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Telecommunications in Ethiopia

Telecommunications in Ethiopia is a monopoly in the control of Ethio Telecom the Ethiopian Telecommunications Corporation. As of 2012, 20.524 million cellular phones and 797,500 main line phones were in use. The telephone system in Ethiopia consists of open wire and microwave radio relay systems adequate for government use. Domestic systems are open wire. International systems are open wire to Sudan; the Ethiopian dial plan changed on 17 September 2005. City codes changed from two digits to three. Phone numbers changed from six digits to seven. In 2007, there were 89 internet hosts. There were 447,300 internet users in 2009. In 2010, just 0.75 percent of the population were using the Internet, one of the lowest rates in the world. Ethiopia's country code The first telegraph line in Ethiopia was constructed in the years 1897 - 1899 between the cities of Harar and the capital Addis Ababa; this was extended in 1904 by a line that ran from Addis Ababa through Tigray into Eritrea and to Massawa. The first telephones were brought by Ras Makonnen from Italy in 1890, connected between the Palace and the Imperial treasury.

The Emperor Menelik II responded to their protests with disdain, used the telephone to give orders to his provincial governors. Emperor Haile Selassie had begun the process of introducing radio transmitters to the country for civilian and military use in the years before the Italian invasion. According to the ETC, the average rural inhabitant of Ethiopia has to walk 30 kilometers to the nearest phone; the ETC announced 7 September 2006 a program to improve national coverage, reduce the average distance to 5 kilometers. Since 2008 CDMA2000 and WCDMA is available in certain areas. Since 26 September 2017, it is not possible to buy and use Ethio Tel SIM cards in mobile devices that haven’t been purchased in Ethiopia or registered with the authorities. Local advice suggests travellers should register their phone in the customs arrival hall at Bole airport on arrival if they intend to use a local SIM card. For travellers, local prepaid SIMs are available at Ethio Telecom Kiosks and hotels. Satellite phones may require letter of permission from the ETC prior to bringing such phones through customs.

Use of voice over IP services such as Skype and Google Talk was prohibited by telecommunications legislation in 2002. Personal use of these services was legalised by the Proclamation on Telecom Fraud Offences of 2012. Since the changes and upgrade of equipment in the mid-2000 the telecommunication network is out of work or overloaded, callers using both the landlines and mobile network are unable to connect, the situation is made worse by inclement weather; the ETC has not addressed this issue publicly nor admitted that the coverage and service is below par. Ethiopian telecom has launched the Fourth Generation Long-Term Evolution service on March 21, 2015 in line with the help of the Chinese company HUAWEI. Ethio-Telecom Corporate Compunction Officer, Abdurahim Mohammed, stated that the rural telecom access within 5 km radius service has reached 96 per cent; as part of the efforts to expand its service and improve network quality, Ethio Telecom had built 725 stations in Addis Ababa alone during the past 20 years, he said.

Damages on fiber optic cables and power interruptions are among the challenges the service provider faced in its expansion and network quality improvement efforts, he said. Internet in Ethiopia Ethiopian Telecommunication Agency Ethiopian Telecommunications Corporation Terrestrial fibre optic cable projects in Ethiopia ETV Media in Ethiopia Communications in Ethiopia PanAfriL10n page on Ethiopia "The Internet in Ethiopia" "Internet in Ethiopia Revisited – A Mixed Bag of Progress and Opportunities on-Hold" "Ethiopia's digital dream"

Tanzania People's Defence Force

The Tanzania People’s Defence Force is the armed forces of Tanzania. They were set up in September 1964, following a mutiny by the former colonial military force: the Tanganyika Rifles. From its inception, it was ingrained in the troops of the new TPDF that they were a people’s force under civilian control. Unlike some of its neighbors, Tanzania has never suffered civil war; the TPDF was given a specific mission: to defend Tanzania and everything Tanzanian the people and their political ideology. Tanzanian citizens are able to volunteer for military service from 15 years of age, 18 years of age for compulsory military service upon graduation from secondary school. Conscript service obligation was 2 years as of 2004. After an aborted mutiny in January 1964, the existing army was disbanded; the new force was titled the'Tanganyika Military Force', from 25 January 1964 - 26 April 1964. The Tanzanian government concluded that the former British model was not appropriate for the needs of an independent African state.

