RTP2 is the second television channel of Rádio e Televisão de Portugal, the Portuguese public broadcasting corporation. Referred as the "Second", for a time rebranded as "Dois", this state-run television channel started its regular broadcasting on 25 December 1968. Nowadays, RTP2 is a public-service, advertising-free channel that serves as an alternative to RTP's main channel, RTP1. Similar to BBC Two, RTP2 aims at more intellectual content. RTP2 is the only of several Portuguese and European national/international channels that has a strict cultural and educational programming. RTP2 is the only broadcaster from Portugal that broadcasts programming without interruptions, ad breaks or in line messaging. Together with sister channel RTP1, it became a 24-hour service in 2002. RTP2's line-up is devoted to worldwide recognized quality television content, institutional EU/national programming or advertising, television series, documentary films and classical music; as of 2007, its share of the national audience was 5%-7%.
RTP2 began broadcasting on 25 December 1968 on the UHF band, broadcasting to large urban centres, relaying selected RTP1 shows over the course of two hours every night. Regular broadcasts started on 21 November 1970; as the 1970s progressed, the channel started to add shows on the schedule that RTP1 did not air. On 16 October 1978, RTP decided to separate RTP-1 and RTP/2, giving each channel their own teams and news operations. Fernando Lopes became the controller of the newly-separate channel, being nicknamed as "Canal Lopes". Towards the start of the 80s, owing to cost-cutting measures, RTP 2 was now under RTP 1's control again. In 1986, the channel was part of the Europa TV experiment, airing the channel's programming between 16:30 and 20:00; as soon as Europa TV closed, some Music Box shows were relayed on the channel. Agora Escolha premiered in the same year, a phone-in show which allowed the viewer to choose from two different TV shows, it got cancelled in the mid-90s, apart from a brief revival in 2011 on RTP Memória.
On 17 September 1990, RTP 2 was renamed Canal 2 to TV2 on 14 September 1992. As TV2, the channel's slogan was A Outra TV. In 1994, TV2 was forced to focus on minorities, causing major changes to the channel's schedule. Football and telenovelas were transferred from TV2 to the more mainstream channel, Canal 1 and the channel's ratings started to vertiginously decrease. On 29 April 1996, the channel's name reverted to RTP2, carrying the same scheduling format as TV2; the channel started to relay Euronews in Portuguese at certain times. Commercial advertising was now prohibited towards the new millennium. On 5 January 2004, the channel renamed once again, becoming 2:, pronounced a dois; as a result, the channel was now forced to focus on the civil society. RTP2 began a 12-year period of changing logos alongside its sister channel RTP1,and that's why these two channels were changing their logos as well as their on-air identities at overall for a lot of various times. RTP2 were adopting a new logo as a separate entity in October 1978, it were consisting of a stylish-lowercased rtp wordmark alongside the 2-numeral, formed out of the letter t, because this logo is so famous for appearing on Zé Gato, aired on RTP2.
Sometimes when RTP's two TV channels commenced a 5-year period of sharing their same logo format with some different colours, RTP2 began to use a new logo on 7 March 1980, its new logo were the same than RTP1's new logo, but the RTP1 wordmark are instead replaced with the RTP2 wordmark, because this logo is coloured with yellow, so that's why yellow will be RTP2's favourite colour. In February 1981, RTP2 got a new logo again and it were the same than RTP1's logo, but the 1-numeral are instead replaced with a red 2-numeral that the RTP wordmark are appearing under the 2-numeral although it is coloured with red. On 21 March 1983, RTP2 adopted another new logo, same than RTP1's new logo, by that, this new logo came up with an ident that contains some music, a crescending synthesizer tune, sounding similar to THX's Deep Note. In the spring of 1984, RTP2 were launching yet another new logo, similar to RTP1's new logo, but the 1-numeral are still again replaced by the 2-numeral while it is beside to the "RTP" wordmark, although it is using the Sinaloa typeface while appearing inside a rectangle.
