Central Intelligence Agency
The Central Intelligence Agency is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States, tasked with gathering and analyzing national security information from around the world through the use of human intelligence. As one of the principal members of the United States Intelligence Community, the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is focused on providing intelligence for the President and Cabinet of the United States. Unlike the Federal Bureau of Investigation, a domestic security service, the CIA has no law enforcement function and is focused on overseas intelligence gathering, with only limited domestic intelligence collection. Though it is not the only agency of the Federal government of the United States specializing in HUMINT, the CIA serves as the national manager for coordination of HUMINT activities across the U. S. intelligence community. Moreover, the CIA is the only agency authorized by law to carry out and oversee covert action at the behest of the President.
It exerts foreign political influence through its tactical divisions, such as the Special Activities Division. Before the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, the CIA Director concurrently served as the head of the Intelligence Community. Despite transferring some of its powers to the DNI, the CIA has grown in size as a result of the September 11 attacks. In 2013, The Washington Post reported that in fiscal year 2010, the CIA had the largest budget of all IC agencies, exceeding previous estimates; the CIA has expanded its role, including covert paramilitary operations. One of its largest divisions, the Information Operations Center, has shifted focus from counter-terrorism to offensive cyber-operations; when the CIA was created, its purpose was to create a clearinghouse for foreign policy intelligence and analysis. Today its primary purpose is to collect, analyze and disseminate foreign intelligence, to perform covert actions. According to its fiscal 2013 budget, the CIA has five priorities: Counterterrorism, the top priority Nonproliferation of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction.
Warning/informing American leaders of important overseas events. Counterintelligence Cyber intelligence; the CIA has an executive office and five major directorates: The Directorate of Digital Innovation The Directorate of Analysis The Directorate of Operations The Directorate of Support The Directorate of Science and Technology The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation and reports directly to the Director of National Intelligence. The Deputy Director is formally appointed by the Director without Senate confirmation, but as the President's opinion plays a great role in the decision, the Deputy Director is considered a political position, making the Chief Operating Officer the most senior non-political position for CIA career officers; the Executive Office supports the U. S. military by providing it with information it gathers, receiving information from military intelligence organizations, cooperates on field activities. The Executive Director is in charge of the day-to-day operation of the CIA.
Each branch of the military service has its own Director. The Associate Director of military affairs, a senior military officer, manages the relationship between the CIA and the Unified Combatant Commands, who produce and deliver to the CIA regional/operational intelligence and consume national intelligence produced by the CIA; the Directorate of Analysis, through much of its history known as the Directorate of Intelligence, is tasked with helping "the President and other policymakers make informed decisions about our country's national security" by looking "at all the available information on an issue and organiz it for policymakers". The Directorate has four regional analytic groups, six groups for transnational issues, three that focus on policy and staff support. There is an office dedicated to Iraq; the Directorate of Operations is responsible for collecting foreign intelligence, for covert action. The name reflects its role as the coordinator of human intelligence activities between other elements of the wider U.
S. intelligence community with their own HUMINT operations. This Directorate was created in an attempt to end years of rivalry over influence and budget between the United States Department of Defense and the CIA. In spite of this, the Department of Defense organized its own global clandestine intelligence service, the Defense Clandestine Service, under the Defense Intelligence Agency; this Directorate is known to be organized by geographic regions and issues, but its precise organization is classified. The Directorate of Science & Technology was established to research and manage technical collection disciplines and equipment. Many of its innovations were transferred to other intelligence organizations, or, as they became more overt, to the military services. For example, the development of the U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft was done in cooperation with the United States Air
A television set or television receiver, more called a television, TV, TV set, or telly, is a device that combines a tuner and loudspeakers for the purpose of viewing television. Introduced in the late 1920s in mechanical form, television sets became a popular consumer product after World War II in electronic form, using cathode ray tubes; the addition of color to broadcast television after 1953 further increased the popularity of television sets in the 1960s, an outdoor antenna became a common feature of suburban homes. The ubiquitous television set became the display device for the first recorded media in the 1970s, such as Betamax, VHS and DVD, it was the display device for the first generation of home computers and video game consoles in the 1980s. In the 2010s flat panel television incorporating liquid-crystal displays LED-backlit LCDs replaced cathode ray tubes and other displays. Modern flat panel TVs are capable of high-definition display and can play content from a USB device. Mechanical televisions were commercially sold from 1928 to 1934 in the United Kingdom, United States, Soviet Union.
