Economy of Eritrea
The Economy of Eritrea has experienced considerable growth in recent years, indicated by an improvement in Gross domestic product in October 2012 of 7.5 percent over 2011. However, worker remittances from abroad are estimated to account for 32 percent of gross domestic product. Eritrea has an extensive amount of resources such as copper, granite and potash; the Eritrean economy has undergone extreme changes due to the War of Independence. In 2011, Eritrea's GDP grew by 8.7 percent making it one of the fastest growing economies in the world. The Economist Intelligence Unit expects it to maintain a high growth rate of 8.5 percent in 2013. In the early 1950s, when Eritrea was awarded to Ethiopia, it possessed a far more sophisticated urban and industrial infrastructure than Ethiopia. Eritrean critics said industrialization in the years since focused on other parts of Ethiopia. Ethiopia nationalized Eritrea's 42 largest factories and systematically dismantled the Eritrean industrial sector during the protracted civil war.
By the time of its independence from Ethiopia in 1991, Eritrea's economy had been destroyed by war and was dependent on income from ports and its small agricultural base. The onset of conflict with Ethiopia, which lasted from 1998 to 2000, halted all bilateral trade reducing port activity and income in Eritrea. According to World Bank estimates, Eritrea lost US$225 million worth of livestock and 55,000 homes during the war. GDP growth fell to zero in 1999 and to -1% in 2000. Planting of crops was prevented in Eritrea's most productive western region, causing food production to drop by 62%. Damage to public buildings is estimated at US$24 million. Eritrea's GDP, estimated at $4.037 billion in 2011, is 8.7 percent above the GDP in 2010. The growth was due to increased agricultural output and the expansion of the mining industry along with increasing gold prices. Breakdowns of the Eritrean economy by sector are not available; the growth of the GDP, however, is compromised by the ongoing and tensions with the country's borders.
In 2004, agriculture employed nearly 80 percent of the population but accounted for only 12.4 percent of gross domestic product in Eritrea. The agricultural sector has improved with the use of modern farming equipment and techniques, dams, it is compromised by a lack of financial services and investment. Major agricultural products are barley, dairy products, meat, leather, sorghum and wheat; the displacement of 1 million Eritreans as a result of the war with Ethiopia, the widespread presence of land mines all have played a role in the declining productivity of the agricultural sector. A quarter of the country's most productive land remains unoccupied because of the lingering effects of the 1998–2000 war with Ethiopia. Although forestry is not a significant economic activity in Eritrea, its forested area covers 1,585,000 hectares, or 13.5 percent of the total land area. Total roundwood production in 2004 was nearly all of it used for fuel. Since 1993, the Eritrean People's Liberation Front army has been involved in tree planting and other afforestation activities.
Reliable figures on the extent and value of the fishing industry in Eritrea are difficult to obtain. However, Eritrea's long coastline offers the opportunity for significant expansion of the fishing industry from its current artisanal, stage. Eritrea exports fish and sea cucumbers from the Red Sea to markets in Europe and Asia, there is hope that the construction of a new, jet-capable airport in Massawa, as well as rehabilitation of the port there, may support increased exports of high-value seafood. In 2002, exports were about 14,000 tons, but the maximum stable yield is thought to be nearly 80,000 tons. A fish processing plant was built in 1998 that now exports 150 tons of frozen fish every month to markets in Britain and the Netherlands. Tensions with Yemen over fishing rights in the Red Sea flared up in 1995 and again in 2002, Eritrea's difficult relations with other nations could hamper further development of the industry. Sheep, goats and camels make up the majority of Eritrea's livestock.
In 2001, Eritrea had 2,100,000 sheep, 1,700,000 goats, 1,950,000 head of cattle, 75,000 camels, 1.4 million chickens. Total meat production that year was 30,900 tons; the government is emphasizing development of agriculture and animal husbandry in order to decrease the reliance on international relief, caused by war. Eritrea's substantial mineral deposits are unexplored. According to the Eritrean government, artisanal mining in 1998 collected 573.4 kilograms of gold, however the number of gold reserves is unknown. International observers have noted Eritrea's excellent potential for quarrying ornamental marble and granite; as of 2001, some 10 mining companies had obtained licenses to prospect for different minerals in Eritrea. The government of Eritrea is in the process of conducting a geological survey for use by potential investors in the mining sector; the presence of hundreds of thousands of land mines in Eritrea along the border with Ethiopia, presents a serious impediment to future development of the mining sector.
