Telecommunications in Russia
Censorship and the issue of Media freedom in Russia have been main themes since the era of the telegraph. Radio was a major new technology in the 1920s, when the Communists had come to power. Soviet authorities realized that the "ham" operator was individualistic and encouraged private initiative– too much so for the totalitarian regime. Criminal penalties were imposed but the working solution was to avoid broadcasting over the air. Instead radio programs were transmitted by copper wire, using a hub and spoke system, to loudspeakers in approved listening stations, such as the "Red" corner of a factory. Due to the enormous size of the country Russia today leads in the number of TV broadcast stations and repeaters. There were few channels in the Soviet time, but in the past two decades many new state-run and private-owned radio stations and TV channels appeared; the telecommunications system in Russia has undergone significant changes since the 1980s, resulting in thousands of companies licensed to offer communication services today.
The foundation for liberalization of broadcasting was laid by the decree signed by the President of the USSR in 1990. Telecommunication is regulated through the Federal Law "On Communications" and the Federal Law "On Mass Media" The Soviet-time "Ministry of communications of the RSFSR" was through 1990s transformed to "Ministry for communications and informatization" and in 2004 it was renamed to "Ministry of information technologies and communications", since 2008 Ministry of Communications and Mass Media. Russia is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, a domestic satellite system. Fiber to the x infrastructure has been expanded in recent years, principally by regional players including Southern Telecom Company, SibirTelecom, ER Telecom and Golden Telecom. Collectively, these players are having a significant impact of fiber broadband in regional areas, are enabling operators to take advantage of consumer demand for faster access and bundled services.
"Networking" can be traced to the spread of mail and journalism in Russia, information transfer by technical means came to Russia with the telegraph and radio. Computing systems became known in the USSR by the 1950s. Starting from 1952, works were held in the Moscow-based Institute of Precision Mechanics and Computer Engineering on automated missile defense system which used a "computer network" which calculated radar data on test missiles through central machine called M-40 and was interchanging information with smaller remote terminals about 100—200 kilometers distant; the scientists used several locations in the USSR for their works, the largest was a massive test range to the West from Lake Balkhash. In the meantime amateur radio users all over USSR were conducting "P2P" connections with their comrades worldwide using data codes. A massive "automated data network" called Express was launched in 1972 to serve needs of Russian Railways. From the early 1980s the All Union Scientific Research Institute for Applied Computerized Systems was working to implement data connections over the X.25 telephone protocol.
A test Soviet connection to Austria in 1982 existed, in 1982 and 1983 there were series of "world computer conferences" at VNIIPAS initiated by the U. N. where USSR was represented by a team of scientists from many Soviet Republics headed by biochemist Anatole Klyosov. In 1983 the San Francisco Moscow Teleport project was started by VNIIPAS and an American team which included George Soros, it resulted in the creation in the latter 80s of the data transfer operator SovAm Teleport. Meanwhile, on April 1, 1984 a Fool's Day hoax about "Kremlin computer" Kremvax was made in English-speaking Usenet. There are reports of spontaneous Internet connections "from home" through X.25 in the USSR in as early as 1988. In 1990 a GlasNet non-profit initiative by the US-based Association for Progressive Communications sponsored Internet usage in several educational projects in the USSR; when the Russian economy’s collapse came about in August 1998, the market shrank drastically and the ruble fell several cellular operators were squeezed between low traffic and huge foreign currency denominated credits and telecommunications equipment bills.
