Ecuador's indigenous people. In Zumbahua he became aware of the widespread poverty that afflicted Ecuador's indigenous population.
He secured a scholarship to study economics further at UCLouvain in Belgium. He received a Master of Arts in Economics from UCLouvain in June 1991. Correa was able to afford a university education with the aid of funding grants, he would continue his studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where he earned a Master of Science in Economics in May 1999, a PhD in Economics in October 2001. During graduate studies, he came under the particular influence of the laissez-faire critical economist Joseph Stiglitz. Correa's adviser at the University of Illinois was Werner Baer, who commented that at the time Correa did not seem anti-capitalist but was concerned by uneven income distribution in society. Returning to Ecuador, Correa secured a position at the University of San Francis
A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly. A telephone converts sound and most efficiently the human voice, into electronic signals that are transmitted via cables and other communication channels to another telephone which reproduces the sound to the receiving user. In 1876, Scottish emigrant Alexander Graham Bell was the first to be granted a United States patent for a device that produced intelligible replication of the human voice; this instrument was further developed by many others. The telephone was the first device in history that enabled people to talk directly with each other across large distances. Telephones became indispensable to businesses and households and are today some of the most used small appliances; the essential elements of a telephone are a microphone to speak into and an earphone which reproduces the voice in a distant location. In addition, most telephones contain a ringer to announce an incoming telephone call, a dial or keypad to enter a telephone number when initiating a call to another telephone.
The receiver and transmitter are built into a handset, held up to the ear and mouth during conversation. The dial may be located either on a base unit to which the handset is connected; the transmitter converts the sound waves to electrical signals which are sent through a telephone network to the receiving telephone, which converts the signals into audible sound in the receiver or sometimes a loudspeaker. Telephones are duplex devices; the first telephones were directly connected to each other from one customer's office or residence to another customer's location. Being impractical beyond just a few customers, these systems were replaced by manually operated centrally located switchboards; these exchanges were soon connected together forming an automated, worldwide public switched telephone network. For greater mobility, various radio systems were developed for transmission between mobile stations on ships and automobiles in the mid-20th century. Hand-held mobile phones were introduced for personal service starting in 1973.
In decades their analog cellular system evolved into digital networks with greater capability and lower cost. Convergence has given most modern cell phones capabilities far beyond simple voice conversation, they may be able to record spoken messages and receive text messages and display photographs or video, play music or games, surf the Internet, do road navigation or immerse the user in virtual reality. Since 1999, the trend for mobile phones is smartphones that integrate all mobile communication and computing needs. A traditional landline telephone system known as plain old telephone service carries both control and audio signals on the same twisted pair of insulated wires, the telephone line; the control and signaling equipment consists of three components, the ringer, the hookswitch, a dial. The ringer, or beeper, light or other device, alerts the user to incoming calls; the hookswitch signals to the central office that the user has picked up the handset to either answer a call or initiate a call.
A dial, if present, is used by the subscriber to transmit a telephone number to the central office when initiating a call. Until the 1960s dials used exclusively the rotary technology, replaced by dual-tone multi-frequency signaling with pushbutton telephones. A major expense of wire-line telephone service is the outside wire plant. Telephones transmit both the outgoing speech signals on a single pair of wires. A twisted pair line rejects electromagnetic interference and crosstalk better than a single wire or an untwisted pair; the strong outgoing speech signal from the microphone does not overpower the weaker incoming speaker signal with sidetone because a hybrid coil and other components compensate the imbalance. The junction box arrests lightning and adjusts the line's resistance to maximize the signal power for the line length. Telephones have similar adjustments for inside line lengths; the line voltages are negative compared to earth. Negative voltage attracts positive metal ions toward the wires.
