Intelsat Corporation—formerly INTEL-SAT, INTELSAT, Intelsat—is a communications satellite services provider. Formed as International Telecommunications Satellite Organization, it was—from 1964 to 2001—an intergovernmental consortium owning and managing a constellation of communications satellites providing international broadcast services; as of March 2011, Intelsat operates a fleet of 52 communications satellites, one of the world's largest fleet of commercial satellites. They claim to serve around 1,500 customers and employ a staff of 1,100 people. John F. Kennedy instigated the creation of INTELSAT with his speech to the United Nations on the 25th of September 1961. Less than a year John F. Kennedy signed the Communications Satellite Act of 1962. INTELSAT was formed as International Telecommunications Satellite Organization and operated from 1964 to 2001 as an intergovernmental consortium owning and managing a constellation of communications satellites providing international broadcast services.
In 2001, the international satellite market was commercialized, the US predominant role in INTELSAT was privatized after 2001 as Intelsat was formed up as a private Luxembourg corporation. The International Governmental Organization began on 20 August 1964, with 7 participating countries; the 1964 agreement was an interim arrangement on a path to a more permanent agreement. The permanent international organization was established in 1973, following inter-nation negotiations from 1969 to 1971; the most difficult issue to "resolve concerned the shift from management of the system by a national entity to management by the international organization itself."On 6 April 1965, INTELSAT's first satellite, the Intelsat I, was placed in geostationary orbit above the Atlantic Ocean by a Delta D rocket. In 1973, the name was changed and there were 81 signatories. INTELSAT was "governed by two international agreements: The Agreement setting forth the basic provisions and principles and structure of the organization, signed by the governments through their foreign ministries, an Operating Agreement setting forth more detailed financial and technical provisions and signed by the governments or their designated telecommunications entities."—in most cases the latter are the ministries of communications of the party countries, but in the case of the United States, was the Communications Satellite Corporation, a private corporation established by federal legislation to represent the US in international governance for the global communication satellite system.
INTELSAT at that time directly owned and managed a global communications satellite system, structurally consisted of three parts: the Assembly of Parties—meeting every two years and concerned with aspects "primarily of interest to the Parties as sovereign States."—with each country having one vote. The Meeting of Signatories—meeting annually and composed of all the signatories to the Operating Agreement—primarily working on financial and program matters, with each countries' signatory having one vote. A Board of Governors, meeting at least four times each year, making decisions on design, establishment and maintenance of the in-space assets, appointed by signatories, but weighted to each signatories "investment share" in the space assets; the 1973 Agreement called for a seven-year transition from national to international management, but continued until 1976 to carve out "technical and operational management of the system the Communications Satellite Corporation served as the Manager of the global system under the interim arrangements in force from 1964 to 1973."
Phases of the transition resulted in full international governance by 1980. Financial contribution to the organization, it's so-called "investment share," was proportional to each member's use of the system, determined annually. Intelsat provides service to over 600 Earth stations in more than 149 countries and dependencies. By 2001, INTELSAT had over 100 members, it was this year that INTELSAT privatized and changed its name to Intelsat. Since its inception, Intelsat has used several versions of its dedicated Intelsat satellites. Intelsat completes each block of spacecraft independently, leading to a variety of contractors over the years. Intelsat’s largest spacecraft supplier is Space Systems/Loral, having built 31 spacecraft, or nearly half of the fleet; the network in its early years was not as robust. A failure of the Atlantic satellite in the spring of 1969 threatened to stop the Apollo 11 mission. During the Apollo 11 moonwalk, the moon was over the Pacific Ocean, so other antennas were used, as well as INTELSAT III, in geostationary orbit over the Pacific.
