Telecommunications in Djibouti
Telecommunications in Djibouti falls under the authority of the Ministry of Communication & Culture. Main lines in use: 23,000 Mobile/cellular: 312,000 General assessment: Telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are defined by CIA World Factbook as "adequate as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the country." Domestic: Djibouti Telecom is the sole provider of telecommunications services and utilizes a microwave radio relay network.
Internet service provider
An Internet service provider is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet. Internet service providers may be organized in various forms, such as commercial, community-owned, non-profit, or otherwise owned. Internet services provided by ISPs include Internet access, Internet transit, domain name registration, web hosting, Usenet service, colocation; the Internet was developed as a network between government research laboratories and participating departments of universities. Other companies and organizations joined by direct connection to the backbone, or by arrangements through other connected companies, sometime using dialup tools such as UUCP. By the late 1980s, a process was set in place towards commercial use of the Internet; the remaining restrictions were removed by 1991, shortly after the introduction of the World Wide Web. During the 1980s, online service providers such as CompuServe and America On Line began to offer limited capabilities to access the Internet, such as e-mail interchange, but full access to the Internet was not available to the general public.
In 1989, the first Internet service providers, companies offering the public direct access to the Internet for a monthly fee, were established in Australia and the United States. In Brookline, The World became the first commercial ISP in the US, its first customer was served in November 1989. These companies offered dial-up connections, using the public telephone network to provide last-mile connections to their customers; the barriers to entry for dial-up ISPs were low and many providers emerged. However, cable television companies and the telephone carriers had wired connections to their customers and could offer Internet connections at much higher speeds than dial-up using broadband technology such as cable modems and digital subscriber line; as a result, these companies became the dominant ISPs in their service areas, what was once a competitive ISP market became a monopoly or duopoly in countries with a commercial telecommunications market, such as the United States. On 23 April 2014, the U.
S. Federal Communications Commission was reported to be considering a new rule that will permit ISPs to offer content providers a faster track to send content, thus reversing their earlier net neutrality position. A possible solution to net neutrality concerns may be municipal broadband, according to Professor Susan Crawford, a legal and technology expert at Harvard Law School. On 15 May 2014, the FCC decided to consider two options regarding Internet services: first, permit fast and slow broadband lanes, thereby compromising net neutrality. On 10 November 2014, President Barack Obama recommended that the FCC reclassify broadband Internet service as a telecommunications service in order to preserve net neutrality. On 16 January 2015, Republicans presented legislation, in the form of a U. S. Congress H. R. discussion draft bill, that makes concessions to net neutrality but prohibits the FCC from accomplishing the goal or enacting any further regulation affecting Internet service providers. On 31 January 2015, AP News reported that the FCC will present the notion of applying Title II of the Communications Act of 1934 to the Internet in a vote expected on 26 February 2015.
Adoption of this notion would reclassify Internet service from one of information to one of the telecommunications and, according to Tom Wheeler, chairman of the FCC, ensure net neutrality. The FCC is expected to enforce net neutrality in its vote, according to The New York Times. On 26 February 2015, the FCC ruled in favor of net neutrality by adopting Title II of the Communications Act of 1934 and Section 706 in the Telecommunications Act of 1996 to the Internet; the FCC Chairman, Tom Wheeler, commented, "This is no more a plan to regulate the Internet than the First Amendment is a plan to regulate free speech. They both stand for the same concept." On 12 March 2015, the FCC released the specific details of the net neutrality rules. On 13 April 2015, the FCC published the final rule on its new "Net Neutrality" regulations; these rules went into effect on 12 June 2015. Upon becoming FCC chairman in April 2017, Ajit Pai proposed an end to net neutrality, awaiting votes from the commission. On 21 November 2017, Pai announced that a vote will be held by FCC members on 14 December on whether to repeal the policy.
