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Telecommunications in Rwanda

Telecommunications in Rwanda include radio, television and mobile telephones, the Internet. Two government-appointed regulatory bodies, the Rwanda Information Technology Authority under the Rwanda Development Board, the Rwanda Utilities Regulatory Agency, supervise the regulatory frameworks and implementation of the county's policies and strategies in the telecommunications sector. RURA is a national body with autonomy in its financial management. However, its seven board members, supervisory board, the managing director are nominated by and work under full control of the government; the telecommunications sector was liberalized in 2001, the number of companies providing telephone and Internet services increased from one, the state-run Rwandatel, to 10 in 2012. These providers are all owned, with the exception of Rwandatel. Rwandatel had the largest market share of fixed broadband subscriptions as of September 2012. Radio stations: Government-owned and operated Radio Rwanda has a national reach.

Radios: 601,000. Television stations: The government owns and operates the only TV station, Television Rwandaise. Television sets: NA. State TV and radio reach the largest audiences, radio is the main source of news, the international radio stations BBC World Service, Voice of America, Deutsche Welle are available. Most radio stations are accessible online, either through their own websites and blogs, or through social media. Radio, in particular the "hate" station Radio Télévision Libre des Mille Collines, played a role in the 1994 genocide. Calling code: +250 International call prefix: 000 Main lines: 44,400 lines in use, 167th in the world. Mobile cellular: 5.7 million lines, 104th in the world. Telephone system: a government-sponsored fiber-optic cable expansion project was completed improving telecommunication services throughout the country. A small, inadequate telephone system serves business and government. Satellite earth stations: 1 Intelsat in Kigali includes telex and telefax service.

The three main mobile phone operators are MTN, Tigo and Airtel with market shares of 64%, 34%, 2% respectively. Top-level Internet users: 937,964 users, 120th in the world. 450,000 users, 118th in the world. Fixed broadband: 2,806 subscriptions, 167th in the world. Wireless broadband: 379,331 subscriptions, 99th in the world. Internet hosts: 1,447 hosts, 168th in the world. IPv4: 195,840 addresses allocated, 117th in the world, less than 0.05% of the world total, 16.8 addresses per 1000 people. Internet Service Providers: 4 ISPs. Rwanda ranked in first place in Africa for broadband download speeds and 62nd globally with a speed of 7.88 Mbit/s in February 2013. The Internet has been available from mobile cellular phones since 2007, but the high cost of phones and limited bandwidth restrained its popularity for several years. With completion of the government-sponsored fiber-optic cable expansion project in 2011, telecommunication services throughout the country have improved and the amount of mobile cellular Internet access and use has increased.

In 2009, RURA set up the Rwanda Internet Exchange to connect ISPs and enable the routing of local Internet traffic through a central exchange point without having to pass through international networks. ISPs can opt to connect via RINEX to the international Internet; as of the end of 2013, only five ISPs exchange Internet traffic via RINEX, the price for national access remained the same as for international access. Internet access is limited to Kigali, the capital city, remains beyond the economic capacity of most citizens those in rural areas who are limited by low disposable incomes and a low level of digital literacy. More than 90 % of the population lives with most engaged in subsistence agriculture. Between 70% and 90% of the population speaks only Kinyarwanda, making Internet content in English unavailable to the majority of Rwandans. In 2015, the Internet penetration rate was about 25% of the population. Rwanda was rated "partly free" in Freedom on the Net 2013 by Freedom House with a score of 48, somewhat past the midway point between the end of the range for "free" and the start of the range for "not free".

The law does not provide for government restrictions on access to the Internet, but there are reports that the government blocks access to Web sites within the country that are critical of the government. In 2012 and 2013, some independent online news outlets and opposition blogs were intermittently inaccessible, it is uncertain whether the disruptions are due to government blocking, as was the case in past years, or to technical issues. Some opposition sites continue to be blocked

Collective trade mark

A collective trademark, collective trade mark, or collective mark is a trademark owned by an organization, used by its members to identify themselves with a level of quality or accuracy, geographical origin, or other characteristics set by the organization. Collective trademarks are exceptions to the underlying principle of trademarks in that most trademarks serve as "badges of origin". A collective trademark, can be used by a variety of traders, rather than just one individual concern, provided that the trader belongs to the association. Collective trademarks differ from certification marks; the main difference is that collective trademarks may be used by particular members of the organization which owns them, while certification marks may be used by anybody who complies with the standards defined by the owner of the particular certification mark. National trademark laws in some countries provide for the filing of the regulations as an additional requirement for registration of the collective trademark.

