Streaming television is the digital distribution of television content, such as TV shows, as streaming video delivered over the Internet. Streaming TV stands in contrast to dedicated terrestrial television delivered by over-the-air aerial systems, cable television, and/or satellite television systems; the mid 2000s were the beginning of television programs becoming available via the Internet. ITunes began offering select television programs and series in 2005, available for download after direct payment; the video-sharing site YouTube launched in 2005 allowing users to share illegally posted television programs. A few years television networks and other independent services began creating sites where shows and programs could be streamed online. Amazon Video began in the United States as Amazon Unbox in 2006, but did not launch worldwide until 2016. Netflix, a website created for DVD rentals and sales began providing streaming content in 2007. In 2008 Hulu, owned by NBC and Fox, was launched, followed by tv.com in 2009 and owned by CBS.
Digital media players began to become available to the public during this time. The first generation Apple TV was released in 2007 and in 2008 the first generation Roku streaming device was announced. Amazon's version of a digital media player, Amazon Fire TV, was not offered to the public until 2014; these digital media players have continued to be updated and new generations released. Access to television programming has evolved from computer and television access, to include mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Apps for mobile devices started to become available via app stores in 2008; these mobile apps allow users to view content on mobile devices. In 2017 YouTube launched YouTube TV, a streaming service that allows users to watch live television programs from popular cable or network channels, record shows to stream anywhere, anytime. After 2010 traditional cable and satellite television providers began to offer services such as Sling TV, owned by Dish Network, unveiled in January 2015.
DirecTV, another satellite television provider launched their own streaming service, DirecTV Now, in 2016. Smart TVs took over the television market after 2010; as of 2015 smart TVs are the only type of middle to high-end television being produced. As of 2017, 28% of US adults cite streaming services as their main means for watching television, 61% of those ages 18 to 29 cite it as their main method; as of 2018, Netflix is the world's largest streaming TV network and the world's largest Internet media and entertainment company with 117 million paid subscribers, by revenue and market cap. The Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV consortium of industry companies is promoting and establishing an open European standard for hybrid set-top boxes for the reception of broadcast and broadband digital television and multimedia applications with a single-user interface; as of the 2010s, providers of Internet television use various technologies to provide VoD systems and live streaming. BBC iPlayer makes use of the Adobe Flash Player to provide streaming-video clips and other software provided by Adobe for its download service.
CNBC, Bloomberg Television and Showtime use live-streaming services from BitGravity to stream live television to paid subscribers using the HTTP protocol. BBC iPlayer incorporated peer-to-peer streaming, moved towards centralized distribution for their video streaming services. BBC executive Anthony rose cited network performance as an important factor in the decision, as well as the unhappiness among consumers unhappy with their own network bandwidth being consumed for transmitting content to other viewers. Samsung TV has announced their plans to provide streaming options including 3D Video on Demand through their Explore 3D service; some streaming services incorporate digital rights management. The W3C made the controversial decision to adopt Encrypted Media Extensions due in large part to motivations to provide copy protection for streaming content. Sky Go has software, provided by Microsoft to prevent content being copied. Additionally, BBC iPlayer makes use of a parental control system giving parents the option to "lock" content, meaning that a password would have to be used to access it.
Flagging systems can be used to warn a user that content may be certified or that it is intended for viewing post-watershed. Honour systems are used where users are asked for their dates of birth or age to verify if they are able to view certain content. IPTV delivers television content using signals based on the Internet protocol, through the open, unmanaged Internet with the "last-mile" telecom company acting only as the Internet service provider; as described above, "Internet television" is "over-the-top technology". Both IPTV and OTT use the Internet protocol over a packet-switched network to transmit data, but IPTV operates in a closed system—a dedicated, managed network controlled by the local cable, telephone, or fiber-optic company. In its simplest form, IPTV replaces traditional circuit switched analog or digital television channels with digital channels which happen to use packet-switched transmission. In both the old and new systems, subscribers have set-top boxes or other customer-premises equipment that communicates directly over company-owned or dedicated leased lines with central-office servers.