On 11 June 2018, the repeal of the FCC's network neutrality rules took effect. Access provider ISPs provide Internet access, employing a range of technologies to connect users to their network. Available technologies have ranged from computer modems with acoustic couplers to telephone lines, to television cable, Wi-Fi, fiber optics. For users and small businesses, traditional options include copper wires to provide dial-up, DSL asymmetric digital subscriber line, cable modem or Integrated Services Digital Network. Using fiber-optics to end users is called Fiber To The Home or similar names. For customers with more demanding requirements can use higher-speed DSL, metropolitan Ethernet, gigabit Ethernet, Frame Relay, ISDN Primary Rate Interface, ATM and synchronous optical networking. Wireless access is another option, including satellite Internet access. A mailbox provider is an organization that provides services for hosting electronic mail domains with access to storage for mail boxes
Economy of Mauritania
A majority of the population of Mauritania depends on agriculture and livestock for a livelihood though most of the nomads and many subsistence farmers were forced into the cities by recurrent droughts in the 1970s and 1980s. Mauritania has extensive deposits of iron ore, which account for 50% of total exports; the decline in world demand for this ore, has led to cutbacks in production. With the current rise in metal prices and copper mining companies are opening mines in the interior; the nation's coastal waters are among the richest fishing areas in the world, but overexploitation by foreigners threatens this key source of revenue. The country's first deep water port opened near Nouakchott in 1986. In recent years and economic mismanagement have resulted in a buildup of foreign debt. In March 1999, the government signed an agreement with a joint World Bank-International Monetary Fund mission on a $54 million enhanced structural adjustment facility; the economic objectives have been set for 1999–2002.
Privatization remains one of the key issues. This is a chart of trend of gross domestic product of Mauritania at market prices estimated by the International Monetary Fund with figures in millions of Mauritanian Ougulyas. Current GDP per capita of Mauritania grew 82% in the Sixties reaching a peak growth of 166% in the Seventies, but this proved unsustainable and growth scaled back to 14% in the Eighties. It shrank by 29% in the Nineties. Mean wages were $0.97 per man-hour in 2009. The following table shows the main economic indicators in 1980–2017. In 2007, mining industries accounted for well over 35 per cent of the Mauritanian economy, with the fish industry so much as 54%. Diversification of the economy into non-mining industries remains a long-term issue. Mauritania is a net importer of food importing 70% of its domestic food needs. In February 2006, the Mauritanian government denounced amendments to an oil contract made by former leader Maaouiya Ould Taya with Woodside Petroleum, an Australian company.
In 2004, Woodside had agreed to invest $US 600 million in developing Mauritania's Chinguetti offshore oil project. The controversial amendments, which Mauritanian authorities declared had been signed "outside the legal framework of normal practice, to the great detriment of our country", could cost Mauritania up to $200 million a year, according to BBC News. Signed by Woodside two weeks after the February 1, 2005 legislation authorizing the four amendments, they provided for a lower state quota in the profit-oil, reduced taxes by 15 percent in certain zones, they eased environmental constraints, extended the length and scope of the exploitation and exploration monopoly, among other measures. The disputed amendments were signed by former oil minister Zeidane Ould Hmeida in February 2004 and March 2005. Hmeida was arrested in January 2006 on charges of "serious crimes against the country's essential economic interests". Nouakchott's authorities declared that the government would seek international arbitration, which Woodside contemplated.
Discovered in 2002, Chinguetti has proven reserves of about 120,000,000 barrels of oil. At the end of December 2005, authorities estimated that in 2006, the oil profits would be 47 billion ouguiyas and represent a quarter of the state budget, according to RFI; some U. S. oil companies are alleged to be playing a part in Mauritania's oil related corruption. Economy of Africa Slavery in Mauritania List of companies based in Mauritania Mauritania portal Business and economics portal Africa portal This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html. Economy of Mauritania at Curlie Mauritania latest trade data on Ivana. "EU-Mauritania fisheries agreements". Library Briefing. Library of the European Parliament. Retrieved 17 June 2013
Nouakchott is the capital and largest city of Mauritania. It is one of the largest cities in the Sahara; the city serves as the administrative and economic center of Mauritania. Nouakchott was a mid size village of little importance until 1958, when it was chosen as the capital of the nascent nation of Mauritania, it was designed and built to accommodate 15,000 people, but drought and increasing desertification since the 1970s have displaced a vast number of Mauritanians who resettled in Nouakchott. This caused massive urban growth and overcrowding, with the city having an official population of just under a million as of 2013; the resettled population inhabited slum areas under poor conditions, but the living conditions of a portion of these inhabitants have since been improved. The city is the hub of the Mauritanian economy and is home to a deepwater port and Nouakchott–Oumtounsy International Airport, one of the country's two international airports, it hosts the University of Nouakchott and several other more specialized institutes of higher learning.