By the 1990s, building and launching satellites was no longer a government domain and as country-specific telecommunications systems were privatized, several private satellite operators arose to meet the growing demand. In the U. S. satellite operators such as PanAmSat, Orion Communications, Columbia Communications, Globalstar, TRW and others formed under the umbrella of the Alliance for Competitive International Satellite Services to press for an end to the IGOs and the monopoly position of COMSAT the US signatory to Intelsat and Inmarsat. In March 2001, the US Congress passed the Open Market Reorganisation for the B
The World Factbook
The World Factbook known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. The official print version is available from the Government Printing Office. Other companies—such as Skyhorse Publishing—also print a paper edition; the Factbook is available in the form of a website, updated every week. It is available for download for use off-line, it provides a two- to three-page summary of the demographics, communications, government and military of each of 267 international entities including U. S.-recognized countries and other areas in the world. The World Factbook is prepared by the CIA for the use of U. S. government officials, its style, format and content are designed to meet their requirements. However, it is used as a resource for academic research papers and news articles; as a work of the U. S. government, it is in the public domain in the United States. In researching the Factbook, the CIA uses the sources listed below.
Other public and private sources are consulted. Antarctic Information Program Armed Forces Medical Intelligence Center Bureau of the Census Bureau of Labor Statistics Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs Defense Intelligence Agency Department of Energy Department of State Fish and Wildlife Service Maritime Administration National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Naval Facilities Engineering Command Office of Insular Affairs Office of Naval Intelligence Oil & Gas Journal United States Board on Geographic Names United States Transportation Command Because the Factbook is in the public domain, people are free under United States law to redistribute it or parts of it in any way that they like, without permission of the CIA. However, the CIA requests. Copying the official seal of the CIA without permission is prohibited by U. S. federal law—specifically, the Central Intelligence Agency Act of 1949. Before November 2001 The World Factbook website was updated yearly. Information available as of January 1 of the current year is used in preparing the Factbook.
The first, edition of Factbook was published in August 1962, the first unclassified version in June 1971. The World Factbook was first available to the public in print in 1975. In 2008 the CIA discontinued printing the Factbook themselves, instead turning printing responsibilities over to the Government Printing Office; this happened due to a CIA decision to "focus Factbook resources" on the online edition. The Factbook has been on the World Wide Web since October 1994; the web version receives an average of 6 million visits per month. The official printed version is sold by the Government Printing Office and National Technical Information Service. In past years, the Factbook was available on CD-ROM, magnetic tape, floppy disk. Many Internet sites use information and images from the CIA World Factbook. Several publishers, including Grand River Books, Potomac Books, Skyhorse Publishing have re-published the Factbook in recent years; as of July 2011, The World Factbook comprises 267 entities, which can be divided into the following categories: Independent countries The CIA defines these as people "politically organized into a sovereign state with a definite territory."
In this category, there are 195 entities. Others Places set apart from the list of independent countries. There are two: Taiwan and the European Union. Dependencies and Areas of Special Sovereignty Places affiliated with another country, they may be subcategorized by affiliated country: Australia: six entities China: two entities Denmark: two entities France: eight entities Netherlands: three entities New Zealand: three entities Norway: three entities United Kingdom: seventeen entities United States: fourteen entitiesMiscellaneous Antarctica and places in dispute. There are six such entities. Other entities The World and the oceans. There are the World. Areas not covered Specific regions within a country or areas in dispute among countries, such as Kashmir, are not covered, but other areas of the world whose status is disputed, such as the Spratly Islands, have entries. Subnational areas of countries are not included in the Factbook. Instead, users looking for information about subnational areas are referred to "a comprehensive encyclopedia" for their reference needs.
This criterion was invoked in the 2007 and 2011 editions with the decision to drop the entries for French Guiana, Martinique and Reunion. They were dropped because besides being overseas departments, they were now overseas regions, an integral part of France. Kashmir Maps depicting Kashmir have the Indo-Pakistani border drawn at the Line of Control, but the region of Kashmir administered by China drawn in hash marks. Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus, which the U. S. considers part of the Republic of Cyprus, is not given a separate entry because "territorial occupations/annexations not recognized by the United States Government are not shown on U. S. Government maps."Taiwan/Republic of China The name
Submarine communications cable
A submarine communications cable is a cable laid on the sea bed between land-based stations to carry telecommunication signals across stretches of ocean and sea. The first submarine communications cables laid beginning in the 1850s carried telegraphy traffic, establishing the first instant telecommunications links between continents, such as the first transatlantic telegraph cable which became operational on 16 August 1858. Subsequent generations of cables carried telephone traffic data communications traffic. Modern cables use optical fiber technology to carry digital data, which includes telephone and private data traffic. Modern cables are about 1 inch in diameter and weigh around 2.5 tons per mile for the deep-sea sections which comprise the majority of the run, although larger and heavier cables are used for shallow-water sections near shore. Submarine cables first connected all the world's continents when Java was connected to Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia in 1871 in anticipation of the completion of the Australian Overland Telegraph Line in 1872 connecting to Adelaide, South Australia and thence to the rest of Australia.
