Voice of America
Voice of America is a U. S. government-funded international multimedia agency which serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting. It is the largest U. S. international broadcaster. VOA produces digital, TV, radio content in more than 40 languages which it distributes to affiliate stations around the globe, it is viewed by foreign audiences, so VOA programming has an influence on public opinion abroad regarding the United States and its leaders. VOA was established in 1942, the VOA charter was signed into law in 1976 by President Gerald Ford; the charter contains its mission "to broadcast accurate and comprehensive news and information to an international audience", it defines the mandated standards in the VOA journalistic code. VOA is headquartered in Washington, DC and overseen by the U. S. Agency for Global Media, an independent agency of the U. S. government. Funds are appropriated annually by Congress under the budget for consulates.
In 2016, VOA broadcast an estimated 1,800 hours of radio and TV programming each week to 236.6 million people worldwide with about 1,050 employees and a taxpayer-funded annual budget of US$218.5 million. Some commentators consider Voice of America to be a form of propaganda. In response to the request of the United States Department of Justice that RT register as a foreign agent under the Foreign Agents Registration Act, Russia's Justice Ministry labeled Voice of America and Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty as foreign agents in December 2017; the Voice of America website had five English language broadcasts as of 2014. Additionally, the VOA website has versions in 42 foreign languages: The number of languages varies according to the priorities of the United States government and the world situation. Before World War II, all American shortwave stations were in private hands. Controlled shortwave networks included the National Broadcasting Company's International Network, which broadcast in six languages, the Columbia Broadcasting System's Latin American international network, which consisted of 64 stations located in 18 different countries, the Crosley Broadcasting Corporation in Cincinnati, all of which had shortwave transmitters.
Experimental programming began in the 1930s. In 1939, the Federal Communications Commission set the following policy: A licensee of an international broadcast station shall render only an international broadcast service which will reflect the culture of this country and which will promote international goodwill and cooperation. Any program intended for, directed to an audience in the continental United States does not meet the requirements for this service; this policy was intended to enforce the State Department's Good Neighbor Policy, but some broadcasters felt that it was an attempt to direct censorship. Shortwave signals to Latin America were regarded as vital to counter Nazi propaganda around 1940; the Office of Coordination of Information sent releases to each station, but this was seen as an inefficient means of transmitting news. The director of Latin American relations at the Columbia Broadcasting System was Edmund A. Chester, he supervised the development of CBS's extensive "La Cadena de las Americas" radio network to improve broadcasting to South America during the 1940s.
Included among the cultural diplomacy programming on the Columbia Broadcasting System was the musical show Viva America which featured the Pan American Orchestra and the artistry of several noted musicians from both North and South America, including Alfredo Antonini, Juan Arvizu, Eva Garza, Elsa Miranda, Nestor Mesta Chaires, Miguel Sandoval, John Serry Sr. and Terig Tucci. By 1945, broadcasts of the show were carried by 114 stations on CBS's "La Cadena de las Americas" network in 20 Latin American nations; these broadcasts proved to be successful in supporting President Franklin Roosevelt's policy of Pan-Americanism throughout South America during World War II. Before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the U. S. government’s Office of the Coordinator of Information had begun providing war news and commentary to the commercial American shortwave radio stations for use on a voluntary basis through its Foreign Information Service headed by playwright Robert E. Sherwood, the playwright who served as president Roosevelt’s speech writer and information advisor.
Direct programming began a week after the United States’ entry into World War II in December 1941, with the first broadcast from the San Francisco office of the FIS via a leased General Electric’s transmitter to the Philippines in English. The next step was to broadcast to Germany, called Stimmen aus Amerika and was transmitted on February 1, 1942, it was introduced by "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" and included the pledge: "Today, every day from now on, we will be with you from America to talk about the war... The news may be good or bad for us – We will always tell you the truth." Roosevelt approved this broadcast, which then-Colonel William J. Donovan and Sherwood had recommended to him, it was Sherwood who coined the term "The Voice of America" to describe the shortwave network that began its transmissions on February 1, from 270 Madison Avenue in New York City. The Office of War Information, when organized in the middle of 1942 took over VOA's operations. VOA reached an agreement with th
KT Corporation Korea Telecom, is South Korea's largest telephone company. The state-owned firm is South Korea's first telephone company and as such it dominates the local landline and broadband Internet market, serving about 90 percent of the country's fixed-line subscribers and 45 percent of high-speed Internet users. After selling its wireless affiliate Korea Mobile Telecom in 1994, KT returned to the wireless market with the creation of PCS carrier KTF in January 1997; the company's 2009 merger with KTF, its wireless subsidiary, made it the country's ninth largest chaebol with nearly 24 trillion won in assets. In January 2011, KT launched unified brand "Olleh" for both fixed-line and cellular broadband services. In late 2015 former KT president Suk-Jae Lee was charged of breach of trust and embezzlement, allegations which he denies. Founded in 1981 as a public utility, KT led Korea's transition to the information era and played a key role in transforming Korea into a major information technology hub.