The earliest commercially made televisions were radios with the addition of a television device consisting of a neon tube behind a mechanically spinning disk with a spiral of apertures that produced a red postage-stamp size image, enlarged to twice that size by a magnifying glass. The Baird "Televisor" is considered the first mass-produced television, selling about a thousand units. In 1926, Kenjiro Takayanagi demonstrated the first TV system that employed a cathode ray tube display, at Hamamatsu Industrial High School in Japan; this was the first working example of a electronic television receiver. His research toward creating a production model was halted by the US after Japan lost World War II; the first commercially made electronic televisions with cathode ray tubes were manufactured by Telefunken in Germany in 1934, followed by other makers in France and America. The cheapest model with a 12-inch screen was $445. An estimated 19,000 electronic televisions were manufactured in Britain, about 1,600 in Germany, before World War II.
About 7,000–8,000 electronic sets were made in the U. S. before the War Production Board halted manufacture in April 1942, production resuming in August 1945. Television usage in the western world skyrocketed after World War II with the lifting of the manufacturing freeze, war-related technological advances, the drop in television prices caused by mass production, increased leisure time, additional disposable income. While only 0.5% of U. S. households had a television in 1946, 55.7% had one in 1954, 90% by 1962. In Britain, there were 15,000 television households in 1947, 1.4 million in 1952, 15.1 million by 1968. By the late 1960s and early 1970s, color television had come into wide use. In Britain, BBC1, BBC2 and ITV were broadcasting in colour by 1969. During the first decade of the 21st century, CRT "picture tube" display technology was entirely supplanted worldwide by flat panel displays. By the early 2010s, LCD TVs, which used LED-backlit LCDs, accounted for the overwhelming majority of television sets being manufactured.
Television sets may employ one of several available display technologies. As of the mid-2010s, LCDs overwhelmingly predominate in new merchandise, but OLED displays are claiming an increasing market share as they become more affordable and DLP technology continues to offer some advantages in projection systems; the production of plasma and CRT displays has been completely discontinued. There are four primary competing TV technologies: CRT LCD OLED Plasma The cathode ray tube is a vacuum tube containing one or more electron guns and a fluorescent screen used to view images, it has a means to deflect the electron beam onto the screen to create the images. The images may represent electrical waveforms, radar targets or others; the CRT uses an evacuated glass envelope, large, deep heavy, fragile. As a matter of safety, both the face and back were made of thick lead glass so as to be block most electron emissions from the electron gun in the back of the tube. By the early 1970s, most color TVs replaced leaded glass in the face panel with vitrified barium glass, which blocked electron gun emissions but allowed better color visibility.
This eliminated the need for cadmium phosphors in earlier color televisions. Leaded glass, less expensive, continued to be used in the funnel glass, not visible to the consumer. In television sets and computer monitors, the entire front area of the tube is scanned repetitively and systematically in a fixed pattern called a raster. An image is produced by controlling the intensity of each of the three electron beams, one for each additive primary color with a video signal as a reference. In all modern CRT monitors and televisions, the beams are bent by magnetic deflection, a varying magnetic field generated by coils and driven by electronic circuits around the neck of the tube, although electrostatic deflection is used in oscilloscopes, a type of diagnostic instrument. Digital Light Processing is a type of projector technology; some DLPs have a TV tuner, which makes them a type
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe
Intelsat Corporation—formerly INTEL-SAT, INTELSAT, Intelsat—is a communications satellite services provider. Formed as International Telecommunications Satellite Organization, it was—from 1964 to 2001—an intergovernmental consortium owning and managing a constellation of communications satellites providing international broadcast services; as of March 2011, Intelsat operates a fleet of 52 communications satellites, one of the world's largest fleet of commercial satellites. They claim to serve around 1,500 customers and employ a staff of 1,100 people. John F. Kennedy instigated the creation of INTELSAT with his speech to the United Nations on the 25th of September 1961. Less than a year John F. Kennedy signed the Communications Satellite Act of 1962. INTELSAT was formed as International Telecommunications Satellite Organization and operated from 1964 to 2001 as an intergovernmental consortium owning and managing a constellation of communications satellites providing international broadcast services.