The landline telephone contains a switchhook and an alerting device a ringer, that remains connected to the phone line whenever the phone is "on hook", other components which are connected when the phone is "off hook". The off-hook components include a transmitter, a receiver, other circuits for dialing and amplification. A calling party wishing to speak to another party will pick up the telephone's handset, thereby operating a lever which closes the switchhook, which powers the telephone by connecting the transmitter and related audio components to the line; the off-hook circuitry has a low resistance which causes a direct current, which comes down the line from the telephone exchange. The exchange detects this current, attaches a digit receiver circuit to the line, sends a dial tone to indicate readiness. On a modern push-button telephone, the caller presses the number keys to send the telephone number of the called party; the keys control a tone generator circuit. A rotary-dial telephone uses pulse
Code-division multiple access
Code-division multiple access is a channel access method used by various radio communication technologies. CDMA is an example of multiple access, where several transmitters can send information over a single communication channel; this allows several users to share a band of frequencies. To permit this without undue interference between the users, CDMA employs spread spectrum technology and a special coding scheme. CDMA is used as the access method in many mobile phone standards. IS-95 called "cdmaOne", its 3G evolution CDMA2000, are simply referred to as "CDMA", but UMTS, the 3G standard used by GSM carriers uses "wideband CDMA", or W-CDMA, as well as TD-CDMA and TD-SCDMA, as its radio technologies; the technology of code-division multiple access channels has long been known. In the Soviet Union, the first work devoted to this subject was published in 1935 by Dmitry Ageev, it was shown that through the use of linear methods, there are three types of signal separation: frequency and compensatory.
The technology of CDMA was used in 1957, when the young military radio engineer Leonid Kupriyanovich in Moscow made an experimental model of a wearable automatic mobile phone, called LK-1 by him, with a base station. LK-1 has a weight of 3 kg, 20–30 km operating distance, 20–30 hours of battery life; the base station, as described by the author, could serve several customers. In 1958, Kupriyanovich made the new experimental "pocket" model of mobile phone; this phone weighed 0.5 kg. To serve more customers, Kupriyanovich proposed the device, which he called "correlator." In 1958, the USSR started the development of the "Altai" national civil mobile phone service for cars, based on the Soviet MRT-1327 standard. The phone system weighed 11 kg, it was placed in the trunk of the vehicles of high-ranking officials and used a standard handset in the passenger compartment. The main developers of the Altai system were VNIIS and GSPI. In 1963 this service started in Moscow, in 1970 Altai service was used in 30 USSR cities.
One of the early applications for code-division multiplexing is in the Global Positioning System. This is distinct from its use in mobile phones; the Qualcomm standard IS-95, marketed as cdmaOne. The Qualcomm standard IS-2000, known as CDMA2000, is used by several mobile phone companies, including the Globalstar network; the UMTS 3G mobile phone standard, which uses W-CDMA. CDMA has been used in the OmniTRACS satellite system for transportation logistics. CDMA is a spread-spectrum multiple-access technique. A spread-spectrum technique spreads the bandwidth of the data uniformly for the same transmitted power. A spreading code is a pseudo-random code that has a narrow ambiguity function, unlike other narrow pulse codes. In CDMA a locally generated code runs at a much higher rate than the data to be transmitted. Data for transmission is combined by bitwise XOR with the faster code; the figure shows. The data signal with pulse duration of T b is XORed with the code signal with pulse duration of T c. Therefore, the bandwidth of the data signal is 1 / T b and the bandwidth of the spread spectrum signal is 1 / T c.
Since T c is much smaller than T b, the bandwidth of the spread-spectrum signal is much larger than the bandwidth of the original signal. The ratio T b / T c is called the spreading factor or processing gain and determines to a certain extent the upper limit of the total number of users supported by a base station; each user in a CDMA system uses a different code to modulate their signal. Choosing the codes used to modulate the signal is important in the performance of CDMA systems; the best performance occurs when there is good separation between the signal of a desired user and the signals of other users. The separation of the signals is made by correlating the received signal with the locally generated code of the desired user. If the signal matches the desired user's code the correlation function will be high and the system can extract that signal. If the desired user's code has nothing in common with the signal, the correlation should be as close to zero as possible. If the code is correlated with the signal at any time offset other than zero, the correlation should be as close to zero as possible.
This is used to reject multi-path interference. An analogy to the problem of multiple access is a room in which people wish to talk to each other simultaneously. To avoid confusion, people could take turns speaking, speak at different pitches, or speak in different languages. CDMA is analogous to the last example where people speaking the same language can understand each other, but other languages are perceived as noise and rejected. In radio CDMA, each group of users is given a shared code. Many codes occupy the same channel, but only users associated
Television, sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program, or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising and news. Television became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers. After World War II, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, television sets became commonplace in homes and institutions. During the 1950s, television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion. In the mid-1960s, color broadcasting was introduced in most other developed countries; the availability of multiple types of archival storage media such as Betamax, VHS tape, local disks, DVDs, flash drives, high-definition Blu-ray Discs, cloud digital video recorders has enabled viewers to watch pre-recorded material—such as movies—at home on their own time schedule.