After William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone had introduced their working telegraph in 1839, the idea of a submarine line across the Atlantic Ocean began to be thought of as a possible triumph of the future. Samuel Morse proclaimed his faith in it as early as 1840, in 1842, he submerged a wire, insulated with tarred hemp and India rubber, in the water of New York Harbor, telegraphed through it; the following autumn, Wheatstone performed a similar experiment in Swansea Bay. A good insulator to cover the wire and prevent the electric current from leaking into the water was necessary for the success of a long submarine line. India rubber had been tried by Moritz von Jacobi, the Prussian electrical engineer, as far back as the early 19th century. Another insulating gum which could be melted by heat and applied to wire made its appearance in 1842. Gutta-percha, the adhesive juice of the Palaquium gutta tree, was introduced to Europe by William Montgomerie, a Scottish surgeon in the service of the British East India Company.
Twenty years earlier, Montgomerie had seen whips made of gutta-percha in Singapore, he believed that it would be useful in the fabrication of surgical apparatus. Michael Faraday and Wheatstone soon discovered the merits of gutta-percha as an insulator, in 1845, the latter suggested that it should be employed to cover the wire, proposed to be laid from Dover to Calais, it was tried on a wire laid across the Rhine between Cologne. In 1849, C. V. Walker, electrician to the South Eastern Railway, submerged a two-mile wire coated with gutta-percha off the coast from Folkestone, tested successfully. Having earlier obtained a concession from the French government, in August 1850 John Watkins Brett's English Channel Submarine Telegraph Company laid the first line across the English Channel, using the converted tug Goliath, it was a copper wire coated with gutta-percha, without any other protection, was not successful. The experiment served to secure renewal of the concession, in September 1851, a protected core, or true, cable was laid by the reconstituted Submarine Telegraph Company from a government hulk, the Blazer, towed across the Channel.
In 1853 further successful cables were laid, linking Great Britain with Ireland and the Netherlands, crossing The Belts in Denmark. The British & Irish Magnetic Telegraph Company completed the first successful Irish link on May 23 between Portpatrick and Donaghadee using the collier William Hutt; the same ship was used for the link from Dover to Ostend in Belgium, by the Submarine Telegraph Company. Meanwhile, the Electric & International Telegraph Company completed two cables across the North Sea, from Orford Ness to Scheveningen, The Netherlands; these cables were laid by the Monarch, a paddle steamer which became the first vessel with permanent cable-laying equipment. In 1858 the steamship Elba was used to lay a telegraph cable from Jersey to Guernsey, on to Alderney and to Weymouth, the cable being completed in September of that year. Problems soon developed with eleven breaks occurring by 1860 due to storms and sand movements and wear on rocks. A report to the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1860 set out the problems to assist in future cable laying operations.
The first attempt at laying a transatlantic telegraph cable was promoted by Cyrus West Field, who persuaded British industrialists to fund and lay one in 1858. However, the technology of the day was not capable of supporting the project. Subsequent attempts in 1865 and 1866 with the world's largest steamship, the SS Great Eastern, used a more advanced technology and produced the first successful transatlantic cable. Great Eastern went on to lay the first cable reaching to India from Aden, Yemen, in 1870. From the 1850s until 1911, British submarine cable systems dominated the most important market, the North Atlantic Ocean; the British had demand side advantages. In terms of supply, Britain had entrepreneurs willing to put forth enormous amounts of capital necessary to build and maintain these cables. In terms of demand, Britain's vast colonial empire led to business for the cable companies from news agencies and shipping companies, the British government. Many of Britain's colonies had significant populations of European settlers, making news about them of interest to the general public in the home country.