As a state-owned firm, KT had the clout to influence changes to itself and Korean telecommunications industry as a whole. In 2001 KT acquired struggling broadband provider Thrunet the largest broadband company in Korea, which paved the way for KT to dominate the broadband market. In 2009, KT merged with its wireless subsidiary KTF, paving the way to the integration of landline and cellular services. Since KT introduced the Apple iPhone to South Korea, it has been seeking new business area, such as media, e-commerce, global business partnerships; the company has a well-distributed shareholder structure under which the National Pension Service is the largest shareholder, but NPS holds no managerial rights over the company. Under the current shareholder structure, no controlling shareholder exists. September 28, 1885: Telephone facilities set up between the cities Seoul and Incheon 1981: Company incorporated on December 10 as KTA 1984: Tenth in the world to develop the electronic switch TDX-1 1987: Nationwide automated long-distance network completed 1991: Company renamed Korea Telecom 1993: Total of 20 million telephone lines installed, laying groundwork for the emerging information society 1995: Mugunghwa Satellite No. 1 launched 1996: Mugunghwa Satellite No. 2 launched 1996: PCS and CT-2 license acquired.
KT Freetel founded. 1997:Status changed from organization which has 50%+ state funding to one with a state funding of smaller scale October 1, 1997: The new Public Corporation Business Structure Improvement & Privatization Act applied to KT 1998: Headquarters relocated from Jongno-gu, Seoul, to Bundang-gu, Gyeonggi Province December 1998: Newly listed on stock exchange 1999: Mugunghwa Satellite No. 3 launched June 2000: Managerial rights of Hansol M.com acquired December 2000: IMT-2000 license acquired April 2001: Caller ID service launched May 2001: Plans for privatization announced. Celebrated 20th anniversary and changed name from Korea Telecom to KT. KT's telephone exchanges restructured into regional branch offices. "Let's" launched as the new company slogan. 2002: Privatization of company finalized. 2005: According to Fair Trade Commission data, KT as a corporate group that holds 12 subsidiaries and total assets of 29.315 trillion won, ranked 8th among Korea's conglomerates. December 28, 2005: Launched inter-Korean telecommunication services and opened KT branch office in North Korea's Gaesung industrial complex January 2009: Six days after inauguration as the new Chairman of KT, Suk-Chae Lee announced plans for KT-KTF merger at press conference March 2009: Received conditional approval from Korea Communications Commission on KT-KTF merger April 2009: Debut of Qook, a service bundle brand.
“Ann” landline phone, “Megapass” broadband and “Mega TV” IPTV services were renamed “Qook Phone,” “Qook Internet” and “Qook TV,” respectively. June 1, 2009: KT and its wireless subsidiary KTF merged to form a new unified KT July 2009: Previous company slogan "All New" replaced with "Olleh Management,"and "Olleh KT" launched as the new CI November 2009: Launch of Qook and Show broadband services. Forecasted the advent of the smartphone era November 2009: Became first local carrier to launch Apple's iPhone in Korean market December 2009: Launched the first 3W smartphone "Show Omnia" in Korean market June 2010: Launched “uCloud,” a cloud-based storage service August 2010: Company's Internet services relaunched under the name "Olleh" in alignment with company slogan August 31, 2010: KT included as Dow Jones Sustainability World Index company September 10, 2010: Launched Apple's iPhone 4 in Korean market and unlimited 3G data plan November 11–12, 2010: As the official telecommunications service provider for the G20 Seoul summit provided the heads of states with powerful IT communication services.