In 1998, prepaid subscriptions were made at a loss and infrastructure investments fell. NMT450 operator Moscow Cellular communications was hardest hit due to its about 50% corporate users; the 1998 crisis caused many regional operators tariff and payment problems with accumulated debt to vendors. In November 2013 President Putin instructed Dmitry Medvedev's Cabinet in 2014-2016 to provide "modern communication services" to rural settlements throughout Russia with a population of 250 to 500 people, by Rostelecom at the expense of the provision of universal service; the document does not sp
Communications in Japan
The nation of Japan possesses one of the most advanced communication networks in the world. For example, by 2008 the Japanese government's Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry stated that about 75 million people used cellphones to access the internet, said total accounting for about 82% of individual internet users. Telephones and ISDN - main lines in use: 52.3981 million IP phone lines in use: 16.766 million Mobile and PHS lines in use: 105.297 million international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat, 1 Intersputnik, 1 Inmarsat. Radio broadcast stations: AM 190, FM 88, shortwave 24 Radios: 120.5 million Television broadcast stations: 7,108 Televisions: 86.5 million Amateur radio: 446,602 licensed stations as of October 2011. See Amateur radio call signs of Japan. Internet Service Providers: 357 Internet Service Providers via Cable network: 334 Number of Portable Phone Users with the Internet Access: 71,044,000 Number of Broadband Users by Access Number of the xDSL Users: 13,675,840 lines Number of the FTTH Users: 2,852,205 lines Number of the CATV Service Users: 2,959,712 linesNumber of Broadband Users by Access Number of the xDSL Users: 12,068,718 lines Number of the FTTH Users: 1,417,483 lines Number of the CATV Service Users: 2,702,000 lines Number of the Dial-up Users: 17,730,000 linesNumber of Broadband Users by Access Number of the xDSL Users: 3,300,926 lines Number of the FTTH Users: 84,903 lines Number of the CATV Service Users: 1852000 lines Number of the Dial-up Users: 20,390,000 linesCountry code: JP Japan's first modern postal service got started in 1871, with mail professionally traveling between Kyoto and Tokyo as well as the latter city and Osaka.
This took place in the midst of the rapid industrialization and social reorganization that the Meiji period symbolized in Japanese history. Given how the nation's railroad technology was in its infancy, Japan's growing postal system relied on human-powered transport, including rickshaws, as well as horse-drawn methods of delivery. For example, while commemorating the 50th anniversary of Japan's postal service, the country's 1921 government released decorative postcards depicting intrepid horseback riders carrying the mail. In communication terms, British technicians had been employed in assisting with Japanese lighthouses, the country's budding mail system looked to hybridize British ideas with local practicalities. Shipping along the nation's coastline in particular demonstrates a key instance of how the Japanese economy developed: the government working with private companies to industrially expand in a way that met social needs while allowing for large profits. Mitsubishi's contract for mail transport by sea proved lucrative enough that it assisted with the firm becoming one of the famous "zaibatsu".
Since 2007, the nation's post offices have been managed by the firm Japan Post Network, itself a part of the larger Japan Post Holdings conglomerate. As of December 2017, the smaller company has been managed by CEO Koji Furukawa; the simple Japanese postal mark, predating mass literacy in the nation, is still used to this day. An example of the dawn of modern Japanese communications is the shift in newspaper publication. News vendors of the Tokugawa period, taking place from 1603 to 1867 promoted publications by reading the contents aloud and handed out papers that were printed from hand-graven blocks. Widespread adoption of movable type took place as Japanese society modernized. In particular, Yomiuri Shimbun, a national daily newspaper that became the country's largest by circulation, was founded in 1874 and designed to be read in detail using standard Japanese vernacular. Five such dailies got started early in the Meiji period, taking place from 1868 to 1912. Yomiuri took direct influence from American publications controlled by William Randolph Hearst.
The first such mass newspaper to be founded was the Nagasaki Shipping List & Advertiser, established in 1861 in Nagasaki by the Englishman A. W. Hansard, its first issue ran 22 June of that year. The newspaper, which notably discussed matters in the English language, laid the groundwork for Hansard's publication Japan Herald; the broadcast industry has been dominated by the Japan Broadcasting Corporation since its founding in 1925. In the postwar period, NHK's budget and operations were under the purview of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications, the Broadcasting Law of 1950 provides for independent management and programming by NHK. Television broadcasting began in 1953, color television was introduced in 1960. Cable television was introduced in 1969. In 1978 an experimental broadcast satellite with two color television channels was launched. Operational satellites for television use were launched between 1984 and 1990. Television viewing spread so that, by 1987, 99 percent of Japan's households had color television sets and the average family had its set on at least five hours a day.