Nouakchott was a fortified fishing village in pre-colonial times and under French rule. As Mauritania prepared for independence, it lacked a capital city and the area of present-day Nouakchott was chosen by Moktar Ould Daddah and his advisors. Ould Daddah desired for the new capital to be a symbol of modernity and national unity which ruled out existing cities or towns in the interior; the village was selected as the capital city for its central location between Saint-Louis, the city from which the colony of Mauritania was governed, Nouadhibou. Its location meant that it avoided the sensitive issue of whether the capital was built in an area dominated by the Arab-descended Moors or Black Africans. Construction began in March 1958 to enlarge the village to house a population of 15,000 and the basics were completed by the time that the French granted independence on 28 November 1960. Nouakchott was planned with the expectation that commerce and other economic activities would not take place in the city.
Nouakchott's central business district was planned with a grid-like structure. During the 1960s, the city obtained its own local government. By the 1970s, these new areas had grown so much that they replaced the old ksar in terms of importance, as they hosted the governmental buildings and state enterprises; the city was attacked twice in 1976 by the Polisario Front during the Western Sahara conflict, but little damage was caused by the guerrillas. The city has had massive and unconstrained growth, driven by the North African drought, since the beginning of the 1970s; the official censuses showed 134,000 residents in 1977 and 393,325 in 1988, although both figures were smaller than reality. The population is now estimated to consist of at least one third of the country's population of 3.2 million and the 2013 census showed a population of 958,399. Located on the Atlantic coast of the Sahara Desert, it lies on the west coast of Africa. With the exception of Friendship Port and a small fishing port, the coastal strip is left empty and allowed to flood.
The coastline includes sandy beaches. There are areas of quicksand close to the harbour. Nouakchott is flat and only a few meters above sea level, it is threatened by the sand dunes advancing from its eastern side. There have been efforts to save particular areas, including work by Jean Meunier. Owing to the rapid build-up, the city is quite spread out, with few tall buildings. Most buildings are one-story. Nouakchott is built around a large tree-lined street, Avenue Gamal Abdel Nasser, which runs northeast through the city centre from the airport, it divides the city into two, with the residential areas in the north and the medina quarter, along with the kebbe, a shanty town formed due to the displacement of people from other areas by the desert. Other major streets are named for notable Mauritanian or international figures of the 1960s: Avenue Abdel Nasser, Avenue Charles de Gaulle, Avenue Kennedy, Avenue Lumumba, for example; the kebbe consists of cement buildings that are built overnight and made to look permanent to avoid destruction by the authorities.
In 1999, it was estimated that more than half of the city's inhabitants lived in tents and shacks, which were used for residential as well as business purposes. The city is broken into nine arrondissements, sub-divided into alphabetised Îlots; these are Teyarett, Tevragh Zeïna, Sebkha, El Mina, Dar Naïm, Arafat and Riad. The Sebkha Arrondissement is home to a large shopping area. Nouakchott features a hot desert climate with hot temperatures throughout the year, but cold winter night temperatures. Nouakchott possesses a warm temperature range compared to other cities with this climate. While average high temperatures are constant at around 33 °C, average low temperatures can range from 25 °C during the summer months to 13 °C during the winter months. Minimum temperatures can be as low as 10 °C during winter nights in Nouakchott. Average rainfall in the city is 95 mm a year. Nouakchott is divided into three regions, each of which contains three departments: Nouakchott-Nord: Dar-Naim, Toujouonine Nouakchott-Ouest: Ksar, Tevragh-Zeina Nouakchott-Sud: Arafat, El Mina, RiyadThe t
Telecommunications in the Gambia
Telecommunications in the Gambia includes radio, television and mobile telephones, the Internet. Radio: The state-owned Gambia Radio and Television Service has two AM stations and three FM stations. There are seven private FM stations in Serrekunda and Basse. Transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available. Radio sets: 196,000. Television: The Gambia Radio and Television Service operates a single-channel TV service with the main transmitter at Banjul and numerous relay stations. Transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available. Television sets: 4,000. Calling code: +220 International call prefix: 00 Main lines: 64,200 lines in use, 159th in the world. Mobile cellular: 1.5 million lines, 151st in the world. Teledensity: ~80 per 100 persons, combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular. Domestic: Adequate microwave radio relay and open-wire network. State-owned Gambia Telecommunications Company privatized in 2007. International: Microwave radio relay: Links to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau.