Packets never travel over the public Internet, so the television provider can guarantee enough local bandwidth for each customer's needs. The Internet protocol is a cheap, standardized way to enable two-way communication and provide different data
Farice is a Telecommunications service provider operating in Iceland. The company offers Internet transit, MPLS VPN, DWDM and SDH services and offers only international connectivity; the company operates as a carrier for service providers, data center customers and data center service providers. Farice was founded in November 2002 and is the main provider of International connectivity in and out of Iceland. Farice is owned by the Arion Bank, Landsvirkjun the national power company of Iceland and the Icelandic state; the company serves the Faroe Islands with international capacity and extends the Greenland Connect submarine cable for Tele Greenland to Europe. Farice ehf owns two submarine cables, named DANICE and FARICE-1 and has Points-of-Presence in Reykjavik, Hafnarfjörður and Keflavík Airport in Iceland and abroad in the following main places: Telecity II Amsterdam, Telehouse East & West London, Interxion Copenhagen and Klingran Torshavn; the submarine capacity available is a multiple of terabits/s.
Farice official website
Internet exchange point
An Internet exchange point is the physical infrastructure through which Internet service providers and content delivery networks exchange Internet traffic between their networks. IXPs reduce the portion of an ISP's traffic that must be delivered via their upstream transit providers, thereby reducing the average per-bit delivery cost of their service. Furthermore, the increased number of paths available through the IXP improves routing efficiency and fault-tolerance. In addition, IXPs exhibit the characteristics of; the primary purpose of an IXP is to allow networks to interconnect directly, via the exchange, rather than through one or more third-party networks. The primary advantages of direct interconnection are cost and bandwidth. Traffic passing through an exchange is not billed by any party, whereas traffic to an ISP's upstream provider is; the direct interconnection located in the same city as both networks, avoids the need for data to travel to other cities to get from one network to another, thus reducing latency.
The third advantage, speed, is most noticeable in areas that have poorly developed long-distance connections. ISPs in these regions might have to pay between 10 or 100 times more for data transport than ISPs in North America, Europe, or Japan. Therefore, these ISPs have slower, more limited connections to the rest of the Internet. However, a connection to a local IXP may allow them to transfer data without limit, without cost, vastly improving the bandwidth between customers of the two adjacent ISPs. A typical IXP consists of one or more network switches, to which each of the participating ISPs connect. Prior to the existence of switches, IXPs employed fiber-optic inter-repeater link hubs or Fiber Distributed Data Interface rings, migrating to Ethernet and FDDI switches as those became available in 1993 and 1994. Asynchronous Transfer Mode switches were used at a few IXPs in the late 1990s, accounting for 4% of the market at their peak, there was an attempt by Stockholm-based IXP NetNod to use SRP/DPT, but Ethernet has prevailed, accounting for more than 95% of all existing Internet exchange switch fabrics.
All Ethernet port speeds are to be found at modern IXPs, ranging from 10 Mb/second ports in use in small developing-country IXPs, to ganged 10 Gb/second ports in major centers like Seoul, New York, Frankfurt and Palo Alto. Ports with 100 Gb/second are available, for example, at the AMS-IX in Amsterdam and at the DE-CIX in Frankfurt. There are five types of business models for IXPs: Nonprofit organization Association of ISPs Operator-neutral for-profit company University or government agency Informal association of networksThe technical and business logistics of traffic exchange between ISPs is governed by mutual peering agreements. Under such agreements, traffic is exchanged without compensation; when an IXP incurs operating costs, they are shared among all of its participants. At the more expensive exchanges, participants pay a monthly or annual fee determined by the speed of the port or ports which they are using. Fees based on volume of traffic are less common because they provide a counterincentive to growth of the exchange.