Starting in 1987, NHK began full-scale experimental broadcasting on two channels using satellite-to-audience signals, thus bringing service to remote and mountainous parts of the country that earlier had experienced poor reception. The new system provided twenty-four hours a day, nonstop service. In the late 1980s, NHK operated two public television
Telecommunications in India
India's telecommunication network is the second largest in the world by number of telephone users with 1.179 billion subscribers as on 31 July 2018. It has one of the lowest call tariffs in the world enabled by mega telecom operators and hyper-competition among them; as on 31 July 2018, India has the world's second-largest Internet user-base with 460.24 million broadband internet subscribers in the country. As of 31 December 2018, India had a population of 130 crore people, 123 crore Aadhaar digital biometric identity cards, 121 crore mobile phones, 44.6 crore smartphones, 56 crore internet users up from 481 million people in December 2017, 51 per cent growth in e-commerce. Major sectors of the Indian telecommunication industry are telephone and television broadcast industry in the country, in an ongoing process of transforming into next generation network, employs an extensive system of modern network elements such as digital telephone exchanges, mobile switching centres, media gateways and signalling gateways at the core, interconnected by a wide variety of transmission systems using fibre-optics or Microwave radio relay networks.
The access network, which connects the subscriber to the core, is diversified with different copper-pair, optic-fibre and wireless technologies. DTH, a new broadcasting technology has attained significant popularity in the Television segment; the introduction of private FM has given a fillip to the radio broadcasting in India. Telecommunication in India has been supported by the INSAT system of the country, one of the largest domestic satellite systems in the world. India possesses a diversified communications system, which links all parts of the country by telephone, radio and satellite. Indian telecom industry underwent a high pace of market liberalisation and growth since the 1990s and now has become the world's most competitive and one of the fastest growing telecom markets; the Industry has grown over twenty times in just ten years, from under 37 million subscribers in the year 2001 to over 846 million subscribers in the year 2011. India has the world's second-largest mobile phone user base with over 1157.04 million users as of July 2018.
Telecommunication has supported the socioeconomic development of India and has played a significant role to narrow down the rural-urban digital divide to some extent. It has helped to increase the transparency of governance with the introduction of e-governance in India; the government has pragmatically used modern telecommunication facilities to deliver mass education programmes for the rural folk of India. According to London-based telecom trade body GSMA, the telecom sector accounted for 6.5% of India's GDP in 2015, or about ₹9 lakh crore, supported direct employment for 2.2 million people in the country. GSMA estimates that the Indian telecom sector will contribute ₹14.5 lakh crore to the economy and support 3 million direct jobs and 2 million indirect jobs by 2020. Telecommunications in India began with the introduction of the telegraph; the Indian postal and telecom sectors are one of the worlds oldest. In 1850, the first experimental electric telegraph line was started between Calcutta and Diamond Harbour.
In 1851, it was opened for the use of the British East India Company. The Posts and Telegraphs department occupied a small corner of the Public Works Department, at that time; the construction of 4,000 miles of telegraph lines was started in November 1853. These connected Peshawar in the north. William O'Shaughnessy, who pioneered the telegraph and telephone in India, belonged to the Public Works Department, worked towards the development of telecom throughout this period. A separate department was opened in 1854. In 1880, two telephone companies namely The Oriental Telephone Company Ltd. and The Anglo-Indian Telephone Company Ltd. approached the Government of India to establish telephone exchange in India. The permission was refused on the grounds that the establishment of telephones was a Government monopoly and that the Government itself would undertake the work. In 1881, the Government reversed its earlier decision and a licence was granted to the Oriental Telephone Company Limited of England for opening telephone exchanges at Calcutta, Bombay and Ahmedabad and the first formal telephone service was established in the country.