From December 1985, RTP2 got a new logo that consists of a red 2-numeral, drawn out of three lines while the RTP wordmark are coloured with royal blue although it is underneath the symbol, but the RTP wordmark were soon adopted on RTP's logo within the following year. On 13 October 1986, RTP2 were again getting another new logo that gets changed into a rounded rectangle which has the RTP wordmark appearing to the left of the side of the 2-numeral. On 2 December 1988, RTP2 were yet again relaunching its on-air identity with a new logo that consists of a 2-numeral, formed up of three lines, coloured red and purple, although they are forming a larger 2-numeral which will contain a picture that can be seen from the transitory phase which will lead into RTP2's next on-air identity. On 17 September 1990, RTP2 introduced a new logo which consists of a 2-numeral, supposed to be an permanent and opaque DOG, although it depicts a handwritten "2"-numeral, it were coming up with some idents that consists of on several fruit chopped in the middle by the logo, though it gets accompanied by synthesized p
Rádio e Televisão de Portugal
Rádio e Televisão de Portugal is the public service broadcasting organisation of Portugal. It operates four national television channels and three national radio channels, as well as several satellite and cable offerings; the company came into effect on 31 March 2004 with the merger of two separate companies Radiodifusão Portuguesa and Radiotelevisão Portuguesa. RTP is a state-owned corporation funded by television advertising revenues, government grants, the taxa de contribuição audiovisual, incorporated in electricity bills; the Emissora Nacional de Radiodifusão was established on 4 August 1935 as the public national radio broadcaster, inheriting the previous broadcasting operations of the national postal service, Telégrafos e Telefones. Five years ENR became independent of the CTT. ENR was one of the 23 founding broadcasting organisations of the European Broadcasting Union in 1950. Following the Carnation Revolution, ENR was reorganised and in 1976 changed its name to Radiodifusão Portuguesa.
During this process, several private radio stations – such as Rádio Clube Português – were nationalised and integrated into RDP. In 1979, the RCP network was rebranded as Rádio Comercial, was privatised in 1993. At the same time, RDP launched the youth-oriented radio station Antena 3 and abolished advertising from all of its stations, so that the aforementioned broadcasting contribution tax became its sole source of funding. Radiotelevisão Portuguesa's television service was established on 15 December 1955. Experimental broadcasts began in September 1956 from the Feira Popular studios in Lisbon. Twenty monitors were installed in the park; the broadcast was received within a range of about 20 km. Around 1,000 TV sets are sold within a month. Regular broadcasting, did not start until 7 March 1957, by which time coverage had reached 65% of the Portuguese population. By the end of 1958 the total number of sets in Portugal was around 32,000. RTP was accepted as a full active member of the EBU in 1959.
By the mid-1960s, RTP had become available throughout the country. Robert Farnon's "Derby Day" was extensively used as RTP's fanfare to open the programming since the first day, over the decades it has become RTP's official anthem. 25 December 1968 saw the opening of a second television channel, RTP2. Two new regional channels were created in 1972 and 1975, for the Portuguese archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores. Before the Carnation Revolution, RTP was a mouthpiece of the regime, famously opened the newscast of 20 July 1969 – the day of the first moon landing – with a segment showing president Américo Thomaz opening a concrete factory. However, like many other broadcasters, it did broadcast live the landing of the man on the moon during the night; the first colour broadcast was made in 1975, with the live coverage of the first parliamentary elections after the carnation revolution. But, due to the political turmoil and the economic situation of the country, the colour regular broadcast was delayed several times for nearly 5 years.
During that time RTP started to purchase some colour equipment and make the occasional colour recording. But the pressure kept going as the black and white equipment was getting old and hard to repair, so in 1978 and 1979 a massive investment supported by a foreign loan, gave RTP the opportunity to replace all the B/W to increase the current amount of equipment and to be updated with the most advanced broadcast technologies available at the time. Despite this, only in February 1980, the government authorised the regular colour broadcast and two weeks after, on the 7th of March RTP started the regular colour broadcast, with more than 70% of the programmes being in colour. RTP moved its headquarters to a brand new building; the building was built to be converted to a hotel, but the owner decided to leave it untouched and reached an agreement with RTP for the purchase and converted the interior for office use. RTP moved to more adequate headquarters and sold the building in 2003 and the new owner converted into what is today the VIP Grand Lisboa.