Fresh recruits were sourced from the Tanganyika African National Union youth wing. After the merge of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the force was renamed the United Republic Military Force from 27 April 1964. For the first few years of the TPDF, the army was smaller than the disbanded 2,000 strong Tanganyika Rifles, the air force was minuscule, no navy had yet been formed, it appears that the new TPDF had three battalions by August 1965, stationed at Nachingwea, Colito Barracks, Tabora, plus the yet to be integrated Zanzibari force of about 1,000. However the army was four battalions strong by 1967. From 1964 to 1974, the TPDF was commanded by Mrisho S. H. Sarakikya, trained at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, promoted from lieutenant to brigadier in 1964 and became the force's first commander, he was succeeded by Lieutenant General Abdallah Twalipo 1974-1980. In 1972, the International Institute for Strategic Studies listed the army with 10,000 personnel, four infantry battalions, 20 T-59, 14 Chinese T-62 light tanks, some BTR-40 and BTR-152, Soviet field artillery and Chinese mortars.'Spares short and not all equipment was serviceable.'The Uganda–Tanzania War happened in 1978–1979.

In 1992, the IISS listed the army with 45,000 personnel, 3 division headquarters, 8 infantry brigades, one tank brigade, two field artillery battalions, two Anti-aircraft artillery battalions, two mortar, two anti-tank battalions, one engineer regiment, one surface-to-air missile battalion with SA-3 and SA-6. Equipment included 30 Chinese Type 32 T-54 / 55 main battle tanks. In 2007 Tanzania pledged forces for the SADC Standby Brigade of the African Standby Force; as of 2012, the army is modernising and restructuring. Much of the inventory is in unreliable. 5 × infantry brigades 1 × armoured brigade 3 × artillery battalions 2 × air defence artillery battalions 1 × mortar battalion 2 × anti-tank battalions 121st Engineer Regiment 1 × central logistic/support group Chief of Defense Forces: General Venance Salvatory Mabeyo Chief of Staff: Lieutenant General Yakub Mohamed Commander of Land Forces: Major General George Msongole Commander of Air Forces: Major General William Ingram Commander of Naval Forces: Rear Admiral Richard Makanzo Chief of National Service: Major Gen M.

M. Busungu The current Commander of the Tanzania Air Force Command is Major General William Ingram, who replaced Major General Joseph Kapwani upon the latter's retirement in January 2016. During a visit to Zimbabwe in March 2014, Kapwani commended Zimbabweans for'remaining resolute and safeguarding the country's sovereignty despite the suffering brought on by illegal Western sanctions.' He made the remarks when he paid a courtesy call on Air Force of Zimbabwe Commander Air Marshal Perence Shiri at AFZ headquarters in Harare on 12 March 2014. General Kapwani, the chair of the SADC Standing Aviation Committee, said he was in Zimbabwe to share experiences and strengthen relations. A few of the Tanzanian air wing's transport remain serviceable. However, its Shenyang F-5s, Chengdu F-7s are reported to fly only on rare occasions because of airworthiness problems. Tanzania's long coastline means that transports are used for patrol flights. On 14 November 2013, Helmoed-Römer Heitman reported for Jane's Defence Weekly that a'usually reliable source' had informed Jane's that the TPDF had replaced its 12 old CAC J-7 fighters with 14 new J-7s, twelve single-seat and two dual-seat.

Deliveries were completed in 2011. Heitman reported that the aircraft were operational at Dar es Salaam and Mwanza air bases. Recent estimates suggest that Tanzania's air force command operates 32 aircraft in 3 different types, it is believed they are operating 14 fighters, 11 fixed-wing attack aircraft and 7 transport aircraft. On October 1, 2015 a K-8 trainer jet of Tanzania Air Force Command crashed into the sea killing both pilots; the navy operates 9 fast attack craft and 12 patrol boats. The current Commander of the Naval Command is Rear Admiral Richard Mutayoba Makanzo; the closing ceremony of the joint Tanzanian-Chinese exercise Beyond/Transcend 2014 was held on November 14, 2014, at Kigamboni Naval Base attended by guests that included China’s ambassador to Tanzania, the Chief of the TPDF, the heads of the navy and air force. The exercise between the Chinese People’s Liberation Army Navy and the TPDF began on October 16 in Dar es Salaam, with more than 100 navy officers and seamen participating.