British officials believed that depending on telegraph lines that passed through non-British territory posed a security
WiMAX is a family of wireless broadband communication standards based on the IEEE 802.16 set of standards, which provide multiple physical layer and Media Access Control options. The name "WiMAX" was created by the WiMAX Forum, formed in June 2001 to promote conformity and interoperability of the standard, including the definition of predefined system profiles for commercial vendors; the forum describes WiMAX as "a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL". IEEE 802.16m or WirelessMAN-Advanced was a candidate for the 4G, in competition with the LTE Advanced standard. WiMAX was designed to provide 30 to 40 megabit-per-second data rates, with the 2011 update providing up to 1 Gbit/s for fixed stations; the latest version of WiMAX, WiMAX release 2.1, popularly branded as/known as WiMAX 2+, is a smooth, backwards-compatible transition from previous WiMAX generations. It is compatible and inter-operable with TD-LTE.
WiMAX refers to interoperable implementations of the IEEE 802.16 family of wireless-networks standards ratified by the WiMAX Forum. WiMAX Forum certification allows vendors to sell fixed or mobile products as WiMAX certified, thus ensuring a level of interoperability with other certified products, as long as they fit the same profile; the original IEEE 802.16 standard was published in 2001. WiMAX adopted some of its technology from WiBro, a service marketed in Korea. Mobile WiMAX is the revision, deployed in many countries and is the basis for future revisions such as 802.16m-2011. WiMAX is sometimes referred to as "Wi-Fi on steroids" and can be used for a number of applications including broadband connections, cellular backhaul, etc, it is similar to Long-range Wi-Fi. The scalable physical layer architecture that allows for data rate to scale with available channel bandwidth and range of WiMAX make it suitable for the following potential applications: Providing portable mobile broadband connectivity across cities and countries through various devices Providing a wireless alternative to cable and digital subscriber line for "last mile" broadband access Providing data, telecommunications and IPTV services Providing Internet connectivity as part of a business continuity plan Smart grids and metering WiMAX can provide at-home or mobile Internet access across whole cities or countries.
In many cases, this has resulted in competition in markets which only had access through an existing incumbent DSL operator. Additionally, given the low costs associated with the deployment of a WiMAX network, it is now economically viable to provide last-mile broadband Internet access in remote locations. Mobile WiMAX was a replacement candidate for cellular phone technologies such as GSM and CDMA, or can be used as an overlay to increase capacity. Fixed WiMAX is considered as a wireless backhaul technology for 2G, 3G, 4G networks in both developed and developing nations. In North America, backhaul for urban operations is provided via one or more copper wire line connections, whereas remote cellular operations are sometimes backhauled via satellite. In other regions and rural backhaul is provided by microwave links. WiMAX has more substantial backhaul bandwidth requirements than legacy cellular applications; the use of wireless microwave backhaul is on the rise in North America and existing microwave backhaul links in all regions are being upgraded.
Capacities of between 34 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s are being deployed with latencies in the order of 1 ms. In many cases, operators are aggregating sites using wireless technology and presenting traffic on to fiber networks where convenient. WiMAX in this application competes with microwave radio, E-line and simple extension of the fiber network itself. WiMAX directly supports the technologies; these are inherent to the WiMAX standard rather than being added on as carrier Ethernet is to Ethernet. On May 7, 2008 in the United States, Sprint Nextel, Intel, Bright House, Time Warner announced a pooling of an average of 120 MHz of spectrum and merged with Clearwire to market the service; the new company hopes to benefit from combined services offerings and network resources as a springboard past its competitors. The cable companies will provide media services to other partners while gaining access to the wireless network as a Mobile virtual network operator to provide triple-play services; some analysts questioned how the deal will work out: Although fixed-mobile convergence has been a recognized factor in the industry, prior attempts to form partnerships among wireless and cable companies have failed to lead to significant benefits to the participants.