Some exchanges charge a setup fee to offset the costs of the switch port and any media adaptors that the new participant requires. Internet traffic exchange between two participants on an IXP is facilitated by Border Gateway Protocol routing configurations between them, they choose to announce routes via the peering relationship – either routes to their own addresses, or routes to addresses of other ISPs that they connect to via other mechanisms. The other party to the peering can apply route filtering, where it chooses to accept those routes, route traffic accordingly, or to ignore those routes, use other routes to reach those addresses. In many cases, an ISP will have both a direct link to another ISP and accept a route to the other ISP through the IXP. In this way, the IXP acts as a backup link; when these conditions are met, a contractual structure exists to create a market to purchase network services, the IXP is sometimes called a "transit exchange". The Vancouver Transit Exchange, for example, is described as a "shopping mall" of service providers at one central location, making it easy to switch providers, "as simple as getting a VLAN to a new provider".
The VTE is run by a public entity. Advocates of green broadband schemes and more competitive telecommunications services advocate aggressive expansion of transit exchanges into every municipal area network so that competing service providers can place such equipment as video on demand hosts and PSTN switches to serve existing phone equipment, without being answerable to any monopoly incumbent. Euro-IX, the first association of Internet exchange points, was formed in May 2001; the Internet Exchange Federation, which includes Euro-IX, APIX, LAC-IX, was formed in November 2012. The African Internet Exchange Association joined the Internet Exchange Federation on 7 October 2014. List of Internet exchange points List of Internet exchange points by size Colocation centre Packet Clearing House Route server Historical IXPs Commercial Internet eXchange Federal Internet Exchange Network Access Point European Internet Exch
A landline telephone is a phone that uses a metal wire or optical fiber telephone line for transmission as distinguished from a mobile cellular line, which uses radio waves for transmission. In 2003, the CIA World Factbook reported 1.263 billion main telephone lines worldwide. China had more than any other country at 350 million and the United States was second with 268 million; the United Kingdom had 23.7 million residential fixed home phones. The 2013 statistics show that the total number of fixed-telephone subscribers in the world was about 1.16 billion. The number of landline subscribers continuously decreases due to upgrades in digital technology and the conveniences that come with switching to wireless or Internet-based alternatives. A fixed phone line can be hard-wired or cordless and refers to the operation of wireless devices or systems in fixed locations such as homes. Fixed wireless devices derive their electrical power from the utility mains electricity, unlike mobile wireless or portable wireless, which tend to be battery-powered.
Although mobile and portable systems can be used in fixed locations and bandwidth are compromised compared with fixed systems. Mobile or portable, battery-powered wireless systems can be used as emergency backups for fixed systems in case of a power blackout or natural disaster; the term landline is used to describe a connection between two or more points that consists of a dedicated physical cable, as opposed to an always-available private link, implemented as a circuit in a wired switched system. So-called leased lines are invariably of the latter type. For example, a military headquarters might be linked to front-line units "by landline" to ensure that communication remains possible if the conventional telephone network is damaged or destroyed. Another example of this is in airports. All air traffic control towers have dedicated lines connected to the police, fire department, army, etc. Deployed as a precaution in case of emergency, these can be used at any time. In many countries the landline has not been available to most people.
In some countries in Africa, the rise in cell phones has outpaced any rise in landline telephones. Between 1998 and 2008, Africa added only 2.4 million landlines. During this same time the number of mobile phone lines that have been subscribed to has skyrocketed. Between 2000 and 2008, cell phone use has risen from fewer than 2 in 100 people to 33 out of 100, it is more difficult to install landline copper wires to every user, than it is to install mobile wireless towers that people can connect to from anywhere. There has been substantial decline of landline phones in Indian subcontinent, in urban and more in rural areas. In the early 21st century, the landline telephone has declined due to the advancement of mobile network technology and the obsolescence of the old copper wire networking; these metallic networks will be deemed out of date and replaced by more efficient broadband and fiber optic landline connections extending to rural areas and places where telecommunication was much more sparse.
Some see this happening as soon as the year 2025. In 2004, only about 45% of people in the United States between the ages of 12 and 17 owned cell phones. At that time, they had to rely on landline telephones. In just 4 years' time, that percentage climbed to about 71%; that same year, about 77 % of adults owned a mobile phone. In the year 2013, 91% of adults in the United States owned a mobile phone. 60% of those with a mobile had a smartphone. A National Health Interview Survey of 19,956 households by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released May 4, 2017 showed only 45.9 percent of U. S. households still had landlines. Over 39 percent had both. In Canada, more than one in five of households use cell phones as their only source for telephone service. In 2013, statistics showed. Households that are owned by members under the age of 35 have a higher percentage of exclusive cell phone use. In 2013, 60% of young household owners claimed to only use cell phones. Many of the consumer protections which regulators apply to incumbent landline providers, such as restrictions against cutting off subscribers without notice, do not apply to competing communication services such as cable modems and voice over IP.