Until 1991, RTP owned its transmitter network, transferred to a state-owned enterprise which, through a series of mergers, became part of Portugal Telecom. RTP held the television monopoly until 1992, the year. Over the years, RTP's audience share has reduced in favour of the private channels. 2007 was an exception to this tendency, RTP1 became the second channel most watched in Portugal, only behind TVI, a rarity which occurred again in 2009 and 2010. In 2004, RTP and RDP merged and became part of a larger state-owned holding, named Rádio e Televisão de Portugal, inaugurated the new headquarters near Parque das Nações, in Lisbon. In the same year, the second channel was rebranded as'2:', promoting itself as the civil society service. In March 2007, 2: became'RTP2' again. Due to the current financial crisis Portugal is facing, RTP was to be restructured as part of the Portuguese government's austerity plan and would have included the sale of one of the free to air channel licenses. Pressure from the public and other organisations stopped the planned sales though the restructuring plans are expected to be in presented soon and include a redundancy plan, financing for new equipment.
RTP has 16 regional offices spread all over the country, as well as international bureaus in Washington D. C. Brussels, Moscow and several other locations. RT
History of Portugal
The history of Portugal can be traced from circa 400,000 years ago, when the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Homo heidelbergensis. The oldest human fossil is the skull discovered in the Cave of Aroeira in Almonda. Neanderthals roamed the northern Iberian peninsula. Homo sapiens arrived in Portugal around 35,000 years ago. Pre-Celtic tribes such as the Cynetes lived in the Algarve and Lower Alentejo regions before the 6th century BC, developed the city of Tartessos and the written Tartessian language, left many stelae in the south of the country. Early in the first millennium BC, waves of Celts from Central Europe invaded and intermarried with the local populations to form several ethnic groups and many tribes, their presence is traceable, through archaeological and linguistic evidence. Although they dominated much of the northern and central area, they were unable to establish in the south, which retained its non-Indo-European character until the Roman conquest; some small, semi-permanent coastal settlements were founded by Phoenician-Carthaginians on the southern coast.
The Roman invasion in the 3rd century BC lasted several centuries, developed the Roman provinces of Lusitania in the south and Gallaecia in the north. Numerous Roman sites include works of engineering, temples, roads, theatres, layman's homes, coins and ceramics; as elsewhere in Western Europe, there was a sharp decline in urban life during the Dark Ages following the fall of Rome. Germanic tribes controlled the territory between the 7th centuries; these included the Kingdom of the Suebi centred at the Visigothic Kingdom in the south. Under the Visigoths a new class emerged, a nobility, which played a tremendous social and political role during the Middle Ages; the Church began to play a important part within the state, but since the Visigoths did not know Latin the Catholic bishops continued the Roman system of governance. The clergy started to emerge as a high-ranking class. In 711 an invasion by the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate, comprising Berbers from North Africa and Arabs from the Middle East plus other Muslims from all around the Islamic world, conquered the Visigoth Kingdom and founded the Islamic state of Al Andalus.
The Umayyads reigned supreme and advanced through Iberia and France until the Battle of Tours but endured across Iberia until the fall of the Kingdom of Granada in 1492. But Lisbon, Gharb Al-Andalus, the rest of what would become Portugal, was reconquered by the early 12th century. At the end of the 9th century, a small minor county based in the area of Portus Cale was established under King Alfonso III of Asturias, by the 10th century the Counts were known as the Magnus Dux Portucalensium; the Kingdom of Asturias was divided so that northern "Portugal" became part of the Kingdom of León. As a vassal of the Kingdom of León, Portugal grew in power and territory and gained de facto independence during weak Leonese reigns. In 1071 Garcia II of Galicia was declared King of Portugal and in 1095, Portugal broke away from the Kingdom of Galicia. At the end of the 11th century, the Burgundian knight Henry became count of Portugal and defended its independence by merging the County of Portugal and the County of Coimbra.