January 25, 2011: Fixed-line "Qook" and cellular "Show" broadband services were unified under the "Olleh" brand. They were renamed "Olleh Home" and "Olleh Mobile," respectively. February 10, 2011: Acquired 20.05% of BC Card shares, emerging as the second-largest shareholder. January 3, 2012: KT launched its LTE service. September 2012: kt was awarded the Global Supersector Leader for Telecommunications by Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes for 2 consecutive years. KT's Board of Directors consists of three non-independent directors and eight outside directors, totaling eleven directors as of March
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs is part of the United Nations Secretariat and is responsible for the follow-up to major United Nations Summits and Conferences, as well as services to the United Nations Economic and Social Council and the Second and Third Committees of the United Nations General Assembly. UN DESA assists countries around the world in agenda-setting and decision-making with the goal of meeting their economic and environmental challenges, it supports international cooperation to promote sustainable development for all, having as a foundation the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the 17 Sustainable Development Goals as adopted by the UN General Assembly on 25 September 2015. In providing a broad range of analytical products, policy advice, technical assistance, UN DESA translates global commitments in the economic and environmental spheres into national policies and actions and continues to play a key role in monitoring progress towards internationally agreed-upon development goals.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. UN DESA is part of the UN Secretariat, funded through regular assessed contributions from Member States; the Department was reorganized into its present form in 1997. The Department is headed by Liu Zhenmin who assumed the office of Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs, following his appointment to this position by Secretary-General António Guterres on 26 July 2017. Mr. Liu advises the Secretary-General on the three pillars of sustainable development—social economic and environmental, nurtures key partnerships with governments, UN agencies and civil society organizations, including the SDGs. In directing and managing UN DESA, the Under-Secretary-General is supported by the Assistant Secretary-General for Economic Development and the Assistant Secretary-General for Policy Coordination and Inter-Agency Affairs. UN DESA's mission is to promote sustainable development for all; this reflects a fundamental concern for equity and equality in countries large and small and developing.
It underscores the need for all stakeholders – governments, UN and other international organizations, civil society and the private sector – to do their part to improve economic and social well-being. This emphasis on equitable participation by all people and nations is what makes the United Nations unique and gives the development agenda its universal legitimacy. UN DESA's work programme can be categorized into three areas: Norm-setting: By facilitating major global conferences and summits, as mandated by UN Member States, UN DESA assists countries as they find common ground and take decisive steps forward. UN DESA is tasked with supporting deliberations in two major UN charter bodies: the UN General Assembly and UN Economic and Social Council, including ECOSOC's subsidiary bodies. In addition, UN DESA organises and supports consultations with a range of stakeholders, including the private sector and civil society. In this regard, UN DESA's main priorities are promoting progress toward and strengthening accountability in achieving the SDGs.
Furthermore, UN DESA is responsible for ensuring civil society engagement with the UN through the ECOSOC bodies. Data and Analysis: UN DESA, generates and compiles a wide range of official economic and environmental data and information on which Member States draw to review common problems and to take stock of policy options. One of the Department's primary contributions is providing policy research and analysis for governments to use in their deliberations and decision-making UN DESA is the lead “author” Department of the UN Secretariat; the research and analytical work covers a range of economic and environmental issues. The Department produces a host of flagship publications and major intergovernmental reports, which are essential to UN negotiations and global policy decisions; the publications are distributed in print and electronic formats around the world. Capacity-building: UN DESA advises Member States / Governments on implementing the policies and programmes developed at UN conferences back in their home countries.
It assists interested Governments in translating policy frameworks developed in UN conferences and summits into programmes at the country level and, through technical assistance, helps build national capacities. Economic Analysis and Policy Division: The Economic Analysis and Policy Division is the think-tank for development economics within DESA and the main development research unit within the United Nations; the core functions of the Division include monitoring the global economic and social situation, promoting macroeconomic policy co-ordination and analyzing development trends to improve the implementation of the UN Development Agenda. It has been contributing an array of analyses and policy recommendations to the international debate on the global financial and economic crisis; the division is responsible for publishing the yearly World Economic Situation and Prospects and the World Economic Social Survey reports, as well as a monthly briefing on the world economic landscape. It is host to the Committee for Development Policy, which monitors and benchmarks the Least Developed Countries.