On 28 January 1882, Major E. Baring, Member of the Governor General of India's Council declared open the Telephone Exchanges in Calcutta and Madras; the exchange in Calcutta named the "Central Exchange" had a total of 93 subscribers in its early stage. That year, Bombay witnessed the opening of a telephone exchange. Pre-1902 – Cable telegraph 1902 – First wireless telegraph station established between Sagar Island and Sandhead. 1907 – First Central Battery of telephones introduced in Kanpur. 1913–1914 – First Automatic Exchange installed in Shimla. 1927 – Radio-telegraph system between the UK and India, with Imperial Wireless Chain beam stations at Khadki and Daund. Inaugurated by Lord Irwin on 23 July by exchanging greetings with King George V. 1933 – Radiotelephone system inaugurated between the UK and India. 1953 – 12 channel carrier system introduced. 1960 – First subscriber trunk dialling route commissioned between Lucknow and Kanpur. 1975 – First PCM system commissioned between Mumbai City and Andheri telephone exchanges.
1976 – First digital microwave junction. 1979
Communications in Afghanistan
Communications in Afghanistan is under the control of the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. It has expanded after the Karzai administration took over in late 2001, has embarked on wireless companies, radio stations and television channels; the Afghan government signed a $64.5 billion agreement in 2006 with China's ZTE on the establishment of a countrywide optical fiber cable network. The project began to improve telephone, internet and radio broadcast services throughout Afghanistan. About 90% of the country's population had access to communication services in 2014. Afghanistan uses its own space satellite called Afghansat 1. There are about 18 million mobile phone users in the country. Telecom companies include Afghan Telecom, Afghan Wireless, Etisalat, MTN, Salaam and a few others. Over 50% of the population have access to the internet. There are about 32 million GSM mobile phone subscribers in Afghanistan as of 2016, with over 114,192 fixed-telephone-lines and over 264,000 CDMA subscribers.
Mobile communications have improved because of the introduction of wireless carriers into this developing country. The first was Afghan Wireless, US based, founded by Ehsan Bayat; the second was Roshan. There are a number of VSAT stations in major cities such as Kabul, Herat, Mazari Sharif, Jalalabad, providing international and domestic voice/data connectivity; the international calling code for Afghanistan is +93. The following is a partial list of mobile phone companies in the country: Afghan Telecom Afghan Wireless, provides 4G services Etisalat, provides 4G services MTN Group Roshan, provides 4G services Salaam Network Wasel TelecomAll the companies providing communication services are obligated to deliver 2.5% of their income to the communication development fund annually. According to the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology there are 4760 active towers throughout the country which covers 85% of the population; the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology plans to expand its services in remote parts of the country where the remaining 15% of the population will be covered with the installation of 700 new towers.
Phone calls in Afghanistan have been monitored by the National Security Agency according to WikiLeaks. MTN 21 According to a three-year duopoly agreement between the MCIT and mobile operators AWCC and Roshan, no mobile operator could enter the Afghan telecom market until July 2006; the third GSM license was awarded to Areeba in September 2005 for a period of 15 years, a total license fee of $40.1 million. Areeba was a subsidiary of the Lebanon-based firm Investcom in consortium with Alokozai-FZE. After commencing services in July 2006, Areeba had an estimated subscribership of 200,000 by the end of that year. Areeba was acquired by the South African-based Mobile Telephone Network in mid-2007 as part of a $5.53 billion global merger between the two companies. MTN-Afghanistan is a subsidiary of the South African-based MTN Group, a multinational telecommunications company operating across the Middle East and Africa. MTN is the majority shareholder, while International Finance Corporation at 9% is a debt and equity shareholder of MTN-Afghanistan.