Satellite earth station: 1 Intelsat. Communications cables: Africa Coast to Europe fiber-optic submarine cable. Top-level domain:.gm Internet users: 229,122 users, 151st in the world. Fixed broadband: 497 subscriptions, 188th in the world. Wireless broadband: 22,435 subscriptions, 131st in the world. Internet hosts: 656 hosts, 179th in the world. IPv4: 21,504 addresses allocated, less than 0.05% of the world total, 11.7 addresses per 1000 people. The Gambia is not individually classified by the OpenNet Initiative, but is classified as engaged in selective Internet filtering based on the limited descriptions in the ONI 2009 profile for the sub-Saharan Africa region. There are no government restrictions on access to the Internet or reports that the government monitors e-mail or Internet chat rooms without appropriate legal authority. Individuals and groups can engage in the peaceful expression of views via the Internet, including by e-mail. However, Internet users reported they could not access the Web sites of foreign online newspapers Freedom, The Gambia Echo and Jollofnews, which criticized the government.
The constitution and law provide for freedom of press. According to the Observatory for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders, "the environment for independent and opposition media remained hostile, with numerous obstacles to freedom of expression, including administrative hurdles, arbitrary arrest and detention and judicial harassment against journalists, the closure of media outlets, leading to self-censorship." Individuals who publicly or criticized the government or the president risked government reprisal. In March 2011 President Jammeh warned independent journalists that he would "not compromise or sacrifice the peace, stability and the well being of Gambians for the sake of freedom of expression." Accusing some journalists of being the "mouthpiece of opposition parties," he vowed to prosecute any journalist who offended him. The National Intelligence Agency was involved in arbitrary closure of media outlets and the extrajudicial detention of journalists. In 2007 a Gambian journalist living in the US was convicted of sedition for an article published online.
The constitution and law prohibit arbitrary interference with privacy, home, or correspondence, but the government does not respect these prohibitions. Observers believe the government monitors citizens engaged in activities that it deems objectionable. In recent years before the 2016 election social media like Whatsapp and Skype have been temporarily blocked in The Gambia. Since 30 November 2016, the evening before the presidential election, internet access, mobile communication and phone calls have been shut down by all providers, as ordered by the president of The Gambia. Africell, mobile telecommunications company operating in The Gambia, Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Gamtel, the Gambia Telecommunications Company. Qcell, Qcell Gambia Co. Ltd. the Gambia Telecommunications Company. Comium, Comium Gambia Co. Ltd. Telecommunications Company, is owned subsidiary of the Comium Group Luxemburg. Netpage Ltd. Netpage Gambia Co. Ltd. Telecommunications Company. Quantum Ltd. QuantumNet Gambia Co. Ltd.
Telecommunications Company. Vizocom, a global satellite internet provider with coverage in the African continent This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2013 edition"; this article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of State. Department Of State For Communications Information Technology. Gamtel, Gambia Telecommunications Company. Gamcel, mobile phone company. Gambia Radio & Television Services. Africell Gambia, mobile phone company
Telecommunications in Ghana
Telecommunications in Ghana include radio, television and mobile telephones, the Internet. Telecommunications is the main economic sector of Ghana according to the statistics of the World Bank due to the Ghana liberal policy around Information and communications technology. Among the main sectors of investments, 65% is for ICT, 8% for communications and 27% is divided for public administration. In 2007 Ghana was served by two state-owned radio networks. Multiple international broadcasters and several cable and satellite TV subscription services were available. In 2010, there were 140 authorised radio stations with 84 in operation and 32 authorised television stations with 26 in operation. Television broadcasters include First Digital TV TV Africa, Metro TV, TV3, GTV, GH One TV and Viasat 1; the Ghana Broadcasting Corporation founded by decree in 1968 is the state agency that provides civilian radio and television services. It was created for the development of the education and entertainment sectors and to enhance the knowledge of the people of Ghana.
