Switzerland in the Roman era
The territory of modern Switzerland was a part of the Roman Republic and Empire for a period of about six centuries, beginning with the step-by-step conquest of the area by Roman armies from the 2nd century BC and ending with the decline of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD. The Celtic tribes of the area were subjugated by successive Roman campaigns aimed at control of the strategic routes from Italy across the Alps to the Rhine and into Gaul, most by Julius Caesar's defeat of the largest tribal group, the Helvetii, in 58 BC. Under the Pax Romana, the area was smoothly integrated into the prospering Empire, its population assimilated into the wider Gallo-Roman culture by the 2nd century AD, as the Romans enlisted the native aristocracy to engage in local government, built a network of roads connecting their newly established colonial cities and divided up the area among the Roman provinces. Roman civilization began to retreat from Swiss territory when it became a border region again after the Crisis of the Third Century.
Roman control weakened after 401 AD, but did not disappear until the mid-5th century after which the area began to be occupied by Germanic peoples. The Swiss plateau, within the natural borders of the Alps to the South and East, Lake Geneva and the Rhône to the west and the Rhine to the north, was recognized as a contiguous territory by Julius Caesar; this area had been dominated by the La Tène culture since the 5th century BC, settled by a Celtic population, of which the Helvetii were the most numerous, but which included the Rauraci in north-west Switzerland centered on Basel, the Allobroges around Geneva. South of the Swiss plateau were the Nantuates and Veragri in the Valais, the Lepontii in the Ticino, while the Raetians controlled the Grisons as well as large areas around it; the first part of what is now Switzerland to fall to Rome was the southern Ticino, annexed after the Roman victory over the Insubres in 222 BC. The territory of the Allobroges around Geneva came under Roman sway by 121 BC and was incorporated into the province of Gallia Narbonensis prior to the Gallic Wars.
In around 110 BC, two Helvetic tribes under Divico – the Tigurini and the Tougeni, sometimes identified with the Teutons – joined the wandering Germanic Cimbri on a march to the West. In the course of the Cimbrian War they defeated a Roman force under Lucius Cassius Longinus at the Battle of Burdigala in 107 BC, but after the Roman victory over the Teutons at Aquae Sextiae in 102 BC, the Tigurini returned to settle in the Swiss Plateau. In 61 BC, the Helvetii, led by Orgetorix, decided to leave their lands and move to the West, burning their settlements behind them – twelve oppida, according to Caesar, some 400 villages, they were decisively beaten by Caesar in the Battle of Bibracte in 58 BC. After their surrender, Caesar sent the Helvetii home, according them the status of foederati or Roman allies, but not yet subjugating them to Roman sovereignty. Caesar's policy aimed at controlling the territory west of the Jura and Rhine, as well as at blocking the potential incursion routes from the East along the Jura.
The Raetians, described as savage warriors by Strabo, continued to launch incursions into the Swiss Plateau and had to be contained. To that end, Caesar charged the Helvetii and the Rauraci with defending their territory and established two colonies of veterans – one, the Colonia Julia Equestris on the shores of Lake Geneva and the other through Lucius Munatius Plancus in northwestern Switzerland, preceding the larger Augusta Raurica founded by Augustus in around 6 AD. Caesar's attempt to open the Great St Bernard Pass for Roman traffic failed in 57 BC due to strong opposition by the local Veragri. Concerted and successful efforts to gain control over the Alpine region were undertaken by his successor, Augustus, as the rapid development of Lugdunum made the establishment of a safe and direct route from Gaul to Italy a priority. In 25 BC, an army under Aulus Terentius Varro Murena wiped out the Salassi in the Aosta Valley. At some time between 25 and 7 BC – either following the Aosta campaign or, more in the course of the conquest of Raetia in 15 BC – a campaign subjugated the Celtic tribes of the Valais and opened the Great St Bernard Pass.