In 2001, the international satellite market was commercialized, the US predominant role in INTELSAT was privatized after 2001 as Intelsat was formed up as a private Luxembourg corporation. The International Governmental Organization began on 20 August 1964, with 7 participating countries; the 1964 agreement was an interim arrangement on a path to a more permanent agreement. The permanent international organization was established in 1973, following inter-nation negotiations from 1969 to 1971; the most difficult issue to "resolve concerned the shift from management of the system by a national entity to management by the international organization itself."On 6 April 1965, INTELSAT's first satellite, the Intelsat I, was placed in geostationary orbit above the Atlantic Ocean by a Delta D rocket. In 1973, the name was changed and there were 81 signatories. INTELSAT was "governed by two international agreements: The Agreement setting forth the basic provisions and principles and structure of the organization, signed by the governments through their foreign ministries, an Operating Agreement setting forth more detailed financial and technical provisions and signed by the governments or their designated telecommunications entities."—in most cases the latter are the ministries of communications of the party countries, but in the case of the United States, was the Communications Satellite Corporation, a private corporation established by federal legislation to represent the US in international governance for the global communication satellite system.
INTELSAT at that time directly owned and managed a global communications satellite system, structurally consisted of three parts: the Assembly of Parties—meeting every two years and concerned with aspects "primarily of interest to the Parties as sovereign States."—with each country having one vote. The Meeting of Signatories—meeting annually and composed of all the signatories to the Operating Agreement—primarily working on financial and program matters, with each countries' signatory having one vote. A Board of Governors, meeting at least four times each year, making decisions on design, establishment and maintenance of the in-space assets, appointed by signatories, but weighted to each signatories "investment share" in the space assets; the 1973 Agreement called for a seven-year transition from national to international management, but continued until 1976 to carve out "technical and operational management of the system the Communications Satellite Corporation served as the Manager of the global system under the interim arrangements in force from 1964 to 1973."
Phases of the transition resulted in full international governance by 1980. Financial contribution to the organization, it's so-called "investment share," was proportional to each member's use of the system, determined annually. Intelsat provides service to over 600 Earth stations in more than 149 countries and dependencies. By 2001, INTELSAT had over 100 members, it was this year that INTELSAT privatized and changed its name to Intelsat. Since its inception, Intelsat has used several versions of its dedicated Intelsat satellites. Intelsat completes each block of spacecraft independently, leading to a variety of contractors over the years. Intelsat’s largest spacecraft supplier is Space Systems/Loral, having built 31 spacecraft, or nearly half of the fleet; the network in its early years was not as robust. A failure of the Atlantic satellite in the spring of 1969 threatened to stop the Apollo 11 mission. During the Apollo 11 moonwalk, the moon was over the Pacific Ocean, so other antennas were used, as well as INTELSAT III, in geostationary orbit over the Pacific.
By the 1990s, building and launching satellites was no longer a government domain and as country-specific telecommunications systems were privatized, several private satellite operators arose to meet the growing demand. In the U. S. satellite operators such as PanAmSat, Orion Communications, Columbia Communications, Globalstar, TRW and others formed under the umbrella of the Alliance for Competitive International Satellite Services to press for an end to the IGOs and the monopoly position of COMSAT the US signatory to Intelsat and Inmarsat. In March 2001, the US Congress passed the Open Market Reorganisation for the B
The World Factbook
The World Factbook known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. The official print version is available from the Government Printing Office. Other companies—such as Skyhorse Publishing—also print a paper edition; the Factbook is available in the form of a website, updated every week. It is available for download for use off-line, it provides a two- to three-page summary of the demographics, communications, government and military of each of 267 international entities including U. S.-recognized countries and other areas in the world. The World Factbook is prepared by the CIA for the use of U. S. government officials, its style, format and content are designed to meet their requirements. However, it is used as a resource for academic research papers and news articles; as a work of the U. S. government, it is in the public domain in the United States. In researching the Factbook, the CIA uses the sources listed below.
Other public and private sources are consulted. Antarctic Information Program Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center Bureau of the Census Bureau of Labor Statistics Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs Defense Intelligence Agency Department of Energy Department of State Fish and Wildlife Service Maritime Administration National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Naval Facilities Engineering Command Office of Insular Affairs Office of Naval Intelligence Oil & Gas Journal United States Board on Geographic Names United States Transportation Command Because the Factbook is in the public domain, people are free under United States law to redistribute it or parts of it in any way that they like, without permission of the CIA. However, the CIA requests. Copying the official seal of the CIA without permission is prohibited by U. S. federal law—specifically, the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949. Before November 2001 The World Factbook website was updated yearly. Information available as of January 1 of the current year is used in preparing the Factbook.