Division for Sustainable Development Goals: The Division for Sustainable Development Goals supports intergovernmental processes related to sustainable development at the UN and serves as the substantive secretariat to the High-level Political Forum on sustainable development. The Division provides leadership and catalyses action to promote and implement the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the related 17 SDGs by conducting research and undertaking substant
An optical fiber is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass or plastic to a diameter thicker than that of a human hair. Optical fibers are used most as a means to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber and find wide usage in fiber-optic communications, where they permit transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths than electrical cables. Fibers are used instead of metal wires. Fibers are used for illumination and imaging, are wrapped in bundles so they may be used to carry light into, or images out of confined spaces, as in the case of a fiberscope. Specially designed fibers are used for a variety of other applications, some of them being fiber optic sensors and fiber lasers. Optical fibers include a core surrounded by a transparent cladding material with a lower index of refraction. Light is kept in the core by the phenomenon of total internal reflection which causes the fiber to act as a waveguide. Fibers that support many propagation paths or transverse modes are called multi-mode fibers, while those that support a single mode are called single-mode fibers.
Multi-mode fibers have a wider core diameter and are used for short-distance communication links and for applications where high power must be transmitted. Single-mode fibers are used for most communication links longer than 1,000 meters. Being able to join optical fibers with low loss is important in fiber optic communication; this is more complex than joining electrical wire or cable and involves careful cleaving of the fibers, precise alignment of the fiber cores, the coupling of these aligned cores. For applications that demand a permanent connection a fusion splice is common. In this technique, an electric arc is used to melt the ends of the fibers together. Another common technique is a mechanical splice, where the ends of the fibers are held in contact by mechanical force. Temporary or semi-permanent connections are made by means of specialized optical fiber connectors; the field of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers is known as fiber optics.
The term was coined by Indian physicist Narinder Singh Kapany, acknowledged as the father of fiber optics. Guiding of light by refraction, the principle that makes fiber optics possible, was first demonstrated by Daniel Colladon and Jacques Babinet in Paris in the early 1840s. John Tyndall included a demonstration of it in his public lectures in London, 12 years later. Tyndall wrote about the property of total internal reflection in an introductory book about the nature of light in 1870:When the light passes from air into water, the refracted ray is bent towards the perpendicular... When the ray passes from water to air it is bent from the perpendicular... If the angle which the ray in water encloses with the perpendicular to the surface be greater than 48 degrees, the ray will not quit the water at all: it will be reflected at the surface.... The angle which marks the limit where total reflection begins is called the limiting angle of the medium. For water this angle is 48°27′, for flint glass it is 38°41′, while for diamond it is 23°42′.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, light was guided through bent glass rods to illuminate body cavities. Practical applications such as close internal illumination during dentistry appeared early in the twentieth century. Image transmission through tubes was demonstrated independently by the radio experimenter Clarence Hansell and the television pioneer John Logie Baird in the 1920s. In the 1930s, Heinrich Lamm showed that one could transmit images through a bundle of unclad optical fibers and used it for internal medical examinations, but his work was forgotten. In 1953, Dutch scientist Bram van Heel first demonstrated image transmission through bundles of optical fibers with a transparent cladding; that same year, Harold Hopkins and Narinder Singh Kapany at Imperial College in London succeeded in making image-transmitting bundles with over 10,000 fibers, subsequently achieved image transmission through a 75 cm long bundle which combined several thousand fibers. Their article titled "A flexible fibrescope, using static scanning" was published in the journal Nature in 1954.
The first practical fiber optic semi-flexible gastroscope was patented by Basil Hirschowitz, C. Wilbur Peters, Lawrence E. Curtiss, researchers at the University of Michigan, in 1956. In the process of developing the gastroscope, Curtiss produced the first glass-clad fibers. A variety of other image transmission applications soon followed. Kapany coined the term fiber optics, wrote a 1960 article in Scientific American that introduced the topic to a wide audience, wrote the first book about the new field; the first working fiber-optical data transmission system was demonstrated by German physicist Manfred Börner at Telefunken Research Labs in Ulm in 1965, followed by the first patent application for this technology in 1966. NASA used fiber optics in the television cameras. At the time, the use in the cameras was classified confidential, employees handling the cameras had to be supervised by someone with an appropriate security clearance. Charles K. Kao and George A. Hockham of the British company Standard Telephones and Cables were the first, in 1965, to promote the idea that the attenuation in optical fibers could be reduced below 20 decibels per kilometer, making fibers a practical communication medium.