Nevsun Resources completed its Bisha mining project in early 2011. Estimated production will be 350,000 ounces of gold per year until the gold runs out, at which point the mine will produce copper and zinc. By the end the War of Independence, all i
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
International Telecommunication Union
The International Telecommunication Union the International Telegraph Union, is a specialized agency of the United Nations, responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies. It is the oldest among all the 15 specialised agencies of UN; the ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum, promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world, assists in the development and coordination of worldwide technical standards. The ITU is active in areas including broadband Internet, latest-generation wireless technologies and maritime navigation, radio astronomy, satellite-based meteorology, convergence in fixed-mobile phone, Internet access, voice, TV broadcasting, next-generation networks; the agency organizes worldwide and regional exhibitions and forums, such as ITU Telecom World, bringing together representatives of government and the telecommunications and ICT industry to exchange ideas and technology.
ITU, based in Geneva, Switzerland, is a member of the United Nations Development Group, has 12 regional and area offices in the world. ITU has been an intergovernmental public–private partnership organization since its inception, its membership includes 193 Member States and around 800 public and private sector companies, academic institutions as well as international and regional telecommunication entities, known as Sector Members and Associates, which undertake most of the work of each Sector. ITU was formed in Paris, at the International Telegraph Convention; the International Radiotelegraph Union was unofficially established at first International Radiotelegraph Convention in 1906. Both were merged into the International Telecommunication Union in 1932. ITU became a United Nations specialized agency in 1947; the ITU comprises three sectors, each managing a different aspect of the matters handled by the Union, as well as ITU Telecom. The sectors were created during the restructuring of ITU at its 1992 Plenipotentiary Conference.
Radio communication Established in 1927 as the International Radio Consultative Committee or CCIR, this sector manages the international radio-frequency spectrum and satellite orbit resources. In 1992, the CCIR became the ITU-R. Standardisation Standardisation was the original purpose of ITU since its inception. Established in 1956 as the International Telephone and Telegraph Consultative Committee or CCITT, this sector standardizes global telecommunications. In 1993, the CCITT became the ITU-T. Development Established in 1992, this sector helps spread equitable and affordable access to information and communication technologies. ITU Telecom ITU Telecom organizes major events for the world's ICT community. A permanent General Secretariat, headed by the Secretary General, manages the day-to-day work of the Union and its sectors; the basic texts of the ITU are adopted by the ITU Plenipotentiary Conference. The founding document of the ITU was the 1865 International Telegraph Convention, which has since been amended several times and is now entitled the "Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union".
In addition to the Constitution and Convention, the consolidated basic texts include the Optional Protocol on the settlement of disputes, the Decisions and Recommendations in force, as well as the General Rules of Conferences and Meetings of the Union. The ITU is headed by a Secretary-General, a Deputy Secretary General and the three directors of the Bureaux, who are elected to a four-year terms by the member states at the ITU Plenipotentiary Conference. On 23 October 2014 Houlin Zhao was elected 19th Secretary-General of the ITU at the Plenipotentiary Conference in Busan, Republic of Korea, his four-year mandate started on 1 January 2015, he was formally inaugurated on 15 January 2015. Houlin Zhao was reelected at the 2018 Plenipotentiary Conference in Dubai. Membership of ITU is open to only Member States of the United Nations, which may join the Union as Member States, as well as to private organizations like carriers, equipment manufacturers, funding bodies and development organizations and international and regional telecommunication organizations, which may join ITU as non-voting Sector Members.