Other analysts point out that as wireless progresses to higher bandwidth, it competes more directly with cable and DSL, inspiring competitors into collaboration. As wireless broadband networks grow denser and usage habits shift, the need for increased backhaul and media service will accelerate, therefore the opportunity to leverage cable assets is expected to increase. IEEE 802.16REVd and IEEE 802.16e standards support both Time Division Duplexing and Frequency
Telecommunications in Angola
Telecommunications in Angola include telephone, radio and the Internet. The government controls all broadcast media with a nationwide reach. In 2001, toward the end of Angolan Civil War, the government began adopting regulations to liberalize the telecom industry; this enabled private investments to revitalize the country’s telecommunications infrastructure, damaged by the decades-long conflict. By 2012, Angola had one of the largest mobile telecom markets in sub-Saharan Africa and Internet access was growing steadily; the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications oversees the telecommunications sector, regulated by the Angolan National Institute of Telecommunication. 29 satellite earth stations. SAT-3/WASC fiber optic submarine cable provides connectivity to Europe and Asia. AngoSat 1, Angola's first communication satellite, built by RSC Enegria with a credit from Rosoboronexport, is scheduled to launch in 2017. Angola Telecom is one of twelve companies participating in the West Africa Cable System consortium, a submarine communications cable running along the west coast of Africa and on to Portugal and the United Kingdom.
The landing station for the older Sat3 cable, located at Cacuaco in Luanda, is operated by Angola Telecom. Angola Cables is an operator of fiber optic telecommunication systems formed in 2009 by the major Angolan telecommunication companies, Angola Telecom, Unitel, MSTelcom and Mundo Startel. On 23 March 2012 Angola Cables signed an agreement to participate in the construction of the South Atlantic Cable System of about 6000 km length linking Fortaleza in Brazil with the Angolan capital Luanda; this cable is planned to be operational from the 2014 world football championship in Brazil. ADONES consists of 1,800 kilometers of fiber-optic submarine cable linking eight Angolan coastal cities. About 70 percent of Angolans live close to the sea. Other planned fibre optic cables to Angola include SAex and ACE. 303,200 fixed lines, 116th in the world, two lines per 100 persons. 13 million mobile cellular lines, 65 lines per 100 persons.) International country code: 244. Angola Telecom, the state-owned telecom, held a monopoly for fixed-line telephone service until 2005.
Demand outstripped capacity, prices were high, services poor. Telecom Namibia, through an Angolan company, became the first private licensed operator in Angola's fixed-line telephone network. By 2010, the number of fixed-line providers had expanded to five. A owned, mobile-cellular service provider began operations in 2001. HF radiotelephone is used extensively for military links. 21 AM, 6 FM, 7 shortwave radio broadcast stations 630,000 radios The state-owned Radio Nacional de Angola broadcasts on 5 stations. A half dozen private radio stations broadcast locally. 6 television broadcast stations 150,000 televisions The state-owned Televisão Pública de Angola provides terrestrial TV service on two channels and a third TPA channel is available via cable and satellite. TV subscription services are available. Internet hosts: 20,703 hosts, 116th in the world. Internet users: 3,058,195 users, 78th in the world. Fixed broadband: 27,987 subscriptions, 124th in the world. Mobile broadband: 5.000.000 subscriptions.
2015. Top level domain name:.ao. First introduced in 1996, the Internet reached a penetration rate of 16.9 percent in 2012, up from just over 3 percent in 2007, according to the International Telecommunications Union. Fixed-line broadband subscriptions, remain low with a penetration rate of only 0.2 percent in 2012, are concentrated in the capital city, due to the country’s high poverty rate and poor infrastructure in rural areas. Mobile Internet access is higher at 1.5% and access to mobile phones is much higher with a penetration rate of 49% in 2012. In June 2012, Unitel launched a project in partnership with the education ministry and Huawei to provide free Internet access for secondary school students in both public and private schools across the country’s 18 provinces. Known as “E-Net,” the project aims to benefit over 18,000 students with computers supplied by Huawei and Internet access provided by Unitel. Citizens have taken to the Internet as a platform for political debate, to express discontent with the country’s current state of affairs, to launch digital activism initiatives.