Jane's Defence Weekly wrote in August 2017 that'..a People's Liberation Army Navy flotilla c


Larinia is a genus of orb-weaver spiders first described by Eugène Simon in 1874. As of April 2019 it contains fifty-eight species: L. acuticauda Simon, 1906 – West Africa to Israel L. ambo Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991 – Ecuador, Peru L. assimilis Tullgren, 1910 – East Africa L. astrigera Yin, Xie & Peng, 1990 – China L. bharatae Bhandari & Gajbe, 2001 – India L. bifida Tullgren, 1910 – Central, Southern Africa, Seychelles L. bivittata Keyserling, 1885 – Brazil, Uruguay, Chile L. blandula – West Africa L. bonneti Spassky, 1939 – France, Central Europe, Caucasus, Japan L. borealis Banks, 1894 – North America L. bossae Marusik, 1987 – Russia L. chloris – North and East Africa to Israel, Iran, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh L. cyclera Yin, Xie & Peng, 1990 – China L. dasia – Seychelles L. delicata Rainbow, 1920 – Australia L. dinanea Yin, Xie & Peng, 1990 – China L. directa – USA to Brazil L. dubia Ott & Rodrigues, 2017 – Brazil L. duchengcaii Barrion, Barrion-Dupo & Heong, 2013 – China L. elegans Spassky, 1939 – Austria to China L. emertoni Gajbe & Gajbe, 2004 – India L. famulatoria – USA, Mexico L. fangxiangensis Zhu, Lian & Chen, 2006 – China L. jamberoo Framenau & Scharff, 2008 – Australia L. jaysankari Biswas, 1984 – India L. jeskovi Marusik, 1987 – Eastern Central Europe to Japan L. kampalaUganda L. kanpurae Patel & Nigam, 1994 – India L. lampa Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991 – Peru, Bolivia L. lineata – Western Mediterranean L. liuae Yin & Bao, 2012 – China L. macrohooda Yin, Xie & Peng, 1990 – China L. madhuchhandae Biswas & Raychaudhuri, 2012 – Bangladesh L. mandlaensis Gajbe, 2005 – India L. microhooda Yin, Xie & Peng, 1990 – China L. minor – Hispaniola L. montagui Hogg, 1914 – Australia L. montecarlo – Brazil, Argentina L. natalensis – South Africa L. neblina Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991 – Venezuela L. nolabelia Yin, Xie & Peng, 1990 – China L. obtusa – Congo L. onoi Tanikawa, 1989 – Japan L. parangmata Barrion & Litsinger, 1995 – Philippines L. phthisica – India to Bangladesh and Vietnam, Turkmenistan, Japan, Papua New Guinea, Australia.

Introduced to Greece L. pubiventris Simon, 1889 – Central Asia L. robusta Ott & Rodrigues, 2017 – Brazil L. sekiguchii Tanikawa, 1989 – Russia, Japan L. strandi Caporiacco, 1941 – Ethiopia L. t-notata – Brazil, Argentina L. tabida – Indonesia to Australia, New Caledonia L. tamataveMadagascar L. teiraensis Biswas & Biswas, 2007 – India L. trifida Tullgren, 1910 – Central, East Africa L. triprovina Yin, Xie & Peng, 1990 – China L. tucuman Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991 – Brazil, Argentina L. tyloridia Patel, 1975 – India L. wenshanensis Yin & Yan, 1994 – China

Tears (Ken Dodd song)