There are 193 Member States of the ITU, including all UN member states except the Republic of Palau, plus the Vatican City. The most recent member state to join the ITU is South Sudan, which became a member on 14 July 2011; the Republic of China was blocked from membership by the People's Republic of China, but received a country code, being listed as "Taiwan, China". Palestine was admitted as an observer in 2010. Six Regional Offices and seven Area Offices guarantee a regional presence of ITU: Regional Office for CSI Africa Regional Office in Addis Ababa, with Area Offices in Dakar and Yaoundé Arab States Regional Office in Cairo Asia-Pacific Regional Office in Bangkok, with Area Office in Jakarta America Regional Office in Brasilia, with Area Offices in Bridgetown and Tegucigalpa; the sixth is a Coordination office for Europe Region Europe at ITU Headquarters. Other Regional organizations, connected to ITU, are: Asia-Pacific Telecommunity Arab Spectrum Management Group African Telecommunications Union European Conference of Posta
Telecommunications in Angola
Telecommunications in Angola include telephone, radio and the Internet. The government controls all broadcast media with a nationwide reach. In 2001, toward the end of Angolan Civil War, the government began adopting regulations to liberalize the telecom industry; this enabled private investments to revitalize the country’s telecommunications infrastructure, damaged by the decades-long conflict. By 2012, Angola had one of the largest mobile telecom markets in sub-Saharan Africa and Internet access was growing steadily; the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications oversees the telecommunications sector, regulated by the Angolan National Institute of Telecommunication. 29 satellite earth stations. SAT-3/WASC fiber optic submarine cable provides connectivity to Europe and Asia. AngoSat 1, Angola's first communication satellite, built by RSC Enegria with a credit from Rosoboronexport, is scheduled to launch in 2017. Angola Telecom is one of twelve companies participating in the West Africa Cable System consortium, a submarine communications cable running along the west coast of Africa and on to Portugal and the United Kingdom.
The landing station for the older Sat3 cable, located at Cacuaco in Luanda, is operated by Angola Telecom. Angola Cables is an operator of fiber optic telecommunication systems formed in 2009 by the major Angolan telecommunication companies, Angola Telecom, Unitel, MSTelcom and Mundo Startel. On 23 March 2012 Angola Cables signed an agreement to participate in the construction of the South Atlantic Cable System of about 6000 km length linking Fortaleza in Brazil with the Angolan capital Luanda; this cable is planned to be operational from the 2014 world football championship in Brazil. ADONES consists of 1,800 kilometers of fiber-optic submarine cable linking eight Angolan coastal cities. About 70 percent of Angolans live close to the sea. Other planned fibre optic cables to Angola include SAex and ACE. 303,200 fixed lines, 116th in the world, two lines per 100 persons. 13 million mobile cellular lines, 65 lines per 100 persons.) International country code: 244. Angola Telecom, the state-owned telecom, held a monopoly for fixed-line telephone service until 2005.
Demand outstripped capacity, prices were high, services poor. Telecom Namibia, through an Angolan company, became the first private licensed operator in Angola's fixed-line telephone network. By 2010, the number of fixed-line providers had expanded to five. A owned, mobile-cellular service provider began operations in 2001. HF radiotelephone is used extensively for military links. 21 AM, 6 FM, 7 shortwave radio broadcast stations 630,000 radios The state-owned Radio Nacional de Angola broadcasts on 5 stations. A half dozen private radio stations broadcast locally. 6 television broadcast stations 150,000 televisions The state-owned Televisão Pública de Angola provides terrestrial TV service on two channels and a third TPA channel is available via cable and satellite. TV subscription services are available. Internet hosts: 20,703 hosts, 116th in the world. Internet users: 3,058,195 users, 78th in the world. Fixed broadband: 27,987 subscriptions, 124th in the world. Mobile broadband: 5.000.000 subscriptions.
2015. Top level domain name:.ao. First introduced in 1996, the Internet reached a penetration rate of 16.9 percent in 2012, up from just over 3 percent in 2007, according to the International Telecommunications Union. Fixed-line broadband subscriptions, remain low with a penetration rate of only 0.2 percent in 2012, are concentrated in the capital city, due to the country’s high poverty rate and poor infrastructure in rural areas. Mobile Internet access is higher at 1.5% and access to mobile phones is much higher with a penetration rate of 49% in 2012. In June 2012, Unitel launched a project in partnership with the education ministry and Huawei to provide free Internet access for secondary school students in both public and private schools across the country’s 18 provinces. Known as “E-Net,” the project aims to benefit over 18,000 students with computers supplied by Huawei and Internet access provided by Unitel. Citizens have taken to the Internet as a platform for political debate, to express discontent with the country’s current state of affairs, to launch digital activism initiatives.