The first, edition of Factbook was published in August 1962, the first unclassified version in June 1971. The World Factbook was first available to the public in print in 1975. In 2008 the CIA discontinued printing the Factbook themselves, instead turning printing responsibilities over to the Government Printing Office; this happened due to a CIA decision to "focus Factbook resources" on the online edition. The Factbook has been on the World Wide Web since October 1994; the web version receives an average of 6 million visits per month. The official printed version is sold by the Government Printing Office and National Technical Information Service. In past years, the Factbook was available on CD-ROM, magnetic tape, floppy disk. Many Internet sites use information and images from the CIA World Factbook. Several publishers, including Grand River Books, Potomac Books, Skyhorse Publishing have re-published the Factbook in recent years; as of July 2011, The World Factbook comprises 267 entities, which can be divided into the following categories: Independent countries The CIA defines these as people "politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory."
In this category, there are 195 entities. Others Places set apart from the list of independent countries. There are two: Taiwan and the European Union. Dependencies and Areas of Special Sovereignty Places affiliated with another country, they may be subcategorized by affiliated country: Australia: six entities China: two entities Denmark: two entities France: eight entities Netherlands: three entities New Zealand: three entities Norway: three entities United Kingdom: seventeen entities United States: fourteen entitiesMiscellaneous Antarctica and places in dispute. There are six such entities. Other entities The World and the oceans. There are the World. Areas not covered Specific regions within a country or areas in dispute among countries, such as Kashmir, are not covered, but other areas of the world whose status is disputed, such as the Spratly Islands, have entries. Subnational areas of countries are not included in the Factbook. Instead, users looking for information about subnational areas are referred to "a comprehensive encyclopedia" for their reference needs.
This criterion was invoked in the 2007 and 2011 editions with the decision to drop the entries for French Guiana, Martinique and Reunion. They were dropped because besides being overseas departments, they were now overseas regions, an integral part of France. Kashmir Maps depicting Kashmir have the Indo-Pakistani border drawn at the Line of Control, but the region of Kashmir administered by China drawn in hash marks. Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus, which the U. S. considers part of the Republic of Cyprus, is not given a separate entry because "territorial occupations/annexations not recognized by the United States Government are not shown on U. S. Government maps."Taiwan/Republic of China The name
Coat of arms of El Salvador
The coat of arms of El Salvador has been in use in its current form since 15 September 1912. The coat of arms of El Salvador has Medieval Gothic influences as well as geographical and Native American Indigenous symbolic representations, all of which come together in a distinctive, stylized shield design, its center consists of a bold golden amber triangle outline, in which a row of five mighty and proud green forested coned volcanoes, depicting a tropical Jurassic landscape, rise out of the massive cobalt blue Pacific Ocean swells, symbolizing the fellowship of the five original isthmian member states of the United Provinces of Central America. The volcanoes are illuminated yellow on their right sides by sunshine. Above the volcanoes is a crimson red Phrygian cap on a staff before an amber sun with spiraling swirling rays, with a brilliant volcanic "red sky at morning" under the sun in the horizon; the date of the Independence Day of El Salvador, 15 September 1821, is written in black letters around the sun.
On the top, there is a rainbow arch in a biblical symbol of peace. The colors in the rainbow from top to bottom are red, yellow and blue. Behind the coat of arms there are five cobalt blue and white striped flags representing the flags of the Federal Republic of Central America; the flags hang loosely on their sides, creating a horn-like effect with their ends tied up behind the triangle's bottom. All of the five flags are each held up and raised with Native American Indigenous wooden war spears, with obsidian Clovis projectile points, tied with feathers, symbolizing El Salvador's American Indigenous ancestry and heritage; the spears represent the spirit and heroism of the Lenca and Pipil warriors, who defeated the first attempted Spanish conquest of Cuzcatlan. Spanish conquistador Pedro de Alvarado wrote that he was awestruck and spooked in great fear when he saw the massive numbers of American Indigenous warriors with large spears and bows as their weaponry standing their ground in their battle against the invading Spaniards.