Henry's son Afonso Henriques proclaimed himself Prince of Portugal on 24 June 1128 and King of Portugal in 1139. In 1179 a papal bull recognised Afonso I as king; the Algarve was conquered from the Moors in 1249, in 1255 Lisbon became the capital. Portugal's land boundaries have remained unchanged since the 13th century; the Treaty of Windsor created an alliance between Portugal and England that remains in effect to this day. From the late Middle Ages, in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal ascended to the status of a world power during Europe's "Age of Discovery" as it built up a vast empire, including possessions in South America, Africa and Oceania. Over the following two centuries, Portugal kept most of its colonies, but lost much of its wealth and status as the Dutch and French took an increasing share of the spice and slave trades by surrounding or conquering the scattered Portuguese trading posts and territories. Signs of military decline began with two disastrous battles: the Battle of Alcácer Quibir in Morocco in 1578 and Spain's abortive attempt to conquer England in 1588 by means of the Spanish Armada – Portugal was in a dynastic union with Spain and contributed ships to the Spanish invasion fleet.
The country was further weakened by the destruction of much of its capital city in an earthquake in 1755, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars and the loss of its largest colony, Brazil, in 1822. From the middle of the 19th century to the late 1950s, nearly two million Portuguese left Portugal to live in Brazil and the United States. In 1910, there was a revolution. Amid corruption, repression of the church, the near bankruptcy of the state, a military coup in 1926 installed a dictatorship that remained until another coup in 1974; the new government instituted sweeping democratic reforms and granted independence to all of Portugal's African colonies in 1975. Portugal is a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the European Free Trade Association, it entered the European Economic Community in 1986. The word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Cale or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic deity and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River (present-day
1383–1385 Portuguese interregnum
The 1383–1385 Portuguese interregnum was a time of civil war in Portuguese history when no crowned king reigned. It began when King Ferdinand I died without a male heir, ended when King John I was crowned in 1385 after his victory in the Battle of Aljubarrota. Portuguese interpret this era as their earliest national resistance movement countering Castilian intervention. Bourgeoisie and nobility worked together to establish the Aviz dynasty securely on an independent throne, unlike the lengthy civil wars in France known as the Hundred Years' War, England as the War of the Roses, where aristocratic factions fought powerfully against a centralised monarchy. In 1383, King Ferdinand I of Portugal was dying. From his marriage to Leonor Telles de Menezes only a girl, Princess Beatrice of Portugal, survived, her marriage was the major political issue of the day, since it would determine the future of the kingdom. Several political factions lobbied for possible husbands, which included French princes.
The king settled for his wife's first choice, King John I of Castile. Ferdinand had waged three wars against Castile during his reign, the marriage, celebrated in May 1383, was intended to put an end to hostilities by a union of the two crowns; this dynastic union meant. The two candidates, both illegitimate half-brothers of Ferdinand, were: John, son of Peter I of Portugal and Inês de Castro, at the time living in Castile John, Great Master of Aviz, another natural son of Peter I popular among the Portuguese middle class and traditional aristocracyOn October 22, 1383, King Ferdinand died. According to the marriage contract, Dowager Queen Leonor assumed regency in the name of her daughter Beatrice and son-in-law, John I of Castile. Since diplomatic opposition was no longer possible, the party for independence took more drastic measures, starting the 1383–1385 crisis; the regent's privy council made the error of excluding any representation of the merchants of Lisbon. On the other hand, the popular classes of Lisbon, Porto, Évora, Estremoz and some other municipalities of the kingdom rose in favour of John, Master of Avis, seeing him as the national candidate.
The first move was taken by the faction of John of Aviz in December 1383. João Fernandes Andeiro, Count of Ourém, called Conde Andeiro, the detested lover of the dowager queen, was murdered by a group of conspirators led by João of Aviz. Following this act, acclaimed "rector and defender of the realm" by the people of Lisbon, supported by the city great merchants, was now the leader of the opposition to the pretensions of John I of Castile, who tried to be recognised as monarch iure uxoris, against the Treaty of Salvaterra; the armed resistance met the Castilian army on April 1384, in the Battle of Atoleiros. General Nuno Álvares Pereira won the battle for the Aviz party. John I of Castile retreated to Lisbon in May and besieged the capital, with an auxiliary fleet blocking the city's port in the river Tagus, in a severe drawback to the independence cause. Without the capital and its riches and commerce, little could be done to free the country from the Castilian king. On his side, John I of Castile needed Lisbon, not only for financial reasons, but for political ones—neither he nor Beatrice had been crowned as monarchs of Portugal, without a coronation in the capital he was only a designated king.