Plain old telephone service Local loop Last mile Telephone Field telephone
Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables. This contrasts with broadcast television, in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone services, similar non-television services may be provided through these cables. Analog television was standard in the 20th century, but since the 2000s, cable systems have been upgraded to digital cable operation. A "cable channel" is a television network available via cable television; when available through satellite television, including direct broadcast satellite providers such as DirecTV, Dish Network and Sky, as well as via IPTV providers such as Verizon FIOS and AT&T U-verse is referred to as a "satellite channel". Alternative terms include "non-broadcast channel" or "programming service", the latter being used in legal contexts.
Examples of cable/satellite channels/cable networks available in many countries are HBO, Cinemax, MTV, Cartoon Network, AXN, E!, FX, Discovery Channel, Canal+, Fox Sports, Disney Channel, Nickelodeon, CNN International, ESPN. The abbreviation CATV is used for cable television, it stood for Community Access Television or Community Antenna Television, from cable television's origins in 1948. In areas where over-the-air TV reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain, large "community antennas" were constructed, cable was run from them to individual homes; the origins of cable broadcasting for radio are older as radio programming was distributed by cable in some European cities as far back as 1924. To receive cable television at a given location, cable distribution lines must be available on the local utility poles or underground utility lines. Coaxial cable brings the signal to the customer's building through a service drop, an overhead or underground cable. If the subscriber's building does not have a cable service drop, the cable company will install one.
The standard cable used in the U. S. is RG-6, which has a 75 ohm impedance, connects with a type F connector. The cable company's portion of the wiring ends at a distribution box on the building exterior, built-in cable wiring in the walls distributes the signal to jacks in different rooms to which televisions are connected. Multiple cables to different rooms are split off the incoming cable with a small device called a splitter. There are two standards for cable television. All cable companies in the United States have switched to or are in the course of switching to digital cable television since it was first introduced in the late 1990s. Most cable companies require a set-top box or a slot on one's TV set for conditional access module cards to view their cable channels on newer televisions with digital cable QAM tuners, because most digital cable channels are now encrypted, or "scrambled", to reduce cable service theft. A cable from the jack in the wall is attached to the input of the box, an output cable from the box is attached to the television the RF-IN or composite input on older TVs.
Since the set-top box only decodes the single channel, being watched, each television in the house requires a separate box. Some unencrypted channels traditional over-the-air broadcast networks, can be displayed without a receiver box; the cable company will provide set top boxes based on the level of service a customer purchases, from basic set top boxes with a standard definition picture connected through the standard coaxial connection on the TV, to high-definition wireless DVR receivers connected via HDMI or component. Older analog television sets are "cable ready" and can receive the old analog cable without a set-top box. To receive digital cable channels on an analog television set unencrypted ones, requires a different type of box, a digital television adapter supplied by the cable company. A new distribution method that takes advantage of the low cost high quality DVB distribution to residential areas, uses TV gateways to convert the DVB-C, DVB-C2 stream to IP for distribution of TV over IP network in the home.