MTN operates at 900-1800 MHZ GSM band, as of 2012 has 4.5 million subscribers and service coverage in most major cities, 464 districts, all 34 provincial capitals. With over $400 million in total investment, MTN offers mobile voice, SMS, MMS, SRS, GPRS, voicemail and PCO services through prepaid and corporate tariffs. MTN has interconnection agreements with all national telecom operators and provides international voice and SMS roaming in 121 countries and across 227 operators through prepaid and postpaid roaming tariffs. MTN has a national ISP license which the company received in November 2008. MTN was the first company to introduce the popular per-second billing system in the country allowing its subscribers to transparently track their talk-time and receive billing summaries via SMS; the scheme was so popular that other GSM companies adopted this method. Afghanistan was given legal control of the ".af" domain in 2003, the Afghanistan Network Information Center was established to administer domain names.
As of 2016, there are at least 55 internet service providers in the country. Internet in Afghanistan is at the peak with over 5 million users as of 2016. According to the Ministry of Communications, the following are some of the different ISPs operating in Afghanistan: TiiTACS Internet Services AfSat Afghan Telecom Neda CeReTechs Insta Telecom Global Services Limited Rana Technologies Global Entourage Services LiwalNet Vizocom There are over 106 television operators in Afghanistan and 320 television transmitters, many of which are based Kabul, while others are broadcast from other provinces. Selected foreign channels are shown to the public in Afghanistan, but with the use of the internet, over 3,500 international TV channels may be accessed in Afghanistan. There are an estimated 150 FM radio operators throughout the country. Broadcasts are in Dari, English, Uzbeki and a number of other languages. Radio listeners are decreasing and are being outnumbered by television. Of Afghanistan's 6 main cities and Khost have the maximum number of radio listeners.
Kabul and Jalalabad have moderate number of listeners. However, Mazar-e-Sharif and Herat have few radio listeners. In 1870, a central post office was established at Bala Hissar in Kabul and a post office in the capital of each province; the service was being expanded over the years as more postal offices
Telecommunications in Armenia
This article is about telecommunications systems in Armenia. As of June 2014, Armenia has 3.3 million subscribers in total, a 120% penetration rate. There are three mobile phone operators in Armenia: Viva Cell MTS, Ucom and Beeline. All three offer both 3G as well as 4G services. All three networks are modern and reliable with shops located in major towns and cities where one can purchase a sim card or get assistance if needed. Most unlocked mobile phones are able to be used on roaming. Ucom and Viva Cell MTS are recommended to tourists due to the variety of tariffs available and the help available in a variety of languages; as of 2012 90% of all main lines are digitized and provide excellent quality services for the region. The remaining 10% is in modernization process. Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable via Georgia. Additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Moscow international switch and by satellite.
Main backbones of Armenian networks are made by E3 or STM-1 lines via microwave units across whole country with many passive retranslations. Traditionally Armenia has well-developed landline telephone services. According to official statistic data of International Telecommunications Union as for 2017 there were 505,190 fixed telephone service subscribers in Armenia or 17.24 subscribers per 100 inhabitants. Number of fixed telephone users have been declined as compared with previous 10 years from 20.41 in 2006. Main reason for the decline is mobile-fixed substitution; as of 2008, Armenia has 9 AM stations, 17 FM stations, one shortwave station. Additionally, there are 850,000 radios in existence. Primary network provider is TRBNA Armenia has 48 private television stations alongside 2 public networks with major Russian channels available throughout the country. In year 2008 TRBNA upgraded main circuit to digital distribution system based on DVB-IP and MPEG2 standards. According to Television Association Committee of Armenia, TV penetration rate is 80% according to 2011 data.