After the overthrow of the elected government by Jerry Rawlings in December 1981 the Provisional National Defence Council repealed the liberal media reforms of previous governments, abolished the Third Constitution and the Press Commission, passed laws that prevented criticism of the government or its policies, dismissed editors critical of Rawlings or the provisional council, the Preventive Custody and Newspaper Licensing Law which allowed indefinite detention of journalists without trial, the Newspaper Licensing Law which stifled private media development. Ghanaian press freedom was restored with the promulgation of a new constitution in 1992, presidential and parliamentary elections in November and December 1992, a return to multiparty democratic rule on 7 January 1993; the mass media of Ghana today is among the most liberal in Africa, with Ghana ranking as the third freest in Africa and 30th in the world on the 2013 World Press Freedom Index from Reporters Without Borders. Article 21 of the Constitution of Ghana guarantees freedom of the press and other media, freedom of speech and expression and information.
The prefix code of Ghana for international calls is +233. As of 2012 there were 285,000 fixed telephone lines in use, 120th in the world, 25.6 million mobile cellular lines, 42nd in the world. The telephone system is outdated, with an unreliable fixed-line infrastructure concentrated in Accra and some wireless local loop installed, domestic trunks use microwave radio relay. There are 4 Intelsat satellite earth stations. Microwave radio relay links Ghana to its neighbours; the SAT-3/WASC, Main One, GLO-1, ACE international optical fibre submarine cables provide links to countries along the west coast of Africa and on to Europe and Asia. In 2010 two fixed line and six mobile phone companies were authorised to operate in Ghana of which 5 were operating, 13 satellite providers were authorised of which 8 were operating, 176 VSAT providers were authorised of which 57 were operating, 99 public and private network operators were authorised of which 25 were operating. Authorized telecommunications companies include Mobile Telecommunications Networks, Vodafone Ghana which purchased Telecom Ghana, Tigo which replaced Mobitel, Bharti Airtel and Zain which acquired Western Telesystems Ltd, Glo Mobile Ghana Limited, Expresso Telecom which acquired Kasapa Telecom.
In 2017, Tigo Ghana and Airtel Ghana merged to form AirtelTigo. Competition among multiple mobile-cellular providers has spurred growth, with a mobile phone teledensity in 2009 of more than 80 per 100 persons and rising; the cost of mobile phones is increased by taxes of around 38%. The top-level domain of Ghana is.gh. Ghana was one of the first countries in Africa to connect to the Internet. With an average household download speed of 5.8 Mbit/s Ghana had the third fastest speed on the African continent and the 110th fastest out of 188 countries worldwide in February 2014. In 2009 the number of Internet users stood at 1.3 million, 93rd in the world. In 2012 the number of Internet users reached 17.1 % of the population. In 2012 there were 8.2 million wireless broadband subscriptions. In 2012 there were 59,086 Internet hosts operating in Ghana, 93rd in the world, Ghana had been allocated 332,544 IPv4 addresses, 102nd in the world, with less than 0.05% of the world total, 13.2 addresses per 1000 people.