They proposed th
Asian Development Bank
The Asian Development Bank is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966, headquartered in the Ortigas Center located in the city of Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines. The company maintains 31 field offices around the world to promote social and economic development in Asia; the bank admits the members of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific and non-regional developed countries. From 31 members at its establishment, ADB now has 68 members, of which 49 are from within Asia and the Pacific and 19 from outside; the ADB was modeled on the World Bank, has a similar weighted voting system where votes are distributed in proportion with members' capital subscriptions. ADB releases an annual report that summarizes its operations and other materials for review by the public; the ADB-Japan Scholarship Program enrolls about 300 students annually in academic institutions located in 10 countries within the Region. Upon completion of their study programs, scholars are expected to contribute to the economic and social development of their home countries.
ADB is an official United Nations Observer. As of 31 December 2016, Japan and United States hold the largest proportion of shares at 15.607%. China holds 6.444%, India holds 6.331%, Australia holds 5.786%. The highest policy-making body of the bank is the Board of Governors, composed of one representative from each member state; the Board of Governors, in turn, elect among themselves the twelve members of the Board of Directors and their deputies. Eight of the twelve members come from regional members while the others come from non-regional members; the Board of Governors elect the bank's president, the chairperson of the Board of Directors and manages ADB. The president has a term of office lasting five years, may be reelected. Traditionally, because Japan is one of the largest shareholders of the bank, the president has always been Japanese; the current president is Takehiko Nakao, who succeeded Haruhiko Kuroda in 2013. The headquarters of the bank is at 6 ADB Avenue, Metro Manila, it has 31 field offices in Asia and the Pacific and representative offices in Washington, Frankfurt and Sydney.
The bank employs about 3,000 people, representing 60 of its 67 members. As early as 1956, Japan Finance Minister Hisato Ichimada had suggested to United States Secretary of State John Foster Dulles that development projects in Southeast Asia could be supported by a new financial institution for the region. A year Japanese Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi announced that Japan intended to sponsor the establishment of a regional development fund with resources from Japan and other industrial countries, but the US did not warm to the plan and the concept was shelved. See full account in "Banking on the Future of Asia and the Pacific: 50 Years of the Asian Development Bank," July 2017; the idea came up again late in 1962 when Kaoru Ohashi, an economist from a research institute in Tokyo, visited Takeshi Watanabe a private financial consultant in Tokyo, proposed a study group to form a development bank for the Asian region. The group met in 1963, examining various scenarios for setting up a new institution and drew on Watanabe's experiences with the World Bank.
However, the idea received a cool reception from the World Bank itself and the study group became discouraged. In parallel, the concept was formally proposed at a trade conference organized by the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East in 1963 by a young Thai economist, Paul Sithi-Amnuai.. Despite an initial mixed reaction, support for the establishment of a new bank soon grew. An expert group was convened to study the idea, with Japan invited to contribute to the group; when Watanabe was recommended, the two streams proposing a new bank—from ECAFE and Japan—came together. The US was on the fence, not opposing the idea but not ready to commit financial support, but a new bank for Asia was soon seen to fit in with a broader program of assistance to Asia planned by U. S. President Lyndon B. Johnson in the wake of the escalating US military support for the government of South Vietnam; as a key player in the concept, Japan hoped. However, eight other cities had expressed an interest—Bangkok, Kabul, Kuala Lumpur, Phnom Penh and Tehran.