There are 1,400,000 Internet users and 65,279 Internet hosts in Armenia. The country code for Armenia is.am, used for AM radio stations and for domain hacks. Armentel's only fiber optic connection to the Internet enters Armenia through Georgia and connects to the rest of the Internet via an undersea fiber-optic cable in the Black Sea. Armenia is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable system via Georgia, which runs along the railroad from Poti to Tbilisi to the Armenian border near Marneuli. At Poti, the TAE cable connects to the undersea Georgia-Russia system KAFOS which connects to the Black Sea Fiber Optic Cable System; the BSFOCS is co-owned by Armentel. GNC-Alfa is the largest independent internet and data provider in Armenia with 1,500km fibre-optic cable infrastructure, covering 70% of Armenia. Dial-up was a main type of connectivity till 2008 until VEON Armenia started operation of ADSL network and together with Vivacell MTS and Orange introduced portable USB-modems. USB-modems, operated in 3G networks, are still popular in rural areas in small mountainous villages where landline connectivity is no available.
According to official statistics of International Telecommunications Union number of broadband subscribers in Armenia in 2017 was 315,319 users or 10.76 users per 100 persons. Major part of DSL connectivity is offered by VEON Armenia; some other ISP offer DSL connectivities using leased infrastructure of VEON Armenia. Rapid development of WiMAX was recorded in 2008 - 2010. Two WiMAX providers, namely Icon Communications and Cornet Ltd. operating in 3.6 - 3.8 bands using EEEI 802.16e reached 2000 users each, but shortly disappear from the market due to strong competition with ADSL and FTTB operators. Cornet was closed and Icon Communications was acquired by Ucom. Fibre to the building broadband connectivity is offered by at least three major operators, namely Ucom, VEON Armenia and GNC-Alfa. All three companies offer triple play services including IPTV and telephone services. Listed as engaged in substantial filtering in the political area and selective filtering in the social, conflict/security, Internet tools areas by the OpenNet Initiative in November 2010.
Access to the Internet in Armenia is unfettered, although evidence of second and third-generation filtering is mounting. Armenia’s political climate is volatile and unpredictable. In times of political unrest, the government has not hesitated to put in place restrictions on the Internet as a means to curtail public protest and discontent. According to Article 11 of the Law of the Republic of Armenia on Police, law enforcement has the right to block content to prevent criminal activity. Armenia's internet access is delivered by Russian providers resulting in censorship by Russian ISPs. In 2012 Russian authorities blocked kavkazcenter.com. In 2014 five other websites were blocked due to filtering by the Russian telecommunications regulator Roskomnadzor. ISPs claimed the blocks were removed. Media of Armenia This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2010 edition". Ru:Список интернет-провайдеров Армении List of Internet providers in Armenia, Russian Krikorian, Onni
Telecommunications in Myanmar
Myanmar has begun the liberalization of its telecoms market in 2013. Myanmar Post and Telecommunication had a monopoly in the country. In 2013, the government started taking steps to open up the telecommunications market, issuing licenses to new service providers. In 2014, Qatar-based Ooredoo and Norwegian Telenor Group entered the market, resulting in the reduction of consumer prices and a rapid growth in the number of subscribers, as well as the expansion of the country's infrastructure. In November 2015, Ericsson named Myanmar the world's fourth fastest-growing mobile market; as of June 2015, Myanmar has a mobile phone penetration rate of 54.6%, up from less than 10% in 2012. On 12 January 2017, Mytel received License for the provision of telecommunication services became the 4th operator in Myanmar. General assessment: meets minimum requirements for local and intercity service for business and government Domestic: system capable of providing basic service; the deadline was set to be 8 February 2013.
The licenses were expected to carry a contract duration of up to 20 years. Two more licenses were expected to be offered following this round of bidding. According to government statistics, 5.4 million of Myanmar's 60 million population had a mobile phone subscription at the end of 2012, giving the country a mobile penetration of 9 per cent. According to official figures released in mid-2012, Myanmar had 857 base transceiver stations for 1,654,667 local GSM mobile users, 188 BTSs for 225,617 local WCDMA mobile users, 366 BTSs for 633,569 local CDMA-450 mobile users, 193 BTSs for 341,687 CDMA-800 mobile users. Huawei who has built 40 percent of the towers and ZTE has built 60 percent in Myanmar, which amounts to 1500 across the country, said it has built the towers in Yangon and Naypyidaw; the Myanmar Telecommunications Operator Tender Evaluation and Selection Committee selected Norwegian Telenor Group and Ooredoo of Qatar as winners of the bidding, for the two telecom licences issued by the government of Myanmar.