Meanwhile, John of Aviz had surrendered the military command of the resistance to Nuno Álvares Pereira. The general continued to harass the invading army. John of Aviz was now focused on diplomatic offensives. International politics played an important role in deciding Portuguese affairs. In 1384, the Hundred Years' War was at its peak, with English and French forces in a struggle for the crown of France; the conflict spilled beyond the French borders, influenced, for instance, the Western Schism in a papacy only moved to Avignon from Rome. Castile was a traditional ally of France, so, looking for assistance in England was the natural option for John of Aviz. In May, with Lisbon under siege, an embassy was sent to Richard II of England to make a case for Portuguese independence. Richard was seventeen years old in 1384, power lay with his uncle John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and regent of England. Despite initial reluctance to concede men, John of Gaunt agreed to levy troops to reinforce the Portuguese army.
Lisbon feared defeat by the Castilian siege. Blocked by land and by the river, the city had no hope of relief by the Aviz army, too small to risk an intervention and was occupied subduing other cities. An attempt was made by a Portuguese fleet to relieve the Castilian blockade. On July 18 a group of ships led by captain Rui Pereira managed to break the blockade and deliver precious supplies of food to Lisbon; the cost was high, since three of four boats were seized and Rui Pereira himself died in the naval combat. Despite this minor success, the siege held on, but the siege was hard not only on the inhabitants of Lisbon: the army of Castile was dealing with a shortage of food supplies, due to the harassment of Nuno Álvares Pereira, the bubonic plague. It was the outbreak of an epidemic in his ranks that forced John I of Castile to raise the siege on Sept
The Suebi were a large group of related Germanic tribes, which included the Marcomanni, Hermunduri, Semnones and others, sometimes including sub-groups referred to as Suebi. In the broadest sense, the Suebi are associated with the early Germanic tribal group Irminones mentioned by classical authors. Beginning in the 1st century BC, various Suebian tribes moved south-westwards from the Baltic Sea and the Elbe and came into conflict with Ancient Rome, they are first mentioned by Julius Caesar in connection with the invasion of Gaul by the Suebian chieftain Ariovistus during the Gallic Wars. During the reign of Augustus, the Suebi expanded southwards at the expense of Gallic tribes, establishing a Germanic presence in the immediate areas north of the Danube. During this time, Maroboduus of the Marcomanni established the first confederation of Germanic tribes in Bohemia. Under the reign of Marcus Aurelius in the 2nd century AD, the Marcomanni, under pressure from East Germanic tribes, invaded Italy.
By the Crisis of the Third Century, new Suebian groups had emerged, Italy was invaded again by the Juthungi, while the Alamanni ravaged Gaul and settled the Agri Decumates. The Alamanni continued exerting pressure on Gaul, while the Alamannic chieftain Chrocus played an important role in elevating Constantine the Great to Roman Emperor. By the late 4th century AD, many Suebi were migrating westwards under Hunnic pressure, in 406 AD, Suebian tribes led by Hermeric crossed the Rhine and overran Hispania, where they established the Kingdom of the Suebi. During the last years of the decline of the Western Roman Empire, the Suebian general Ricimer was its de facto ruler; the Lombards settled Italy and established the Kingdom of the Lombards. The Alammani and Thuringii who remained in Germania gave their name to the German regions of Swabia and Thuringia respectively; the Suebi are thought to encompass the High German cultures and dialects predominant in Southern Germany and Austria. Etymologists trace the name from Proto-Germanic *swēbaz, either based on the Proto-Germanic root *swē- meaning "one's own" people or on the third-person reflexive pronoun.