Under the triangle, there is a golden amber scroll which states the national motto of El Salvador: Dios, Unión, Libertad in boldface black capital letters. The triangle and scroll are surrounded by a green laurel wreath tied together with a cobalt blue and white striped ribbon representing the national flag, which symbolizes unity; the laurel wreath is divided into 14 different parts, which symbolize the 14 Departments, the Salvadoran subnational administrative units. All this is surrounded by golden amber letters, which form the Spanish words REPÚBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMÉRICA CENTRAL in boldface capital letters. For special occasions, the whole entire coat of arms of El Salvador is stylized in amber gold color with a white or royal cobalt blue background; the coat of arms of El Salvador is sometimes shown in silhouette
Spanish conquest of El Salvador
The Spanish conquest of El Salvador was the campaign undertaken by the Spanish conquistadores against the Late Postclassic Mesoamerican polities in the territory, now incorporated into the modern Central American nation of El Salvador. El Salvador is the smallest country in Central America, is dominated by two mountain ranges running east-west, its climate is tropical, the year is divided into wet and dry seasons. Before the conquest the country formed a part of the Mesoamerican cultural region, was inhabited by a number of indigenous peoples, including the Pipil, the Lenca, the Xinca, Maya. Native weaponry consisted of spears and arrows, wooden swords with inset stone blades; the Spanish conquistadores were volunteers, receiving the spoils of victory instead of a salary. The Spanish expeditions to Central America were launched from three different Spanish jurisdictions, resulting in rival conquests by mutually hostile Spanish captains. Spanish weaponry included swords, firearms and light artillery.
Metal armour was impractical in the hot, humid climate of Central America and the Spanish were quick to adopt the quilted cotton armour of the natives. The conquistadors were supported by a large number of Indian auxiliaries drawn from encountered Mesoamerican groups; the first campaign against the native inhabitants was undertaken in 1524 by Pedro de Alvarado. Alvarado launched his expedition against the Pipil province of Cuscatlan from the Guatemalan Highlands, but by July 1524 he had retreated back to Guatemala. Gonzalo de Alvarado founded San Salvador the following year, but it was eradicated by a native attack in 1526, during a general uprising that spread across the region. Pedro de Alvarado returned to campaign in El Salvador in 1526 and 1528, in the latter year, Diego de Alvarado reestablished San Salvador and issued encomiendas to his supporters. In 1528, the uprising ended when the Spanish stormed the native stronghold at the Peñol de Cinacantan. In 1529, El Salvador became embroiled in a jurisdictional dispute with neighbouring Nicaragua.
Pedrarias Dávila sent Martín de Estete at the head of an expedition to annex the territory to Nicaragua. Estete captured the leader of a rival Spanish expedition in eastern El Salvador, marched on San Salvador, before being repulsed by a relief force sent from Guatemala. In 1530, Pedro de Alvarado ordered the establishment of a new settlement at San Miguel, in the east of the country, to protect against further incursions from Nicaragua, to assist in the conquest of the surrounding area. Indigenous uprisings against the invaders continued; the general uprising across the two provinces was put down by the end of 1538, by 1539 the province was considered pacified. The conquistadores discovered that there was little gold or silver to be found in El Salvador, it became a colonial backwater with a small Spanish population, within the jurisdiction of the Captaincy General of Guatemala. El Salvador is the smallest country in Central America, extending 261 kilometres east-west and 100 kilometres north-south, covering an area of 21,040 square kilometres.
It is located on the Pacific coast of Central America and is bordered by Guatemala to the west, Honduras to the north and east. The country is seismologically active, has a history of devastating earthquakes and volcanic eruptions; the country is divided into four main regions. The northern range is the Sierra Madre, rising to an altitude of 2,200 metres follow the border with Honduras; the southern range is a volcanic chain composed of more than 20 volcanoes clustered in five groups. The Santa Ana Volcano rises near the Guatemalan border to an altitude of 2,365 metres; the Pacific Lowlands form a narrow littoral plain running along the south coast. El Salvador has over 300 rivers draining into the Pacific; the Lempa River is the only navigable river, flows from Guatemala through the Sierra Madre and along the central plateau, before crossing the volcanic chain to drain into the Pacific Ocean, dividing the country into defined western and eastern regions. Most of the other rivers are short, flowing either from the central plateau through gaps in the volcanic chain, or draining the coastal plain.
El Salvador has a tropical climate with a narrow temperature variation dependent upon altitude, with the average temperature ranging between 18.0 and 32.0 °C. At the highest altitudes, the temperature can drop below freezing; the country experiences a dry season from mid-November to mid-April and a rainy season from mid-May to mid-October. El Salvador has one of the highest rainfalls in Latin America, varying from an average annual rainfall of 170 centimetres on the Pacific coast to 240 centimetres in the highlands of the Sierra Madre. Before the conquest, El Salvador formed a part of the Mesoamerican cultural region; the central and western portions of the territory were inhabited by the Pipil, a Nahua people related to the Aztecs of Mexico. The Pipil were divided into three main provinces in El Salvador. Cuscatlan extended from the Paz River in the west to the Lempa River in the east. Izalco lay to the southwest of Cuscatlan and was subservient to it on the eve of the Spanish conquest.