In the most common system, multiple television channels are distributed to subscriber residences through a coaxial cable, which comes from a trunkline supported on utility poles originating at the cable company's local distribution facility, called the "headend". Many channels can be transmitted through one coaxial cable by a technique called frequency division multiplexing. At the headend, each television channel is translated to a different frequency. By giving each channel a different frequency "slot" on the cable, the separate television signals do not interfere with each other. At an outdoor cable box on the subscriber's residence the company's service drop cable is connected to cables distributing the signal to different rooms in the building. At each television, the subscriber's television or a set-top box provided by the cable company translates the desired channel back to its original frequency, it is displayed onscreen. Due to widespread cable theft in earlier analog systems, the signals are encrypted on m
A telephone directory called a telephone book, telephone address book, phone book, or the white/yellow pages, is a listing of telephone subscribers in a geographical area or subscribers to services provided by the organization that publishes the directory. Its purpose is to allow the telephone number of a subscriber identified by name and address to be found; the advent of the Internet and smartphones in the 21st century reduced the need for a paper phone book. Some communities, such as Seattle and San Francisco, sought to ban their unsolicited distribution as wasteful and harmful to the environment. Subscriber names are listed in alphabetical order, together with their postal or street address and telephone number. In principle every subscriber in the geographical coverage area is listed, but subscribers may request the exclusion of their number from the directory for a fee. A telephone directory may provide instructions: how to use the telephone service, how to dial a particular number, be it local or international, what numbers to access important and emergency services, hospitals and organizations who can provide support in times of crisis.
It may have civil defense or emergency management information. There may be transit maps, postal code/zip code guides, international dialing codes or stadium seating charts, as well as advertising. In the US, under current rules and practices, mobile phone and voice over IP listings are not included in telephone directories. Efforts to create cellular directories have met stiff opposition from several fronts, including those who seek to avoid telemarketers. A telephone directory and its content may be known by the color of the paper. White pages indicates personal or alphabetic listings. Yellow pages, golden pages, A2Z, or classified directory is a "business directory", where businesses are listed alphabetically within each of many classifications always with paid advertising. Grey pages, sometimes called a "reverse telephone directory", allowing subscriber details to be found for a given number. Not available in all jurisdictions. Other colors may have other meanings. Telephone directories can be published in electronic form.
In the latter case, the directory can be used provided as an online service through proprietary terminals or over the Internet, or on physical media such as CD-ROM. In many countries directories are both published in book form and available over the Internet. Printed directories were supplied free of charge. Telephone directories are a type of city directory. Books listing the inhabitants of an entire city were published starting in the 18th century, before the invention of the telephone; the first telephone directory, consisting of a single piece of cardboard, was issued on 21 February 1878. The first British telephone directory was published on 15 January 1880 by The Telephone Company, it contained 248 addresses of individuals and businesses in London. The directory is preserved as part of the British phone book collection by BT Archives. In 1938, AT&T commissioned the creation of a new type font, known as BELL GOTHIC, the purpose of, to be readable at small font sizes when printed on newsprint where small imperfections were common.
In 1981 France was the first country to have an electronic directory on a system called Minitel. The directory is called "11" after its telephone access number. In 1991 the U. S. Supreme Court ruled that telephone companies do not have a copyright on telephone listings, because copyright protects creativity and not the mere labor of collecting existing information. 1996 was the year the first telephone directories went online in the USA. Yellowpages.com and Whitepages.com both saw their start in April. In 1999, the first online telephone directories and people-finding sites such as LookupUK.com went online in the UK. In 2003, more advanced UK searching including Electoral Roll became available on LocateFirst.com. In the 21st century, printed telephone directories are criticized as waste. In 2012, after some North American cities passed laws banning the distribution of telephone books, an industry group sued and obtained a court ruling permitting the distribution to continue. Manufacture and distribution of telephone directories produces over 1,400,000 metric tons of greenhouse gases and consumes over 600,000 tons of paper annually.
A reverse telephone directory is sorted by number, which can be looked up to give the name and address of the subscriber. Ripping phone books in half has been considered a feat of strength. There are Guinness World Records for ripping the most phone books within a specific time period: the record for most phone books ripped within three minutes was established by Tina Shelton in 2007 for females and by Edward Charon in 2006 for males; the 1984 James Cameron film The Terminator features a titular'cyborg assassin' antagonist sent back in time to murder the character Sarah Connor. Knowing only the name and general location of the target, the cyborg uses telephone direc
Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc is a digital optical disc data storage format. It was designed to supersede the DVD format, is capable of storing several hours of video in high-definition and ultra high-definition resolution; the main application of Blu-ray is as a medium for video material such as feature films and for the physical distribution of video games for the PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, Xbox One. The name "Blu-ray" refers to the blue laser used to read the disc, which allows information to be stored at a greater density than is possible with the longer-wavelength red laser used for DVDs; the plastic disc is 120 millimetres in diameter and 1.2 millimetres thick, the same size as DVDs and CDs. Conventional or pre-BD-XL Blu-ray discs contain 25 GB per layer, with dual-layer discs being the industry standard for feature-length video discs. Triple-layer discs and quadruple-layer discs are available for BD-XL re-writer drives. High-definition video may be stored on Blu-ray discs with up to 2160p resolution and at up to 60 frames per second.