The etymological sources list the following ethnic names as being from the same root: Suiones, Samnites and Sabines, indicating the possibility of a prior more extended and common Indo-European ethnic name, "our own people". Notably, the Semnones, known to classical authors as one of the largest Suebian groups seem to have a name with this same meaning, but recorded with a different pronunciation by the Romans. Alternatively, it may be borrowed from a Celtic word for "vagabond". Caesar placed the Suebi east of the Ubii near modern Hesse, in the position where writers mention the Chatti, he distinguished them from their allies the Marcomanni; some commentators believe that Caesar's Suebi were the Chatti or the Hermunduri, or Semnones. Authors use the term Suebi more broadly, "to cover a large number of tribes in central Germany". While Caesar treated them as one Germanic tribe within an alliance, albeit the largest and most warlike one authors, such as Tacitus, Pliny the Elder and Strabo, specified that the Suevi "do not, like the Chatti or Tencteri, constitute a single nation.
They occupy more than half of Germania, are divided into a number of distinct tribes under distinct names, though all are called Suebi". Although no classical authors explicitly call the Chatti Suevic, Pliny the Elder, reported in his Natural History that the Irminones were a large grouping of related Germanic gentes or "tribes" including not only the Suebi, but the Hermunduri and Cherusci. Whether or not the Chatti were considered Suevi, both Tacitus and Strabo distinguish the two because the Chatti were more settled in one territory, whereas Suevi remained less settled; the definitions of the greater ethnic groupings within Germania were not always consistent and clear in the case of mobile groups such as the Suevi. Whereas Tacitus reported three main kinds of German peoples, Irminones and Ingaevones, Pliny adds two more genera or "kinds", the Bastarnae and the Vandili; the Vandals were tribes east of the Elbe, including the well-known Silingi and Burgundians, an area that Tacitus treated as Suebic.
That the Vandals might be a separate type of Germanic people, corresponding to the modern concept of East Germanic, is a possibility that Tacitus noted, but for example the Varini are named as Vandilic by Pliny, Suebic by Tacitus. At one time, classical ethnography had applied the name Suevi to so many Germanic tribes that it appeared as if, in the first centuries AD, that native name would replace the foreign name "Germans"; the modern term "Elbe Germanic" covers a large grouping of Germanic peoples that at least overlaps with the classical terms "Suevi" and "Irminones". However, this term was developed as an attempt to define the ancient peoples who must have spoken the Germanic dialects that led to modern Upper German dialects spoken in Austria, Thuringia, Baden-Württemberg and German speaking Switzerland; this was proposed by Friedrich Maurer as one of five major Kulturkreise or "culture-groups" whose dialects developed in the southern German area from the first century BC through to the fourth century AD.
Apart from his own linguistic work with modern dialects, he referred to the archaeological and literary analysis of Germanic tribes done earlier by Gustaf Kossinna In terms of these pr
Autoridade Nacional de Comunicações
Autoridade Nacional de Comunicações is Portugal’s national regulatory authority for the communications sector, for the purposes of relevant Community and national legislation, including electronic communications and postal services. ANACOM advises and assists the Portuguese Government in sector matters, while retaining its status as an independent administrative entity, with administrative and management autonomy and its own assets. ANACOM's main tasks are to promote competition in the provision of communications networks and services, ensure transparency in prices and in the conditions governing the use of services and provide efficient management of the radio spectrum. ANACOM is responsible for supporting the development of markets and of electronic and postal communications networks, for protecting the rights and interests of citizens, providing Portuguese representation at international bodies relevant to the sector. ANACOM has its origins in Instituto das Comunicações de Portugal, which began its activity in 1989 and changed its name to ICP - Autoridade Nacional de Comunicações in 2002.
The current statutes of ANACOM entered into force in 2015, following approval of the Framework Law of Regulatory Bodies. The Chair of ANACOM's Board of Directors is João Cadete de Matos. Fernando Mendes Luís Nazaré Álvaro Dâmaso Pedro Duarte Neves José Manuel Amado da Silva Fátima Barros Official website
The Peninsular War was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire and Bourbon Spain, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. The war began when the French and Spanish armies invaded and occupied Portugal in 1807, escalated in 1808 when France turned on Spain its ally; the war on the peninsula lasted until the Sixth Coalition defeated Napoleon in 1814, is regarded as one of the first wars of national liberation, significant for the emergence of large-scale guerrilla warfare. The Peninsular War overlaps with what the Spanish-speaking world calls the Guerra de la Independencia Española, which began with the Dos de Mayo Uprising on 2 May 1808 and ended on 17 April 1814; the French occupation destroyed the Spanish administration, which fragmented into quarrelling provincial juntas. The episode remains as the bloodiest event in Spain's modern history, doubling in relative terms the Spanish Civil War. A reconstituted national government, the Cortes of Cádiz—in effect a government-in-exile—fortified itself in Cádiz in 1810, but could not raise effective armies because it was besieged by 70,000 French troops.