To decide, the 18 prospective regional members of the new bank held three rounds of votes at a ministerial conference in Manila in November/December 1965. In the first round on 30 November, Tokyo failed to win a majority, so a second ballot was held the next day at noon. Although Japan was in the lead, it was still inconclusive. In the third poll, Tokyo gained eight votes with one abstention. Therefore, Manila was declared the host of the new development bank; the Japanese were mystified and disappointed. Watanabe wrote in his personal history of ADB: "I felt as if the child I had so reared had been taken away to a distant country." As intensive work took place during 1966 to prepare for the opening of the new bank in Manila, high on the agenda was choice of president. Japanese Prime Minister Eisaku Sato asked Watanabe to be a candidate. Although he declined, pressure came from other countries and Watanabe agreed. In the absence of any other candidates, Watanabe was elected first President of the Asian Development Bank at its Inaugural Meeting on 24 November
Mongolia is a landlocked country in East Asia. Its area is equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia, that term is sometimes used to refer to the current state, it is sandwiched between China to Russia to the north. Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan. At 1,564,116 square kilometres, Mongolia is the 18th-largest and the most sparsely populated sovereign state in the world, with a population of around three million people, it is the world's second-largest landlocked country behind Kazakhstan and the largest landlocked country that does not border a closed sea. The country contains little arable land, as much of its area is covered by grassy steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the country's population. Ulaanbaatar shares the rank of the world's coldest capital city with Moscow and Nur-Sultan. 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic. The majority of its population are Buddhists.
The non-religious population is the second largest group. Islam is the dominant religion among ethnic Kazakhs; the majority of the state's citizens are of Mongol ethnicity, although Kazakhs and other minorities live in the country in the west. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade groups; the area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Turkic Khaganate, others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous land empire in history, his grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan dynasty. After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict, except during the era of Dayan Khan and Tumen Zasagt Khan. In the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism began to spread in Mongolia, being further led by the Manchu-founded Qing dynasty, which absorbed the country in the 17th century.
By the early 1900s one-third of the adult male population were Buddhist monks. After the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared independence, achieved actual independence from the Republic of China in 1921. Shortly thereafter, the country came under the control of the Soviet Union, which had aided its independence from China. In 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was founded as a socialist state. After the anti-Communist revolutions of 1989, Mongolia conducted its own peaceful democratic revolution in early 1990; this led to a multi-party system, a new constitution of 1992, transition to a market economy. Homo erectus inhabited Mongolia from 850,000 years ago. Modern humans reached Mongolia 40,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic; the Khoit Tsenkher Cave in Khovd Province shows lively pink and red ochre paintings of mammoths, bactrian camels, ostriches, earning it the nickname "the Lascaux of Mongolia". The venus figurines of Mal'ta testify to the level of Upper Paleolithic art in northern Mongolia.
Neolithic agricultural settlements, such as those at Norovlin, Tamsagbulag and Rashaan Khad, predated the introduction of horse-riding nomadism, a pivotal event in the history of Mongolia which became the dominant culture. Horse-riding nomadism has been documented by archeological evidence in Mongolia during the Copper and Bronze Age Afanasevo culture; the wheeled vehicles found in the burials of the Afanasevans have been dated to before 2200 BC. Pastoral nomadism and metalworking became more developed with the Okunev culture, Andronovo culture and Karasuk culture, culminating with the Iron Age Xiongnu Empire in 209 BC. Monuments of the pre-Xiongnu Bronze Age include deer stones, keregsur kurgans, square slab tombs, rock paintings. Although cultivation of crops has continued since the Neolithic, agriculture has always remained small in scale compared to pastoral nomadism. Agriculture arose independently in the region; the population during the Copper Age has been described as mongoloid in the east of what is now Mongolia, as europoid in the west.
Tocharians and Scythians inhabited western Mongolia during the Bronze Age. The mummy of a Scythian warrior, believed to be about 2,500 years old, was a 30- to 40-year-old man with blond hair; as equine nomadism was introduced into Mongolia, the political center of the Eurasian Steppe shifted to Mongolia, where it remained until the 18th century CE. The intrusions of northern pastoralists into China during the Shang dynasty and Zhou dynasty presaged the age of nomadic empires; the concept of Mongolia as an independent power north of China is expressed in a letter sent by Emperor Wen of Han to Laoshang Chanyu in 162 BC: Since prehistoric times, Mongolia has been inhabited by nomads who, from time to time, formed great confederations that rose to power and prominence. Common institutions were the office of the Khan, the Kurultai and right wings, imperial army and the decimal military system; the first of these empires, the Xiongnu of undetermined
Ulaanbaatar anglicised as Ulan Bator, is the capital and largest city of Mongolia. The city is not part of any aimag, its population as of 2014 was over 1.3 million half of the country's total population. Located in north central Mongolia, the municipality lies at an elevation of about 1,300 meters in a valley on the Tuul River, it is the country's cultural and financial heart, the centre of Mongolia's road network and connected by rail to both the Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia and the Chinese railway system. The city was founded in 1639 as a nomadic Buddhist monastic centre, it settled permanently at its present location, the junction of the Tuul and Selbe rivers, in 1778. Prior to that occasion it changed location twenty-eight times, each new location being chosen ceremonially. In the twentieth century, Ulaanbaatar grew into a major manufacturing center. Ulaanbaatar is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21; the city's official website lists Moscow, Seoul and Denver as sister cities.