For many reasons the convenience of remote retrieval, the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the cloud. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions increased in popularity. Another development was the move from standard-definition television to high-definition television, which provides a resolution, higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: 1080p, 720p. Since 2010, with the invention of smart television, Internet television has increased the availability of television programs and movies via the Internet through streaming video services such as Netflix, Amazon Video, iPlayer and Hulu. In 2013, 79 % of the world's households owned; the replacement of early bulky, high-voltage cathode ray tube screen displays with compact, energy-efficient, flat-panel alternative technologies such as LCDs, OLED displays, plasma displays was a hardware revolution that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel LEDs.
Major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. In the near future, LEDs are expected to be replaced by OLEDs. Major manufacturers have announced that they will produce smart TVs in the mid-2010s. Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s. Television signals were distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by coaxial cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and, since the 2000s via the Internet; until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010s. A standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is called a video monitor rather than a television.
The word television comes from Ancient Greek τῆλε, meaning'far', Latin visio, meaning'sight'. The first documented usage of the term dates back to 1900, when the Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi used it in a paper that he presented in French at the 1st International Congress of Electricity, which ran from 18 to 25 August 1900 during the International World Fair in Paris; the Anglicised version of the term is first attested in 1907, when it was still "...a theoretical system to transmit moving images over telegraph or telephone wires". It was "...formed in English or borrowed from French télévision." In the 19th century and early 20th century, other "...proposals for the name of a then-hypothetical technology for sending pictures over distance were telephote and televista." The abbreviation "TV" is from 1948. The use of the term to mean "a television set" dates from 1941; the use of the term to mean "television as a medium" dates from 1927. The slang term "telly" is more common in the UK; the slang term "the tube" or the "boob tube" derives from the bulky cathode ray tube used on most TVs until the advent of flat-screen TVs.
Another slang term for the TV is "idiot box". In the 1940s and throughout the 1950s, during the early rapid growth of television programming and television-set ownership in the United States, another slang term became used in that period and continues to be used today to distinguish productions created for broadcast on television from films developed for presentation in movie theaters; the "small screen", as both a compound adjective and noun, became specific references to television, while the "big screen" was used to identify productions made for theatrical release. Facsimile transmission systems for still photographs pioneered methods of mechanical scanning of images in the early 19th century. Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between 1843 and 1846. Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in 1851. Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium in 1873; as a 23-year-old German university student, Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow proposed and patented the Nipkow disk in 1884.
This was a spinning disk with a spiral pattern of holes in it, so each hole scanned a line of the image. Although he never built a working model
The World Factbook
The World Factbook known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. The official print version is available from the Government Printing Office. Other companies—such as Skyhorse Publishing—also print a paper edition; the Factbook is available in the form of a website, updated every week. It is available for download for use off-line, it provides a two- to three-page summary of the demographics, communications, government and military of each of 267 international entities including U. S.-recognized countries and other areas in the world. The World Factbook is prepared by the CIA for the use of U. S. government officials, its style, format and content are designed to meet their requirements. However, it is used as a resource for academic research papers and news articles; as a work of the U. S. government, it is in the public domain in the United States. In researching the Factbook, the CIA uses the sources listed below.
Other public and private sources are consulted. Antarctic Information Program Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center Bureau of the Census Bureau of Labor Statistics Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs Defense Intelligence Agency Department of Energy Department of State Fish and Wildlife Service Maritime Administration National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Naval Facilities Engineering Command Office of Insular Affairs Office of Naval Intelligence Oil & Gas Journal United States Board on Geographic Names United States Transportation Command Because the Factbook is in the public domain, people are free under United States law to redistribute it or parts of it in any way that they like, without permission of the CIA. However, the CIA requests. Copying the official seal of the CIA without permission is prohibited by U. S. federal law—specifically, the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949. Before November 2001 The World Factbook website was updated yearly. Information available as of January 1 of the current year is used in preparing the Factbook.