That conquest was a consequence of the Augustan imperative of securing the Imperial borders. To control the Alps as the shield of northern Italy, Rome needed to control both flanks of the mountain range, thus it had to extend its power to the Rhine and Danube, thereby opening a direct route to Germania and all of Central Europe. The last obstacle in this path were the Raetians. After a first expedition against them by Publius Silius Nerva in 16 BC, a more thorough campaign by Drusus and the emperor Tiberius brought Raetia – and thereby all of Switzerland – under Roman control; the tropaeum alpium, built by Augustus in 7 BC to celebrate his conquest of the Alps, lists among the defeated peoples the tribes of Raetia and of the Valais, but not the Helvetii. It appears that they were absorbed peacefully into the Empire during the first century AD, except for their part in the conflicts of the Year of the Four Emperors, AD 69; the history of Switzerland under Roman rule was, from the Augustan period up until 260 AD, a time of exceptional peace and prosperity.
The Pax Romana was made possible by the protection of well-defended and distant Imperial borders and a peaceful and smooth Romanization of the local population. The Romans urbanized the territory with numerous settlements and built a network of high-quality Roman roads connecting them, allowing for the integration of Helvetia into the imperial economy. While the Roman presence was always strong in the Alps
Vaduz Castle is the palace and official residence of the Prince of Liechtenstein. The castle gave its name to the town of Vaduz, the capital of Liechtenstein, which it overlooks from an adjacent hilltop; the former owners, who were also the builders, were the counts of Werdenberg-Sargans. The bergfried and parts of the eastern side are the oldest; the tower stands on a piece of ground, 12 by 13 metres in area. At the ground floor, the tower walls have a thickness of up to 4 metres; the original entrance lay at the courtyard side at a height of 11 metres. The chapel of St. Anna was built in the Middle Ages as well; the main altar is late-gothic. In the Swabian War of 1499, the castle was burned by the Swiss Confederacy; the western side was expanded by Count Kaspar von Hohenems. The Princely Family of Liechtenstein acquired Vaduz Castle in 1712 when it purchased the countship of Vaduz. At this time, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, combined the countship with the Lordship of Schellenberg, purchased by the Liechtensteins in 1699, to form the present Principality of Liechtenstein.
The castle underwent a major restoration between 1904 and 1920 again in the early 1920s during the reign of Prince Johann II, was expanded during the early 1930s by Prince Franz Joseph II. Since 1938, the castle has been the primary residence of Liechtenstein's Princely Family; the castle is not open to the public. List of castles in Liechtenstein Valtice
A neutral country is a state, neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts. As a type of non-combatant status, neutral nationals enjoy protection under the law of war from belligerent actions, to a greater extent than other non-combatants such as enemy civilians and prisoners of war. Different countries interpret their neutrality differently. Some, such as Costa Rica, have demilitarized. Not all neutral countries avoid any foreign deployment or alliances, however, as Austria, Ireland and Sweden have active UN peacekeeping forces and a political alliance within the European Union; the traditional Swedish policy is not to participate in military alliances, with the intention of staying neutral in the case of war. Before World War II, the Nordic countries stated their neutrality, but Sweden changed its position to that of non-belligerent at the start of the Winter War. A neutral country in a particular war, is a sovereign state which declares itself to be neutral towards the belligerents.
The rights and duties of a neutral power are defined in Sections 5 and 13 of the Hague Convention of 1907. A permanently neutral power is a sovereign state, bound by international treaty to be neutral towards the belligerents of all future wars. An example of a permanently neutral power is Switzerland; the concept of neutrality in war is narrowly defined and puts specific constraints on the neutral party in return for the internationally recognized right to remain neutral. Neutralism or a "neutralist policy" is a foreign policy position wherein a state intends to remain neutral in future wars. A sovereign state that reserves the right to become a belligerent if attacked by a party to the war is in a condition of armed neutrality. A non-belligerent state is one that indirectly participates in a war, politically and/or materially helping one side of the conflict and thus not participating militarily. For example, it may allow its territory to be used for the war effort. Belligerents may not invade neutral territory, a neutral power's resisting any such attempt does not compromise its neutrality.