DVD-Video discs were limited to a maximum resolution of 576p. Besides these hardware specifications, Blu-ray is associated with a set of multimedia formats; the BD format was developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association, a group representing makers of consumer electronics, computer hardware, motion pictures. Sony unveiled the first Blu-ray disc prototypes in October 2000, the first prototype player was released in April 2003 in Japan. Afterwards, it continued to be developed until its official release on June 20, 2006, beginning the high-definition optical disc format war, where Blu-ray Disc competed with the HD DVD format. Toshiba, the main company supporting HD DVD, conceded in February 2008, released its own Blu-ray Disc player in late 2009. According to Media Research, high-definition software sales in the United States were slower in the first two years than DVD software sales. Blu-ray faces competition from the continued sale of DVDs. Notably, as of January 2016, 44% of U. S. broadband. The information density of the DVD format was limited by the wavelength of the laser diodes used.
Following protracted development, blue laser diodes operating at 405 nanometers became available on a production basis, allowing for development of a more-dense storage format that could hold higher-definition media. Sony started two projects in collaboration with Panasonic, TDK, applying the new diodes: UDO, DVR Blue, a format of rewritable discs that would become Blu-ray Disc; the core technologies of the formats are similar. The first DVR Blue prototypes were unveiled at the CEATEC exhibition in October 2000 by Sony. A trademark for the "Blue Disc" logo was filed February 9, 2001. On February 19, 2002, the project was announced as Blu-ray Disc, Blu-ray Disc Founders was founded by the nine initial members; the first consumer device arrived in stores on April 10, 2003: the Sony BDZ-S77, a US$3,800 BD-RE recorder, made available only in Japan. But there was no standard for prerecorded video, no movies were released for this player. Hollywood studios insisted that players be equipped with digital rights management before they would release movies for the new format, they wanted a new DRM system that would be more secure than the failed Content Scramble System used on DVDs.
On October 4, 2004, the name "Blu-ray Disc Founders" was changed to the Blu-ray Disc Association, 20th Century Fox joined the BDA's Board of Directors. The Blu-ray Disc physical specifications were completed in 2004. In January 2005, TDK announced that they had now developed an ultra-hard yet thin polymer coating for Blu-ray discs. Cartridges used for scratch protection, were no longer necessary and were scrapped; the BD-ROM specifications were finalized in early 2006. AACS LA, a consortium founded in 2004, had been developing the DRM platform that could be used to securely distribute movies to consumers. However, the final AACS standard was delayed, delayed again when an important member of the Blu-ray Disc group voiced concerns. At the request of the initial hardware manufacturers, including Toshiba and Samsung, an interim standard was published that did not include some features, such as managed copy; the first BD-ROM players were shipped in mid-June 2006, though HD DVD players beat them to market by a few months.
The first Blu-ray Disc titles were released on June 20, 2006: 50 First Dates, The Fifth Element, House of Flying Daggers, Underworld: Evolution, xXx, MGM's The Terminator. The earliest releases used the same method used on standard DVDs; the first releases using the newer VC-1 and AVC formats were introduced in September 2006. The first movies using 50 GB dual-layer discs were introduced in October 2006; the first audio-only albums were released in May 2008. The first mass-market Blu-ray Disc rewritable drive for the PC was the BWU-100A, released by Sony on July 18, 2006, it recorded both single and dual-layer BD-Rs as well as BD-REs and had a suggested retail price of US $699. As of June 2008, more than 2,500 Blu-ray Disc titles were available in Australia