"Tears" is a song written by lyricist Frank Capano and composer Billy Uhr, was first recorded by Rudy Vallee in 1929. It was made famous in a version recorded by Ken Dodd, released as a 45 rpm single in 1965, it became a No. 1 hit in the UK Singles Chart. The song reached number one on the Irish Singles Chart; the main theme is based on Delilah's aria "Mon cœur s'ouvre à ta voix" from Act II of Camille Saint-Saëns's opera Samson and Delilah, which dates from 1877. Although best known as a comedian, Ken Dodd was a prolific recording artist throughout the 1960s and most of his music recordings were serious, not comic, his debut single "Love is like a Violin" reached #8 in 1960. Between that and "Tears" he released nine further singles; the single spent 24 weeks in total on the chart, with five of those at #1. It sold over 1,000,000 copies in the UK, becoming the biggest-selling single of 1965 in the UK, was the third-biggest selling single of the 1960s. In 2017, it was listed as the UK's 39th-best selling single of all time, with sales of 1,523,690.

Bobby Vinton released a cover of the song in 1966. His version reached No. 59 on the Billboard Hot 100, while reaching No. 27 on the Billboard Easy Listening chart. In Canada, Vinton's version reached No. 24 on the "RPM Play Sheet" and No. 14 on RPM's "GMP Guide". "Tears" was parodied in a section of the song "I'm Bored" by the Bonzo Dog Doo-Dah Band, on their album Gorilla

Octahedral number

In number theory, an octahedral number is a figurate number that represents the number of spheres in an octahedron formed from close-packed spheres. The nth octahedral number O n can be obtained by the formula: O n = n 3; the first few octahedral numbers are: 1, 6, 19, 44, 85, 146, 231, 344, 489, 670, 891. The octahedral numbers have a generating function z 2 4 = ∑ n = 1 ∞ O n z n = z + 6 z 2 + 19 z 3 + ⋯. Sir Frederick Pollock conjectured in 1850 that every number is the sum of at most 7 octahedral numbers: see Pollock octahedral numbers conjecture. In chemistry, octahedral numbers may be used to describe the numbers of atoms in octahedral clusters. An octahedral packing of spheres may be partitioned into two square pyramids, one upside-down underneath the other, by splitting it along a square cross-section. Therefore, the nth octahedral number O n can be obtained by adding two consecutive square pyramidal numbers together: O n = P n − 1 + P n. If O n is the nth octahedral number and T n is the nth tetrahedral number O n + 4 T n − 1 = T 2 n − 1.

This represents the geometric fact that gluing a tetrahedron onto each of four non-adjacent faces of an octahedron produces a tetrahedron of twice the size. Another relation between octahedral numbers and tetrahedral numbers is possible, based on the fact that an octahedron may be divided into four tetrahedra each having two adjacent original faces: O n = T n + 2 T n − 1 + T n − 2. If two tetrahedra are attached to opposite faces of an octahedron, the result is a rhombohedron; the number of close-packed spheres in the rhombohedron is a cube, justifying the equation O n + 2 T n − 1 = n 3. The difference between two consecutive octahedral numbers is a centered square number: O n − O n − 1 = C 4, n = n 2 + 2. Therefore, an octahedral number represents the number of points in a square pyramid formed by stacking centered squares; the number of cubes in an octahedron formed by stacking centered squares is a centered octahedral number, the sum of two consecutive octahedral numbers. These numbers are 1, 7, 25, 63, 129, 231, 377, 575, 833, 1159, 1561, 2047, 2625... given by the formula O n + O n − 1 = 3 for n = 1, 2, 3...

Weisstein, Eric W. "Octahedral Number". MathWorld

Greta Van Fleet discography

Greta Van Fleet is an American hard rock band. The band released their debut studio EP, Black Smoke Rising in 2017, their debut single, "Highway Tune", topped the Billboard US Mainstream Rock and Active Rock charts in September 2017 for four weeks in a row. A second EP From the Fires, containing the four songs from Black Smoke Rising and four new songs, was released on November 10, 2017, alongside a second single, "Safari Song", their debut full length studio album, Anthem of the Peaceful Army, was released on October 19, 2018 and it topped the Billboard Rock Albums chart in the first week after its release, with the album's first single, "When the Curtain Falls", being released ahead of it in July 2018, becoming the band's third number one US single on the Billboard Mainstream Rock Songs chart. Anthem of the Peaceful Army launched atop the Billboard Hard Rock Albums chart, reached the number one spot on the Billboard Top Album Sales chart in the first week after its release