A neutral power must intern belligerent troops who reach its territory, but not escaped prisoners of war. Belligerent armies may not recruit neutral citizens. Belligerent armies' personnel and material may not be transported across neutral territory, but the wounded may be. A neutral power may supply communication facilities to belligerents, but not war material, although it need not prevent export of such material. Belligerent naval vessels may use neutral ports for a maximum of 24 hours, though neutrals may impose different restrictions. Exceptions are to make repairs—only the minimum necessary to put back to sea—or if an opposing belligerent's vessel is in port, in which case it must have a 24-hour head start. A prize ship captured by a belligerent in the territorial waters of a neutral power must be surrendered by the belligerent to the neutral, which must intern its crew. Neutrality has been recognised in different ways, sometimes involves a formal guarantor. For example, Austria has its neutrality guaranteed by its four former occupying powers, Switzerland by the signatories of the Congress of Vienna and Finland by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
The form of recognition varies by bilateral treaty, multilateral treaty or a UN declaration. These treaties can in some ways be forced on a country but in other cases it is an active policy of the country concerned to respond to a geopolitical situation. For the country concerned, the policy is codified beyond the treaty itself. Austria and Japan codify their neutrality in their constitutions, but they do so with different levels of detail; some details of neutrality are left to be interpreted by the government while others are explicitly stated, for example Austria may not host any foreign bases and Japan cannot participate in foreign wars. Yet Sweden, lacking formal codification, was more flexible during the Second World War in allowing troops to pass through its territory. Armed neutrality is the posture of a state or group of states that has no alliance with either side in a war, but asserts that it will defend itself against resulting incursions from any party; this may include: Military preparedness without commitment as the expressed policy of a neutral nation in wartime.
Armed neutrality is a term used in international politics, the attitude of a state or group of states which makes no alliance with either side in a war. It is the condition of a neutral power, during said war, to hold itself ready to resist by force, any aggression of either belligerent. Neutrality maintained. Armed neutrality makes a seemingly-neutral state take up arms for protection to maintain its neutrality. Sweden and Switzerland are, independent of each other, famed for their armed neutrality, which they maintained throughout both World War I and World War II; the Swiss and the Swedes each have a long history of neutrality: they have not been in a state of war internationally since 1815 and 1814, respectively. They pursue, active foreign policies and are involved in peace-building processes around the world. According to Edwin Reischauer, "To be neutral you must be ready to be militarized, like Switzerland
Monarchy of Liechtenstein
The Prince Regnant of Liechtenstein is the monarch and head of state of Liechtenstein. The princely family of Liechtenstein, after which the sovereign principality was named in 1719, hails from Liechtenstein Castle in Lower Austria, which the family possessed from at least 1140 to the thirteenth century, from 1807 onward, it is the only remaining European monarchy that practises strict agnatic primogeniture, meaning only first-born males may inherit the throne. Through the centuries, the dynasty acquired vast swathes of land, predominantly in Moravia, Lower Austria and Styria, though in all cases, these territories were held in fief under other more senior feudal lords under various lines of the Habsburg family, to whom several Liechtenstein princes served as close advisors. Without any territory held from the Imperial crown, the Liechtenstein family, although noble, did not qualify for a seat in the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire. By purchase in 1699 and 1712 from the Counts of Waldburg-Zeil-Hohenem of the small Herrschaft of Schellenberg and the countship of Vaduz, the Liechtensteins acquired immediate lands within the Holy Roman Empire which made them eligible for elevation to the Imperial Diet.
Thereby, on 23 January 1719 Emperor Charles VI decreed Vaduz and Schellenberg were henceforth united and raised to the status of a Fürstentum under the name "Liechtenstein" for " true servant, Anton Florian von Liechtenstein". Although the family continued to own larger territories in various parts of central and eastern Europe, it was in right of Liechtenstein's status as an Imperial estate that the family of wealthy noble Austrian courtiers became a dynasty of imperial princes, continuing to dwell in the imperial capital of Vienna or on their larger estates elsewhere, not taking up permanent residence in their principality for more than 300 years, moving into their Alpine realm only in 1938, after dissolution of both the Holy Roman Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire; the Prince of Liechtenstein has broad powers, which include the appointment of judges, the dismissal of ministers or government, veto power, the calling of referendums. The Liechtenstein constitutional referendum, 2003 was a proposal put forth by reigning Prince Hans-Adam II to revise parts of the Constitution of Liechtenstein, on the one hand expanding the monarch's power with the authority to veto legislation, while on the other hand securing for the citizenry the option to abolish the monarchy by vote at any time without being subject to princely veto.