British and Portuguese forces secured Portugal, using it as a safe position from which to launch campaigns against the French army and provide whatever supplies they could get to the Spanish, while the Spanish armies and guerrillas tied down vast numbers of Napoleon's troops. These combined regular and irregular allied forces, by restricting French control of territory, prevented Napoleon's marshals from subduing the rebellious Spanish provinces, the war continued through years of stalemate; the British Army, under Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur Wellesley the 1st Duke of Wellington, guarded Portugal and campaigned against the French in Spain alongside the reformed Portuguese army; the demoralised Portuguese army was reorganised and refitted under the command of Gen. William Beresford, appointed commander-in-chief of the Portuguese forces by the exiled Portuguese royal family, fought as part of the combined Anglo-Portuguese Army under Wellesley. In 1812, when Napoleon set out with a massive army on what proved to be a disastrous French invasion of Russia, a combined allied army under Wellesley pushed into Spain, defeating the French at Salamanca and taking Madrid.
In the following year Wellington scored a decisive victory over King Joseph Bonaparte's army in the Battle of Vitoria. Pursued by the armies of Britain and Portugal, Marshal Jean-de-Dieu Soult, no longer able to get sufficient support from a depleted France, led the exhausted and demoralized French forces in a fighting withdrawal across the Pyrenees during the winter of 1813–1814; the years of fighting in Spain were a heavy burden on France's Grande Armée. While the French were victorious in battle, their communications and supplies were tested and their units were isolated, harassed or overwhelmed by partisans fighting an intense guerrilla war of raids and ambushes; the Spanish armies were beaten and driven to the peripheries, but they would regroup and relentlessly hound the French. This drain on French resources led Napoleon, who had unwittingly provoked a total war, to call the conflict the "Spanish Ulcer". War and revolution against Napoleon's occupation led to the Spanish Constitution of 1812 a cornerstone of European liberalism.
The burden of war destroyed the social and economic fabric of Portugal and Spain, ushered in an era of social turbulence, political instability and economic stagnation. Devastating civil wars between liberal and absolutist factions, led by officers trained in the Peninsular War, persisted in Iberia until 1850; the cumulative crises and disruptions of invasion and restoration led to the independence of most of Spain's American colonies and the independence of Brazil from Portugal. The Treaties of Tilsit, negotiated during a meeting in July 1807 between Emperors Alexander I of Russia and Napoleon, concluded the War of the Fourth Coalition. With Prussia shattered, the Russian Empire allied with the First French Empire, Napoleon expressed irritation that Portugal was open to trade with the United Kingdom. Pretexts were plentiful. Furthermore, Prince John of Braganza, regent for his insane mother Queen Maria I, had declined to join the emperor's Continental System against British trade. Events moved rapidly.
The Emperor sent orders on 19 July 1807 to his Foreign Minister, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, to order Portugal to declare war on Britain, close its ports to British ships, detain British subjects on a provisional basis and sequester their goods. After a few days, a large force started concentrating at Bayonne. Meanwhile, the Portuguese government's resolve was stiffening, shortly afterward Napoleon was once again told that Portugal would not go beyond its original agreements. Napoleon now had all the pretext that he needed, while his force, the First Corps of Observation of the Gironde with divisional general Jean-Andoche Junot in command, was prepared to march on Lisbon. After he received the Portuguese answer, he ordered Junot's corps to cross the frontier into the Spanish Empire. While all this was going on, the secret Treaty of Fontainebleau had been signed between France and Spain; the document was drawn up by Napoleon's marshal of the palace Géraud Duroc and Eugenio Izquierdo, an agent for Manuel Godoy.
The treaty proposed to carve up Portugal into three