The first, edition of Factbook was published in August 1962, the first unclassified version in June 1971. The World Factbook was first available to the public in print in 1975. In 2008 the CIA discontinued printing the Factbook themselves, instead turning printing responsibilities over to the Government Printing Office; this happened due to a CIA decision to "focus Factbook resources" on the online edition. The Factbook has been on the World Wide Web since October 1994; the web version receives an average of 6 million visits per month. The official printed version is sold by the Government Printing Office and National Technical Information Service. In past years, the Factbook was available on CD-ROM, magnetic tape, floppy disk. Many Internet sites use information and images from the CIA World Factbook. Several publishers, including Grand River Books, Potomac Books, Skyhorse Publishing have re-published the Factbook in recent years; as of July 2011, The World Factbook comprises 267 entities, which can be divided into the following categories: Independent countries The CIA defines these as people "politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory."
In this category, there are 195 entities. Others Places set apart from the list of independent countries. There are two: Taiwan and the European Union. Dependencies and Areas of Special Sovereignty Places affiliated with another country, they may be subcategorized by affiliated country: Australia: six entities China: two entities Denmark: two entities France: eight entities Netherlands: three entities New Zealand: three entities Norway: three entities United Kingdom: seventeen entities United States: fourteen entitiesMiscellaneous Antarctica and places in dispute. There are six such entities. Other entities The World and the oceans. There are the World. Areas not covered Specific regions within a country or areas in dispute among countries, such as Kashmir, are not covered, but other areas of the world whose status is disputed, such as the Spratly Islands, have entries. Subnational areas of countries are not included in the Factbook. Instead, users looking for information about subnational areas are referred to "a comprehensive encyclopedia" for their reference needs.
This criterion was invoked in the 2007 and 2011 editions with the decision to drop the entries for French Guiana, Martinique and Reunion. They were dropped because besides being overseas departments, they were now overseas regions, an integral part of France. Kashmir Maps depicting Kashmir have the Indo-Pakistani border drawn at the Line of Control, but the region of Kashmir administered by China drawn in hash marks. Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus, which the U. S. considers part of the Republic of Cyprus, is not given a separate entry because "territorial occupations/annexations not recognized by the United States Government are not shown on U. S. Government maps."Taiwan/Republic of China The name
Movistar is a major telecommunications brand owned by Telefónica, operating in Spain and in many Hispanic American countries. It is the largest mobile phone operator in Spain with 22 million customers and 41.58% of market share, where it markets landline and pay television. Its principal competitor in Latin America is América Móvil; the Movistar brand has been in use in Spain since the launch of GSM services in 1995. The name became effective worldwide on April 5, 2005, after Telefónica purchased the BellSouth mobile operations branch in South America. After the purchase of O2 in 2005 by Telefónica, the company announced that the O2 brand would continue to be used in the UK, Germany and Ireland, as a separate branch with its own board and management structure. Since 2011, Telefónica has sponsored a UCI ProTeam squad in cycling under the name of Movistar Team, since 2014, the MotoGP team Movistar Yamaha MotoGP. A Disney and Telefónica deal brought Star Wars programming to Movistar+ schedule during October and November 2015 plus a pop up Star Wars pay channel starting in early December leading up to Force Awakens.
The programming consisted of making of documentaries. Among the extra include San Diego Comic-Con The Star Wars Celebration program, Star Wars Universe documentary and The Fans' Empire. Disney and Moviestar pop up channel leading up The Last Jedi. Duplicating the Sky Movies Disney arrangement in the UK, Movistar+ launched Movistar Disney on 22 December 2017. Argentina Chile Colombia Costa Rica Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Mexico Nicaragua Panama Peru Spain Uruguay Venezuela Brazil Germany United Kingdom Czech republic The 1983 song "Walking on Sunshine" by Katrina and the Waves was used by Telefónica to announce the unification of all its operation brands in Latin America and Spain under the Movistar brand after the takeover of BellSouth's Latin America division.1. Movistar has used the New Radicals' hit "You Get What You Give", "Two Princes" by Spin Doctors and "Hey, Soul Sister" by Train, other versions of the song, in audiovisual advertisement. Movistar Team Movistar Global Website Movistar España Movistar México