The right of the parishes that make up the principality to secede was recognised. Prince Hans-Adam had warned that he and his family would move to Austria if the referendum were rejected. Despite opposition from Mario Frick, a former Liechtenstein prime minister, the Prince's referendum was approved by the electorate in 2003. Opponents accused Hans-Adam of engaging in emotional blackmail to achieve his goal and constitutional experts from the Council of Europe branded the event as a retrograde move. A proposal to revoke the Prince's new veto powers was rejected by 76% of voters in a 2012 referendum. On 15 August 2004 Prince Hans-Adam II formally delegated most of his sovereign authority to his son and heir, the Hereditary Prince Alois, as a way of transitioning to a new generation. Formally, Hans-Adam remains head of state. According to their house law, the monarch bears the titles: Reigning Prince of Liechtenstein, Duke of Troppau and Jägerndorf, Count of Rietberg, Sovereign of the House of Liechtenstein.
List of monarchs of Liechtenstein Media related to Liechtenstein monarchy at Wikimedia Commons The Princely House of Liechtenstein
Flag of Liechtenstein
The flag of Liechtenstein consists of two horizontal blue and red bands charged with a gold crown at the canton. Adopted in 1921 after being enshrined into the nation's constitution, it has been the flag of the Principality of Liechtenstein since that year; the crown was added to the flag in 1937 after the country found out at the Summer Olympics held the previous year that their flag was identical to the flag of Haiti. Liechtenstein was formed in 1719 as a principality within the Holy Roman Empire, gained complete independence in 1866. Within this period, the colours blue and red were selected to feature on the flag, instead of the gold and red on the coat of arms that would have customarily been employed instead; these new livery colours were first utilized by Prince Joseph Wenzel I in 1764. A new constitution for the Principality was formulated and proclaimed in October 1921, it made the blue and red banner the national flag by granting it "official status". Fifteen years during the 1936 Summer Olympics, the country came to the realization that its flag was identical to the flag of Haiti though Haiti did not participate in the Olympics that year.
Because of this finding, the government added the prince's crown to the canton. This change served two purposes – to signify Liechtenstein's position as a principality, to distinguish its flag from Haiti's; this modified design was adopted on June 24, 1937. The colors and symbols of the flag carry cultural and regional meanings; the blue represents the sky, while red alludes to the "evening fires" that are lit inside houses throughout the country. The crown – whose colour is disputed – epitomizes the "unity of the people and their prince." While The World Factbook and Reuters describe it as gold in colour, other sources – such as Whitney Smith in the Encyclopædia Britannica – describe it as yellow. In February 2004, the Financial Intelligence Unit of Liechtenstein called for the capture of a Falcon 50 private jet, owned by the former regime of Saddam Hussein and kept in Amman, Jordan, they sought this action because the plane flew the flag of Liechtenstein and had a registration number from Switzerland, which keeps the civil aviation records of the Principality.
This was carried out shortly afterwards in order to comply with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1483. After being transported to Basel and revamped the Liechtensteiner government returned the plane to the new government of Iraq on December 5, 2005; this marked the first Iraqi aircraft seized under UN sanctions to be given back to the country. The eleven municipalities each have their own flag. Liechtenstein at Flags of the World Original Law text
2008 Liechtenstein tax affair
The 2008 Liechtenstein tax affair is a series of tax investigations in numerous countries whose governments suspect that some of their citizens may have evaded tax obligations by using banks and trusts in Liechtenstein. It is seen as an attempt to put pressure on Liechtenstein, one of the remaining uncooperative tax havens, as identified by the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering of the Paris-based Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, along with Andorra and Monaco, in 2007. Millions of euros belonging to hundreds of citizens living in Germany were channeled into the LGT Bank and other banks in Liechtenstein, taking advantage of Liechtenstein-based trusts to evade paying taxes in Germany. According to the prosecutor's office these trusts "have been created only to evade paying taxes." According to the law in Liechtenstein, such trusts allow the separation of monetary assets from their owners and are kept anonymously. In contrast to trusts of most other countries, Liechtenstein trusts can be revoked at any time and the assets will be returned to the owner.