Similar to many other African countries, Angolan youth have embraced social media tools and used them to fuel protest movements across the country. The positive impact of digital media tools in Angola was noticeable during the August 2012 parliamentary elections when the Internet was used in innovative ways to advance electoral transparency. For example, citizens were able to report electoral irregularities in real time, while the National Electoral Commission used the Internet and iPads to scan voter registration cards. Internet access in Angola is provided by private ISP's. Telecommunication companies: Angola Telecom, the state-owned telecommunications provider Itelnet MS Telcom, Sonangol owned provider, main focus on oil and gas sector Startel Internet Service Providers: ACS CmcAngola covers majority of luanda and other areas with VSAT technologies ITA - Internet Technologies Angola owned with a focus on corporate services Multitel, corporate focused ISP, subsidiary of Angola Telecom MVcomm NetOne, residential WiMAX services TSOLNETWORKS - Corporate Internet Se
Telecommunications in the Gambia
Telecommunications in the Gambia includes radio, television and mobile telephones, the Internet. Radio: The state-owned Gambia Radio and Television Service has two AM stations and three FM stations. There are seven private FM stations in Serrekunda and Basse. Transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available. Radio sets: 196,000. Television: The Gambia Radio and Television Service operates a single-channel TV service with the main transmitter at Banjul and numerous relay stations. Transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available. Television sets: 4,000. Calling code: +220 International call prefix: 00 Main lines: 64,200 lines in use, 159th in the world. Mobile cellular: 1.5 million lines, 151st in the world. Teledensity: ~80 per 100 persons, combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular. Domestic: Adequate microwave radio relay and open-wire network. State-owned Gambia Telecommunications Company privatized in 2007. International: Microwave radio relay: Links to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau.
Satellite earth station: 1 Intelsat. Communications cables: Africa Coast to Europe fiber-optic submarine cable. Top-level domain:.gm Internet users: 229,122 users, 151st in the world. Fixed broadband: 497 subscriptions, 188th in the world. Wireless broadband: 22,435 subscriptions, 131st in the world. Internet hosts: 656 hosts, 179th in the world. IPv4: 21,504 addresses allocated, less than 0.05% of the world total, 11.7 addresses per 1000 people. The Gambia is not individually classified by the OpenNet Initiative, but is classified as engaged in selective Internet filtering based on the limited descriptions in the ONI 2009 profile for the sub-Saharan Africa region. There are no government restrictions on access to the Internet or reports that the government monitors e-mail or Internet chat rooms without appropriate legal authority. Individuals and groups can engage in the peaceful expression of views via the Internet, including by e-mail. However, Internet users reported they could not access the Web sites of foreign online newspapers Freedom, The Gambia Echo and Jollofnews, which criticized the government.
The constitution and law provide for freedom of press. According to the Observatory for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders, "the environment for independent and opposition media remained hostile, with numerous obstacles to freedom of expression, including administrative hurdles, arbitrary arrest and detention and judicial harassment against journalists, the closure of media outlets, leading to self-censorship." Individuals who publicly or criticized the government or the president risked government reprisal. In March 2011 President Jammeh warned independent journalists that he would "not compromise or sacrifice the peace, stability and the well being of Gambians for the sake of freedom of expression." Accusing some journalists of being the "mouthpiece of opposition parties," he vowed to prosecute any journalist who offended him. The National Intelligence Agency was involved in arbitrary closure of media outlets and the extrajudicial detention of journalists. In 2007 a Gambian journalist living in the US was convicted of sedition for an article published online.
The constitution and law prohibit arbitrary interference with privacy, home, or correspondence, but the government does not respect these prohibitions. Observers believe the government monitors citizens engaged in activities that it deems objectionable. In recent years before the 2016 election social media like Whatsapp and Skype have been temporarily blocked in The Gambia. Since 30 November 2016, the evening before the presidential election, internet access, mobile communication and phone calls have been shut down by all providers, as ordered by the president of The Gambia. Africell, mobile telecommunications company operating in The Gambia, Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Gamtel, the Gambia Telecommunications Company. Qcell, Qcell Gambia Co. Ltd. the Gambia Telecommunications Company. Comium, Comium Gambia Co. Ltd. Telecommunications Company, is owned subsidiary of the Comium Group Luxemburg. Netpage Ltd. Netpage Gambia Co. Ltd. Telecommunications Company. Quantum Ltd. QuantumNet Gambia Co. Ltd.