Ulaanbaatar has been given numerous names in its history. Before 1911, the official name was Ikh Khüree or Daa Khüree, or Khüree; the Chinese equivalent, Dà kùlún, was rendered into Western languages as "Kulun" or "Kuren". Upon independence in 1911, with both the secular government and the Bogd Khan's palace present, the city's name changed to Niĭslel Khüree, it is called Bogdiin Khuree in the folk song "Praise of Bogdiin Khuree". In western languages, the city at that time was most referred to as Urga; when the city became the capital of the new Mongolian People's Republic in 1924, its name was changed to Ulaanbaatar. On the session of the 1st Great People's Khuraldaan of Mongolia in 1924, a majority of delegates expressed their wish to change the capital city's name to Baatar Khot. However, under pressure from Turar Ryskulov, a Soviet activist of the Communist International, the city was named Ulaanbaatar Khot. In Europe and North America, Ulaanbaatar continued to be known as Urga or Khure until 1924, afterward as Ulan Bator.
The Russian spelling is the Russian phonetic equivalent of the Mongolian name, according to Russian spelling conventions. This form was defined two decades before the Mongolian name got its current Cyrillic script spelling and'Ulaanbaatar' transliteration. Today, English speakers sometimes refer to the city as UB. Human habitation at the site of Ulaanbaatar dates from the Lower Paleolithic, with a number of sites on Bogd Khan, Buyant-Ukhaa and Songinokhairkhan mountains, revealing tools which date from 300,000 years ago to 40,000–12,000 years ago; these Upper Paleolithic people hunted mammoth and woolly rhinoceros, the bones of which are found abundantly around Ulaanbaatar. A number of Xiongnu-era royal tombs have been discovered around Ulaanbaatar, including the tombs of Belkh Gorge near Dambadarjaalin monastery and tombs of Songinokhairkhan. Located on the banks of the Tuul River, Ulaanbaatar has been well within the sphere of Turco-Mongol nomadic empires throughout history. Wang Khan, Toghrul of the Keraites, a Nestorian Christian monarch whom Marco Polo identified as the legendary Prester John, is said to have had his palace here and forbade hunting in the holy mountain Bogd Uul.
The palace is said to be where Genghis Khan stayed with Yesui Khatun before attacking the Tangut in 1226. Founded in 1639 as a yurt monastery, Ulaanbaatar Örgöö, was first located at Lake Shireet Tsagaan nuur in what is now Burd sum, Övörkhangai, around 230 kilometres south-west from the present site of Ulaanbaatar, was intended by the Mongol nobles to be the seat of Zanabazar, the first Jebtsundamba Khutughtu. Zanabazar returned to Mongolia from Tibet in 1651, founded seven aimags in Urga establishing four more; as a mobile monastery-town, it was moved to various places along the Selenge and Tuul rivers, as supply and other needs would demand. During the Dzungar wars of the late 17th century, it was moved to Inner Mongolia; as the city grew, it moved less. The movements of the city can be detailed as follows: Shireet Tsagaan Nuur, Khoshoo Tsaidam, Khentii Mountains, Inner Mongolia, Tsetserlegiin Erdene Tolgoi, Usan Seer, Ikh Tamir, Eeven Gol, Burgaltai, Terelj, Uliastai River, Khui Mandal, Udleg, Selbe, Uliastai River, Khui Mandal and Selbe.
In 1778, the city moved from Khui Mandal and settled for good at its current location, near the confluence of the Selbe and Tuul rivers, beneath Bogd Khan Uul, at that time on the caravan route from Beijing to Kyakhta. One of the earliest Western mentions of Urga is the account of the Scottish traveller John Bell in 1721: What they call the Urga is the court, or the place where the prince and high priest reside, who are always encamped at no great distance from one ano