The licenses allow the operators to operate a nationwide wireless network for 15 years. Ooredoo began selling low-price SIM cards at a price of US$1.5 in Yangon and Naypyidaw in August 2014. Prior to 2012, during military rule, SIM cards cost USD 1,500. Mytel is the fourth telecom firm of Myanmar, it is owned by Vietnam company - Viettel Group, The Star High Public Company and Myanmar consortium MTNH. Commander-in-chief Senior General Min Aung Hlaing stated on the opening ceremony of Mytel on 11 February 2018 that it will cover 93 percent of the 2G networks and 60 percent of the 4G networks of Myanmar after installing towers and stations across the country. Radio broadcast stations AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 3 Television broadcast stations: 6 Press Kyehmon - state-run daily The New Light of Myanmar - English and Burmese language organ of SPDC The Myanmar Times - private-run English-language weekly Myanmar Business Today - the country's first and the only private-run business weeklyTelevision MRTV state-run, operated by Myanmar Government - Broadcasts With DVB-T2 System.
Including 14 TV Channels Burmese, Shan, Kachin, Chin and English MITV - Showing about Myanmar to around the World. Myawady TV army-run networkBroadcasts 7 Free Digital Channel available in Naypyidaw, Yangon & Mandalay. SKYNET Largest Pay TV Service In Myanmar. Providing 110 TV Channels Including 10 High Definition Channel. Broadcasts With DTH system on Apstar 7 Satellite. SKYNET Have Official Broadcaster To England Premier League, Spain LaLiga, Italy Serie-A, France League 1 In 2015/16 Season. 4TV - Second Largest Pay TV Service In Myanmar. Operated by Forever Group. Providing Free to air Channels, Local & International Pay TV Channels, High Definition Channels. 4TV Has DVB-T2 In Myanmar. Democratic Voice of Burma - Activists from the 88 Generation launched it. Based in Norway, it makes both TV and Radio broadcastsRadio Radio Myanmar - state-run, operated by Myanmar TV and Radio Department Thazin Radio - Military operated station City FM - entertainment-based, operated by Yangon City Development Committee Bagan FM Cherry FM - Commercial station broadcasting music based programs to main cities Mandalay FM Padamyar FM Pyinsawaddy FM Shwe FM Democratic Voice of Burma - opposition station based in Norway, broadcasts via shortwaveNews agency Myanmar News Agency - state-run The government now allows unrestricted access to the Internet.
Many people are using the internet often with available smart phones. Myanmar Teleport, Information Technology Central Services, the state-owned Myanmar Post and Telecommunication are two of the Internet service providers in Myanmar. Internet cafés are common in the larger cities of the country. Satellite internet connection is available from Skynet, a satellite television provider, another Operator Com & Com. According to MPT's official statistics as of July 2010, the country had over 400,000 Internet users with the vast majority of the users located in the two largest cities and Mandalay. More recent figures are hard
Telecommunications in North Korea
Telecommunications in North Korea refers to the communication services available in North Korea. North Korea has not adopted mainstream Internet technology due to its isolationist policies. North Korea has an adequate telephone system, with 1.18 million fixed lines available in 2008. However, most phones are only installed for senior government officials. Someone wanting a phone installed must fill out a form indicating their rank, why he/she wants a phone, how he/she will pay for it. Most of these are installed in government offices, collective farms, state-owned enterprises, with only 10 percent controlled by individuals or households. By 1970 automatic switching facilities were in use in Pyongyang, Sinŭiju, Hamhŭng, Hyesan. A few public telephone booths were beginning to appear in Pyongyang around 1990. In the mid-1990s, an automated exchange system based on an E-10A system produced by Alcatel joint-venture factories in China was installed in Pyongyang. North Koreans announced in 1997 that automated switching had replaced manual switching in Pyongyang and 70 other locales.