Telecommunications Company. Vizocom, a global satellite internet provider with coverage in the African continent This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2013 edition"; this article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of State. Department Of State For Communications Information Technology. Gamtel, Gambia Telecommunications Company. Gamcel, mobile phone company. Gambia Radio & Television Services. Africell Gambia, mobile phone company
Internet service provider
An Internet service provider is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet. Internet service providers may be organized in various forms, such as commercial, community-owned, non-profit, or otherwise owned. Internet services provided by ISPs include Internet access, Internet transit, domain name registration, web hosting, Usenet service, colocation; the Internet was developed as a network between government research laboratories and participating departments of universities. Other companies and organizations joined by direct connection to the backbone, or by arrangements through other connected companies, sometime using dialup tools such as UUCP. By the late 1980s, a process was set in place towards commercial use of the Internet; the remaining restrictions were removed by 1991, shortly after the introduction of the World Wide Web. During the 1980s, online service providers such as CompuServe and America On Line began to offer limited capabilities to access the Internet, such as e-mail interchange, but full access to the Internet was not available to the general public.
In 1989, the first Internet service providers, companies offering the public direct access to the Internet for a monthly fee, were established in Australia and the United States. In Brookline, The World became the first commercial ISP in the US, its first customer was served in November 1989. These companies offered dial-up connections, using the public telephone network to provide last-mile connections to their customers; the barriers to entry for dial-up ISPs were low and many providers emerged. However, cable television companies and the telephone carriers had wired connections to their customers and could offer Internet connections at much higher speeds than dial-up using broadband technology such as cable modems and digital subscriber line; as a result, these companies became the dominant ISPs in their service areas, what was once a competitive ISP market became a monopoly or duopoly in countries with a commercial telecommunications market, such as the United States. On 23 April 2014, the U.
S. Federal Communications Commission was reported to be considering a new rule that will permit ISPs to offer content providers a faster track to send content, thus reversing their earlier net neutrality position. A possible solution to net neutrality concerns may be municipal broadband, according to Professor Susan Crawford, a legal and technology expert at Harvard Law School. On 15 May 2014, the FCC decided to consider two options regarding Internet services: first, permit fast and slow broadband lanes, thereby compromising net neutrality. On 10 November 2014, President Barack Obama recommended that the FCC reclassify broadband Internet service as a telecommunications service in order to preserve net neutrality. On 16 January 2015, Republicans presented legislation, in the form of a U. S. Congress H. R. discussion draft bill, that makes concessions to net neutrality but prohibits the FCC from accomplishing the goal or enacting any further regulation affecting Internet service providers. On 31 January 2015, AP News reported that the FCC will present the notion of applying Title II of the Communications Act of 1934 to the Internet in a vote expected on 26 February 2015.
Adoption of this notion would reclassify Internet service from one of information to one of the telecommunications and, according to Tom Wheeler, chairman of the FCC, ensure net neutrality. The FCC is expected to enforce net neutrality in its vote, according to The New York Times. On 26 February 2015, the FCC ruled in favor of net neutrality by adopting Title II of the Communications Act of 1934 and Section 706 in the Telecommunications Act of 1996 to the Internet; the FCC Chairman, Tom Wheeler, commented, "This is no more a plan to regulate the Internet than the First Amendment is a plan to regulate free speech. They both stand for the same concept." On 12 March 2015, the FCC released the specific details of the net neutrality rules. On 13 April 2015, the FCC published the final rule on its new "Net Neutrality" regulations; these rules went into effect on 12 June 2015. Upon becoming FCC chairman in April 2017, Ajit Pai proposed an end to net neutrality, awaiting votes from the commission. On 21 November 2017, Pai announced that a vote will be held by FCC members on 14 December on whether to repeal the policy.
On 11 June 2018, the repeal of the FCC's network neutrality rules took effect. Access provider ISPs provide Internet access, employing a range of technologies to connect users to their network. Available technologies have ranged from computer modems with acoustic couplers to telephone lines, to television cable, Wi-Fi, fiber optics. For users and small businesses, traditional options include copper wires to provide dial-up, DSL asymmetric digital subscriber line, cable modem or Integrated Services Digital Network. Using fiber-optics to end users is called Fiber To The Home or similar names. For customers with more demanding requirements can use higher-speed DSL, metropolitan Ethernet, gigabit Ethernet, Frame Relay, ISDN Primary Rate Interface, ATM and synchronous optical networking. Wireless access is another option, including satellite Internet access. A mailbox provider is an organization that provides services for hosting electronic mail domains with access to storage for mail boxes
Telecommunications in Ghana
Telecommunications in Ghana include radio, television and mobile telephones, the Internet. Telecommunications is the main economic sector of Ghana according to the statistics of the World Bank due to the Ghana liberal policy around Information and communications technology. Among the main sectors of investments, 65% is for ICT, 8% for communications and 27% is divided for public administration. In 2007 Ghana was served by two state-owned radio networks. Multiple international broadcasters and several cable and satellite TV subscription services were available. In 2010, there were 140 authorised radio stations with 84 in operation and 32 authorised television stations with 26 in operation. Television broadcasters include First Digital TV TV Africa, Metro TV, TV3, GTV, GH One TV and Viasat 1; the Ghana Broadcasting Corporation founded by decree in 1968 is the state agency that provides civilian radio and television services. It was created for the development of the education and entertainment sectors and to enhance the knowledge of the people of Ghana.