In 2010 there were 165 authorised Internet service providers. There are no government restrictions on access to the Internet or reports that the government monitors e-mail or Internet chat rooms without judicial oversight. Individuals and groups engage in the peaceful expression of views via the Internet, including by e-mail. Although the constitution and law provide for freedom of speech and press, the government sometimes restricts those rights; the police arbitrarily detain journalists. Some journalists practice self-censorship; the constitution prohibits arbitrary interference with privacy, home, or correspondence, the government respects these prohibitions in practice. In 2002 the government of Ghana censored Internet media coverage of tribal violence in Northern Ghana. Ghana Internet Exchange New media in Ghana Media in Ghana Terrestrial optical fibre cable projects in Gha
Communications in Liberia
Communications in Liberia include the press, television and mobile telephones, the Internet. Much of Liberia's communications infrastructure was destroyed or plundered during the two civil wars. With low rates of adult literacy and high poverty rates and newspaper use is limited, leaving radio as the predominant means of communicating with the public; as it struggles with economic and political constraints, Liberia's media environment is expanding. The number of registered newspapers and radio stations is on the rise despite limited market potential, and politically critical content and investigative pieces do get broadcast. The main newspapers are: The Analyst Daily Observer, private; the Daily Talk FrontPage Africa, private. The Inquirer, private daily. National Chronicle The New Dawn, private daily. New Democrat The New RepublicDefunct newspapers and magazines include: Africa League African Nationalist Africa's Luminary Amulet Daily Listener Footprints Today The Friend Independent Weekly Journal of Commerce and Industry Liberia and West Africa Liberia Herald Liberian Age Liberian Herald Liberian News Liberian Recorder Liberian Star Monrovia Observer Palm Magazine SunTimes Weekly Mirror Whirlwind Radios: 790,000 radio receivers.
Radio stations: 1 state-owned radio station, but no national public service broadcaster. BBC World Service 103 FM. ELBC FM, public. ELWA FM and SW, religious-Christian. LUX 106.6 FM, University of Liberia. Radio Liberia FM, operated by the state-run Liberian Broadcasting System. Radio Veritas FM and SW, religious-Catholic. RFI English FM, the English service of Radio France Internationale. Sky FM STAR Radio FM and SW, operated in partnership with Swiss-based Hirondelle Foundation. Truth FM UNMIL Radio FM, operated by the United Nations mission. Voice of Firestone Liberia 89.5 FM Television sets: 70,000 sets. Television stations: 4 private TV stations, none with national reach. Clar TV, private. DC TV, private. Power TV, private. Real TV, private. Liberia Broadcasting System: Government owned Liberia National Television. Calling code: +231 International call prefix: 00 Main lines: 3,200 lines in use, 213th in the world. Mobile cellular: 2.4 million lines, 138th in the world. Telephone system: the limited services available are found exclusively in the capital Monrovia.
Satellite earth stations: 1 Intelsat. Communications cables: Africa Coast to Europe cable system, links countries along the west coast of Africa to each other and on to Portugal and France; the fixed line infrastructure of Liberia was nearly destroyed during the civil wars. Prior to the passage of the Telecommunications Act of 2007, the state-owned Liberia Telecommunications Corporation held a legal monopoly for all fixed line services in Liberia, remains the sole licensed fixed line telephone service provider in the country. Four licensed GSM cellular mobile service providers operate in the country: Lonestar Cell, CellCom, LiberCell, Comium. 45% of the population has cell phone service. Top-level domain:.lr Internet users: 147,510 users, 162nd in the world. 20,000 users, 194th in the world. Fixed broadband: 78 subscriptions, 193rd in the world. Wireless broadband: Unknown. Internet hosts: 7 hosts, 228th in the world. IPv4: 13,312 addresses allocated, less than 0.05% of the world total, 3.4 addresses per 1000 people.
While Liberia's commercial internet sector is still behind the majority of African countries there are still a few classifieds sites: liberiacommerce.com There are no government restrictions on access to the Internet or reports that the government monitors e-mail or Internet chat rooms. The constitution provides for freedom of speech and press, the government respects these rights in practice. Libel and national security laws place some limits on freedom of speech. Individuals can criticize the government publicly or without reprisal; some journalists practice self-censorship. The constitution prohibits arbitrary interference with privacy, home, or correspondence, the government respects these prohibitions in practice. President Sirleaf endorsed and signed the World Association of Newspapers and News Publishers' Declaration of Table Mountain in Monrovia on 21 July 2012, committing to the core principles of a free press and calling for the repeal of the criminal defamation and insult laws used against journalists.
Liberia Telecommunications Corporation, the sole provider of fixed line telephone services in Liberia. Cable Consortium of Liberia, a public-private partnership formed in 2010 to own and operate Liberia's cable landing point for the ACE cable system; the Liberian Journal, a US-based Liberian online and print news organization covering issues of interest to Liberians in the Diaspora. Cinema of Liberia This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2014 edition"; this a