North Korean press reported in 2000 that fiber-optic cable had been extended to the port of Nampho and that North Pyong'an Province had been connected with fiber-optic cable. In November 2002, mobile phones were introduced to North Korea and by November 2003, 20,000 North Koreans had bought mobile phones. In December 2008, a new mobile phone service was launched in Pyongyang, operated by Egyptian company Orascom, with current plans to expand coverage to all parts of the country; the official name of the 3G mobile phone service in North Korea is called Koryolink, is a joint venture between Orascom and the state-owned Korea Post and Telecommunications Corporation. There has been a large demand for the service. In May 2010, more than 120,000 North Koreans owned mobile phones. Orascom reported 432,000 North Korean subscribers after two years of operation, increasing to 809,000 by September 2011, exceeding one million by February 2012. By April 2013 subscriber numbers neared two million. By 2015 the figure has grown to three million.
In 2011, 60% of Pyongyang's citizens between the age of 20 and 50 had a cellphone. On June 15, 2011, StatCounter.com confirmed that some North Koreans use Apple's iPhone, Nokia's and Samsung's smartphones. In November 2011, no mobile phones could dial into or out of the country, there was no Internet connection. A 3G network covered 94 percent of the population, but only 14 percent of the territory. Past restrictions included a ban on cell phones from 2004–2008. Koryolink has no international roaming agreements. Pre-paid SIM cards can be purchased by visitors to North Korea to make international calls. Prior to January 2013, foreigners had to surrender their phones at the border crossing or airport before entering the country, but with the availability of local SIM cards this policy is no longer in place. Internet access, however, is only available to not tourists. North Korean mobile phones use a digital signature system to prevent access to unsanctioned files, log usage information that can be physically inspected.
A survey in 2017 found. North Korea has had a varying number of connections to other nations. International fixed line connections consist of a network connecting Pyongyang to Beijing and Moscow, Chongjin to Vladivostok. Communications were opened with South Korea in 2000. On May 2006 TransTeleCom Company and North Korea's Ministry of Communications have signed an agreement for the construction and joint operation of a fiber-optic transmission line in the section of the Khasan–Tumangang railway checkpoint in the North Korea-Russia border; this is the first direct land link between North Korea. TTC's partner in the design and connection of the communication line from the Korean side to the junction was Korea Communication Company of North Korea's Ministry of Communications; the technology transfer was built around STM-1 level digital equipment with the possibility of further increasing bandwidth. The construction was completed in 2007. Since joining Intersputnik in 1984, North Korea has operated 22 lines of frequency-division multiplexing and 10 lines of single channel per carrier for communication with Eastern Europe.
And in late 1989 international direct dialing service through microwave link was introduced from Hong Kong. A satellite ground station near Pyongyang provides direct international communications using the International Telecommunications Satellite Corporation Indian Ocean satellite. A satellite communications center was installed in Pyongyang in 1986 with French technical support. An agreement to share in Japan's telecommunications satellites was reached in 1990. North Korea joined the Universal Postal Union in 1974 but has direct postal arrangements with only a select group of countries. Following the agreement with UNDP, the Pyongyang Fiber Optic Cable Factory was built in April 1992 and the country's first optical fiber cable network consisting of 480 Pulse Code Modulation lines and 6 automatic exchange stations from Pyongyang to Hamhung was installed in September 1995. Moreover, the nationwide land leveling and rezoning campaign initiated by Kim Jong-il in Kangwon province in May 1998 and in North Pyongan province in January 2000 facilitated the construction of provincial and county fiber optic lines, which were laid by tens of thousands of Korean People's Army soldier-builders and provincial shock brigade members mobilized for the large-scale public works projects designed to rehabilitate the hundreds