After the overthrow of the elected government by Jerry Rawlings in December 1981 the Provisional National Defence Council repealed the liberal media reforms of previous governments, abolished the Third Constitution and the Press Commission, passed laws that prevented criticism of the government or its policies, dismissed editors critical of Rawlings or the provisional council, the Preventive Custody and Newspaper Licensing Law which allowed indefinite detention of journalists without trial, the Newspaper Licensing Law which stifled private media development. Ghanaian press freedom was restored with the promulgation of a new constitution in 1992, presidential and parliamentary elections in November and December 1992, a return to multiparty democratic rule on 7 January 1993; the mass media of Ghana today is among the most liberal in Africa, with Ghana ranking as the third freest in Africa and 30th in the world on the 2013 World Press Freedom Index from Reporters Without Borders. Article 21 of the Constitution of Ghana guarantees freedom of the press and other media, freedom of speech and expression and information.
The prefix code of Ghana for international calls is +233. As of 2012 there were 285,000 fixed telephone lines in use, 120th in the world, 25.6 million mobile cellular lines, 42nd in the world. The telephone system is outdated, with an unreliable fixed-line infrastructure concentrated in Accra and some wireless local loop installed, domestic trunks use microwave radio relay. There are 4 Intelsat satellite earth stations. Microwave radio relay links Ghana to its neighbours; the SAT-3/WASC, Main One, GLO-1, ACE international optical fibre submarine cables provide links to countries along the west coast of Africa and on to Europe and Asia. In 2010 two fixed line and six mobile phone companies were authorised to operate in Ghana of which 5 were operating, 13 satellite providers were authorised of which 8 were operating, 176 VSAT providers were authorised of which 57 were operating, 99 public and private network operators were authorised of which 25 were operating. Authorized telecommunications companies include Mobile Telecommunications Networks, Vodafone Ghana which purchased Telecom Ghana, Tigo which replaced Mobitel, Bharti Airtel and Zain which acquired Western Telesystems Ltd, Glo Mobile Ghana Limited, Expresso Telecom which acquired Kasapa Telecom.
In 2017, Tigo Ghana and Airtel Ghana merged to form AirtelTigo. Competition among multiple mobile-cellular providers has spurred growth, with a mobile phone teledensity in 2009 of more than 80 per 100 persons and rising; the cost of mobile phones is increased by taxes of around 38%. The top-level domain of Ghana is.gh. Ghana was one of the first countries in Africa to connect to the Internet. With an average household download speed of 5.8 Mbit/s Ghana had the third fastest speed on the African continent and the 110th fastest out of 188 countries worldwide in February 2014. In 2009 the number of Internet users stood at 1.3 million, 93rd in the world. In 2012 the number of Internet users reached 17.1 % of the population. In 2012 there were 8.2 million wireless broadband subscriptions. In 2012 there were 59,086 Internet hosts operating in Ghana, 93rd in the world, Ghana had been allocated 332,544 IPv4 addresses, 102nd in the world, with less than 0.05% of the world total, 13.2 addresses per 1000 people.
In 2010 there were 165 authorised Internet service providers. There are no government restrictions on access to the Internet or reports that the government monitors e-mail or Internet chat rooms without judicial oversight. Individuals and groups engage in the peaceful expression of views via the Internet, including by e-mail. Although the constitution and law provide for freedom of speech and press, the government sometimes restricts those rights; the police arbitrarily detain journalists. Some journalists practice self-censorship; the constitution prohibits arbitrary interference with privacy, home, or correspondence, the government respects these prohibitions in practice. In 2002 the government of Ghana censored Internet media coverage of tribal violence in Northern Ghana. Ghana Internet Exchange New media in Ghana Media in Ghana Terrestrial optical fibre cable projects in Gha