Similar to many other African countries, Angolan youth have embraced social media tools and used them to fuel protest movements across the country. The positive impact of digital media tools in Angola was noticeable during the August 2012 parliamentary elections when the Internet was used in innovative ways to advance electoral transparency. For example, citizens were able to report electoral irregularities in real time, while the National Electoral Commission used the Internet and iPads to scan voter registration cards. Internet access in Angola is provided by private ISP's. Telecommunication companies: Angola Telecom, the state-owned telecommunications provider Itelnet MS Telcom, Sonangol owned provider, main focus on oil and gas sector Startel Internet Service Providers: ACS CmcAngola covers majority of luanda and other areas with VSAT technologies ITA - Internet Technologies Angola owned with a focus on corporate services Multitel, corporate focused ISP, subsidiary of Angola Telecom MVcomm NetOne, residential WiMAX services TSOLNETWORKS - Corporate Internet Se
International Telecommunication Union
The International Telecommunication Union the International Telegraph Union, is a specialized agency of the United Nations, responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies. It is the oldest among all the 15 specialised agencies of UN; the ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum, promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world, assists in the development and coordination of worldwide technical standards. The ITU is active in areas including broadband Internet, latest-generation wireless technologies and maritime navigation, radio astronomy, satellite-based meteorology, convergence in fixed-mobile phone, Internet access, voice, TV broadcasting, next-generation networks; the agency organizes worldwide and regional exhibitions and forums, such as ITU Telecom World, bringing together representatives of government and the telecommunications and ICT industry to exchange ideas and technology.
ITU, based in Geneva, Switzerland, is a member of the United Nations Development Group, has 12 regional and area offices in the world. ITU has been an intergovernmental public–private partnership organization since its inception, its membership includes 193 Member States and around 800 public and private sector companies, academic institutions as well as international and regional telecommunication entities, known as Sector Members and Associates, which undertake most of the work of each Sector. ITU was formed in Paris, at the International Telegraph Convention; the International Radiotelegraph Union was unofficially established at first International Radiotelegraph Convention in 1906. Both were merged into the International Telecommunication Union in 1932. ITU became a United Nations specialized agency in 1947; the ITU comprises three sectors, each managing a different aspect of the matters handled by the Union, as well as ITU Telecom. The sectors were created during the restructuring of ITU at its 1992 Plenipotentiary Conference.
Radio communication Established in 1927 as the International Radio Consultative Committee or CCIR, this sector manages the international radio-frequency spectrum and satellite orbit resources. In 1992, the CCIR became the ITU-R. Standardisation Standardisation was the original purpose of ITU since its inception. Established in 1956 as the International Telephone and Telegraph Consultative Committee or CCITT, this sector standardizes global telecommunications. In 1993, the CCITT became the ITU-T. Development Established in 1992, this sector helps spread equitable and affordable access to information and communication technologies. ITU Telecom ITU Telecom organizes major events for the world's ICT community. A permanent General Secretariat, headed by the Secretary General, manages the day-to-day work of the Union and its sectors; the basic texts of the ITU are adopted by the ITU Plenipotentiary Conference. The founding document of the ITU was the 1865 International Telegraph Convention, which has since been amended several times and is now entitled the "Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union".
In addition to the Constitution and Convention, the consolidated basic texts include the Optional Protocol on the settlement of disputes, the Decisions and Recommendations in force, as well as the General Rules of Conferences and Meetings of the Union. The ITU is headed by a Secretary-General, a Deputy Secretary General and the three directors of the Bureaux, who are elected to a four-year terms by the member states at the ITU Plenipotentiary Conference. On 23 October 2014 Houlin Zhao was elected 19th Secretary-General of the ITU at the Plenipotentiary Conference in Busan, Republic of Korea, his four-year mandate started on 1 January 2015, he was formally inaugurated on 15 January 2015. Houlin Zhao was reelected at the 2018 Plenipotentiary Conference in Dubai. Membership of ITU is open to only Member States of the United Nations, which may join the Union as Member States, as well as to private organizations like carriers, equipment manufacturers, funding bodies and development organizations and international and regional telecommunication organizations, which may join ITU as non-voting Sector Members.