Furthermore, such trusts as well as their maintaining shell entities are only charged 0.1% annually. Liechtenstein thus is known to be a tax haven. According to the lead prosecuting office responsible for economic crime in Bochum, supported by prosecuting offices in other towns as well as the criminal police about 600 to 700 individuals are suspected in the investigations. In addition, search warrants have been issued. An official confirmation about the total number of suspects and amount of money involved has not yet been issued. According to the prosecutors, current investigations provide a "very high level of evidence."The affair became known on February 14, 2008, when a raid was conducted against Klaus Zumwinkel, the chief executive of Deutsche Post AG, under the suspicion that he evaded about 1 million € in taxes. Pressured by the government, Zumwinkel resigned from his position. A number of other individuals have been under investigation for months, the appearance that the well-to-do have ways and means to evade the German tax laws has caused complaints about inequality.
According to a report by the Süddeutsche Zeitung, Heinrich Kieber, a bank computer technician, sold a CD with incriminating bank information to the Bundesnachrichtendienst, which handed the material over to the tax investigation office in Wuppertal. Kieber was paid €4.2 million by the Federal Ministry of Finance for the data on which the investigation is based. Facing death threats, the informant is in hiding and has asked for police protection. Kieber is wanted by Interpol; the Wall Street Journal indicated on February 19, 2008, the name of the informant who lives now in Australia and had sold the data to tax ministries of a number of countries, including the United States. A number of raids were conducted in Hamburg, Munich and other cities. Several banks were searched including Bankhaus Metzler, the Hauck & Aufhäuser bank, Dresdner Bank, UBS in Munich and the Berenberg Bank in Hamburg. In the meantime revenue offices noted a higher number of voluntary self-incriminations - this will avoid or reduce punitive damages - for possible tax evasions by people with financial assets in Liechtenstein.
While the BND received the data in 2006, the LGT Group indicated that in 2002 secret information had been stolen but the informant had been caught and tried in 2003, all material had been returned. The informant had sold data to the government of the United States. After the affair broke open, Senator Carl Levin, chairman of a senate investigations committee, indicated his intention to probe to what degree American citizens have used the LGT bank to evade taxes. In July 2008 the U. S. Subcommittee determined that the offshore tax haven saved $100 billion per year for the U. S. taxpayer. Mentioned were Switzerland's UBS AG and Liechtenstein's LGT Group; the report indicates that the LGT Group contributed to a "culture of secrecy and deception". According to the report UBS holds 1,000 declared accounts versus 19,000 that are not declared to the IRS; the report recommended a number of steps including tighter regulations for financial institutions. According to the LGT Bank some 20 Finns had evaded tax in Finland via accounts containing €50-60 million in deposited funds.
This was the largest known tax avoidance case in Finland. Most names are secret. According to Helsingin Sanomat in Sept/Oct 2013 Lichtenstein tax havens accounts include funds of Casimir Ehrnrooth Bertel Paulig and a construction company owners in Turku. Seventeen Finns paid additional taxes totalling €10 million; the taxpayers initiated actions in the Administrative Court. The decisions are not public. According to Finnish law the cost of hidden taxes can be up to 30%. In two cases shown for the reporters the administrative Court acted ca 1% interest rate payment. In one case hidden funds were in total €483.000 and acted additional tax was €4.350. In addition to this, tax payers must pay the avoided taxes and an interest of the tax funds not paid in time. According to the Supreme Administrative Court of Finland no other legal procedures are possible, than collecting the hidden tax and its 1% interest rate. On February 24, 2008, it became apparent that secret bank information had been sold to the British tax authorities and that about 100 individuals in the UK are at risk for investigations for tax evasion.