There are 193 Member States of the ITU, including all UN member states except the Republic of Palau, plus the Vatican City. The most recent member state to join the ITU is South Sudan, which became a member on 14 July 2011; the Republic of China was blocked from membership by the People's Republic of China, but received a country code, being listed as "Taiwan, China". Palestine was admitted as an observer in 2010. Six Regional Offices and seven Area Offices guarantee a regional presence of ITU: Regional Office for CSI Africa Regional Office in Addis Ababa, with Area Offices in Dakar and Yaoundé Arab States Regional Office in Cairo Asia-Pacific Regional Office in Bangkok, with Area Office in Jakarta America Regional Office in Brasilia, with Area Offices in Bridgetown and Tegucigalpa; the sixth is a Coordination office for Europe Region Europe at ITU Headquarters. Other Regional organizations, connected to ITU, are: Asia-Pacific Telecommunity Arab Spectrum Management Group African Telecommunications Union European Conference of Posta
Self-censorship is the act of censoring or classifying one's own discourse. This is done out of fear of, or deference to, the sensibilities or preferences of others and without overt pressure from any specific party or institution of authority. Self-censorship is practiced by film producers, film directors, news anchors, journalists and other kinds of authors including individuals who use social media. In authoritarian countries, creators of artworks may remove material that their government might find controversial for fear of sanction by their governments. In pluralistic capitalist countries, repressive judicial lawmaking can cause widespread "rivercrabbing" of Western media. Self-censorship can occur in order to conform to the expectations of the market. For example, the editor of a periodical may consciously or unconsciously avoid topics that will anger advertisers, customers, or the owners in order to protect her or his livelihood either directly or indirectly; this phenomenon is referred to as soft censorship.
Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights guarantees freedom of speech from all forms of censorship. Article 19 explicitly states that "everyone has the right to freedom of expression. People communicate to affirm one's identity and sense of belonging. People may express their opinions or withhold their opinions due to the fear of exclusion or unpopularity. Shared social norms and beliefs create a sense of belonging, but they can create a suppression of expression in order to comply or belong. People may adjust their opinions to go along with the majority attitude. There are different factors that contribute to self-censorship such as gender, education, political interests and media exposure. For some, the reason for their change in beliefs and opinions are rooted in fear of isolation and exclusion; the risk of negative reactions is greater than expressing one's true beliefs. Journalists censor themselves due to threats against them or their interests from another party, editorial instructions from their supervisor, perceived conflicts of interest with a media organization's economic sponsors, advertisers or shareholders, etc.).
Self-censorship occurs when journalists deliberately manipulate their expression out of fear of, or deference to, the sensibilities or preferences of others and without overt pressure from any specific party or institution of authority. Self-censorship of journalists is most pervasive in societies where governments have official media censorship policies and where journalists will be jailed, fined, or lose their job if they do not follow the censorship rules. Organizations such as have raised concerns about news broadcasting stations Fox News, censoring their own content to be less controversial when reporting on certain types of issues such as the War on Terror. In their book Manufacturing Consent, Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman argue that corporate ownership of news media strongly encourages systematic self-censorship owing to market forces. In this argument with liberal media and self-censorship is evident in the selection and omission of news stories, the framing of acceptable discussion, in line with the interests of the corporations owning those media.
The journalists have sought censorship advice from military authorities in order to prevent the inadvertent revelation of military secrets. In 2009, The New York Times succeeded in suppressing news of a reporter's abduction by militants in Afghanistan for seven months until his escape from captivity in order to'reduce danger to the reporter and other hostages'. Journalists have sometimes self-censored publications of news stories out of concern for the safety of people involved. Jean Pelletier, the Washington D. C. correspondent for the Montreal La Presse newspaper, uncovered a covert attempt by the Canadian government to smuggle US diplomats out of Iran during the Iranian Hostage Crisis before the "Canadian Caper" had reached its conclusion. In order to preserve the safety of those involved, he refused to allow the paper to publish the story until the hostages had left Iran, despite the considerable news value to the paper and writer. Self-censorship became a quite frequent practice in Russia after 2000's government take-overs and consolidation of media, further deepened after 2014-2015 laws on'undesirable organisations'.
As for Europe, threats to media freedom have shown a significant increase in recent years. Journalists and whistleblowers have experienced threats. Self-censorship is one of the major consequences of such circumstances. A study published in 2017 by the Council of Europe found that in the period 2014-2016 that 40% of journalists involved in the survey experienced some kind of unwarranted interference, in particular psychological violence, including slandering and smear campaigning, cyberbulling. Other forms of unwarranted interference include intimidation by interest groups, threats with force, intimidation by political groups, targeted surveillance, intimidation by the police, etc. In terms of geography, cases of physical assault were more common in the South Caucasus, followed by Turkey, but were present in other regions as well. In China, the media has to go to greater extents to censor mu