The informant provided the governments of Australia, Canada and Fr
Liechtenstein National Police Force
Law enforcement in Liechtenstein is handled by the small Liechtenstein National Police Force, composed of 91 officers and 34 civilian staff, a total of 125 employees, who police the 160 km² doubly landlocked alpine country in Western-Central Europe. Bordered by Switzerland to its west, Austria to its east, Liechtenstein maintains a trilateral treaty which enables close cross-border cooperation between the police forces of the three countries. Liechtenstein has a low crime rate, with the last murder taking place, according to a serving officer, “about ten years ago” as of 2007. Crime has always been low since the mid-1970s. According to an International Special Reports study, the average Liechtenstein resident doesn't lock their door. Liechtenstein jails hold few, if any, with sentences over two years being transferred to Austria. However, officers in the Liechtenstein National Police Force have been armed since a shooting took place. In 2004, Liechtenstein drafted 300 Swiss and Austrian police to assist security forces in the potential aftermath of a Liechtenstein victory over England, in a Euro Cup qualifying match, at Rheinpark Stadion.
Liechtenstein National Police Force are divided into three divisions, two independently operated subdivision: Security and Traffic Control. Criminal Investigation. Officers are issued a SIG Sauer pistol the standard issue being the SIG Sauer P226. Executive Support. Security Corps The Security Corps are a paramilitary force, composed of Liechtensteiners, who can be called upon in case of a natural disaster, or riot situation; the Corps performs honorary roles such as changing the guard, presenting the Coat of Arms at official occasions. Differing from all other units the Corps are both trained and equipped with automatic weapons, most notably the Heckler & Koch UMP and MP5. Law enforcement in Liechtenstein is handled by the Liechtenstein National Police Force, although a paramilitary force is maintained inside the police body. Liechtenstein follows a policy of neutrality, is one of few countries in the world that maintains no active military. Liechtenstein's Army was abolished in 1868, soon after the Austro-Prussian War in which Liechtenstein fielded an army of 80 men, although they were not involved in any fighting.
However, Liechtenstein can reinstate its military if deemed necessary, although this is unlikely. Switzerland has a active military due to conscription. Several incidents have occurred during routine training: On 5 December 1985, antitank rocket RL-83 Blindicide fired by the Swiss Armed Forces landed in a forest in Switzerland owned by Balzers, a municipality of Liechtenstein, causing a forest fire. Compensation was paid to the private owner. On 13 October 1992, following written orders, Swiss Army cadets unknowingly crossed the border and went to Triesenberg to set up an observation post. Swiss commanders had overlooked the fact. Switzerland apologized to Liechtenstein for the incident. On 3 March 2007, a company of 171 Swiss soldiers mistakenly entered Liechtenstein by bad weather and by night, after taking a wrong turn in the darkness; the troops returned to Swiss territory. The Liechtenstein authorities did not discover the "invaders", were informed by the Swiss after the incident; the incident was disregarded by both sides.
A Liechtenstein spokesman said "It's not like they invaded with attack helicopters". Since 1933, Liechtenstein National Police Force has signed seven strategic treaties. Working Group Southwest Europol International Police Association Interpol Eastern Swiss police Concordat Police union boss Constance Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe The national emergency telephone number is 112, for police it is 117, for the Fire Brigade it is 118, for the Ambulance Service it is 144, for the Rega it is 1414; the Fire Brigade operates a 30-man volunteer Mountain Rescue Service. Officer uniforms are similar to that of the Swiss cantonal police, both in color, design; the Swiss border between Switzerland and Liechtenstein is opened, but Swiss customs officers used to secure Liechtenstein's border with Austria. Before December 2011, there were 21 Swiss, 4 Liechtenstein National Police, 28 Austria border guards, who secured the 11.6 km long Liechtensteiner-Austrian border, only 20 percent is passable.
Though the Liechtenstein National Police Force maintain a border unit, the Swiss border police are responsible for border protection of both countries according to a customs union adopted in 1924. In February 2007, there were hundreds of people trying to seek asylum in Liechtenstein, m