The regulations shall specify: the name and seat of the organization, information on the members authorized to use the collective trademark, including their names and seats, the conditions of membership, the conditions of use of the collective trademark, the prescriptions relating to the control of the use of the collective trademark, the order of proceedings against unauthorized use of the collective trademark. The main purpose of the regulations is to protect consumers against misleading practices. Many jurisdictions have been required to amend their trademark legislation in order to accommodate the requirement of protection of collective marks under TRIPs. Art. 7 bis of the Paris Convention requires signatories "to accept for filing and to protect collective marks belonging to associations the existence of, not contrary to the law of the country of origin if such organizations do not possess an industrial or commercial establishment." Examples of collective trademarks include: the "CA" device used by the Institute of Chartered Accountants.

Reliance symbol, indication for all the product under the organization. The Parma Ham case RPC 251, in which the Consorzio del Prosciutto di Parma sued for passing off their unregistered collective mark. Certification mark

Michael Joseph Curley

Michael Joseph Curley was an Irish-born clergyman of the Roman Catholic Church. A priest and bishop in the Diocese of St. Augustine, he served as the tenth Archbishop of Baltimore as well as the first Archbishop of Washington. One of eleven children, Michael Curley was born in Athlone, County Westmeath, to Michael and Maria Curley, he received his early education at a school in his native town conducted by the Marist Brothers. At the age of sixteen, he entered Mungret College in Limerick, he had a distinguished academic career at Mungret, earned a Bachelor of Arts degree from the Royal University of Ireland in 1900. Although he dreamed of being a missionary in the Fiji Islands, a visit from Bishop John Moore to Mungret led Curley to volunteer for the Diocese of St. Augustine in the United States, his theological studies were made at the Urban College of the Propaganda in Rome, where he received his Licentiate of Sacred Theology in 1903. On March 19, 1904, Curley was ordained to the priesthood by Cardinal Pietro Respighi in the Basilica of St. John Lateran.

He arrived in Florida in the autumn of 1904, was named pastor of St. Peter's Church in DeLand, his parish was one of the largest on the East Coast. In 1905, he became chancellor of the secretary to Bishop William John Kenny, he served in these capacities for ten months. On April 3, 1914, Curley was appointed the fourth Bishop of St. Augustine by Pope Pius X, he received his episcopal consecration on the following June 30 from Bishop Benjamin Joseph Keiley, with Bishops Patrick James Donahue and Owen Corrigan serving as co-consecrators. At the age of 34, Curley was the youngest member of the American hierarchy, he would spend eight months out of every year on journeys throughout the diocese, by the end of his tenure, the Catholic population had grown from 39,000 to 41,000, with 40 new churches built. During the 1910s, anti-Catholicism was on the rise in Florida. Curley attracted national attention by battling thar prejudice in the legislature, which made an unsuccessful attempt to pass a convent-inspection bill.

However, the legislature passed legislation that prohibited white women from teaching black children. Curley refused to comply with the law, three Sisters of St. Joseph were subsequently arrested, he led a campaign to have the law declared unconstitutional, which occurred. He sought to educate Floridians about Catholicism and demonstrate the bigotry of the Ku Klux Klan. During World War I, Curley was a strong supporter of the war effort. In 1917, he established the Diocesan Catholic War Council, a group that gave spiritual guidance to Florida's Catholic soldiers heading off to war, he spoke at Liberty Bond rallies and, at the end of the war, celebrated the largest memorial Mass for fallen Allied soldiers at Battery Park in New York City. On August 10, 1921, Curley was appointed the tenth Archbishop of Baltimore, Maryland, by Pope Benedict XV, his installation took place on the following November 30. His arrival in his new city was described as "one of the greatest welcomes tendered a new citizen of Baltimore."

During his tenure in Baltimore, Curley distinguished himself as an advocate for education. He established 66 schools in 18 years. In 1926, he declared, "I defy any system of grammar school education in the United States to prove itself superior to the system, being maintained in the Archdiocese of Baltimore." He established diocesan offices for Catholic Charities and for the Society for the Propagation of the Faith. Outspoken on political and social affairs, Curley was a strong opponent of the foreign policy of President Franklin Roosevelt, anticlerical governments of Mexico and Spain, the American film industry, the establishment of Newman Centres at secular universities, which he felt undermined Catholic schools. In 1936, he called upon his fellow Catholic bishops to conduct a study of the influences of communism in the United States, he once engaged in a public feud with The Baltimore Sun when one of its reporters compared Adolf Hitler to Ignatius of Loyola. Although his predecessor, the legendary James Gibbons, was a cardinal, Curley never received the same distinction.

On July 22, 1939, Pope Pius XII separated Washington, DC, from the Archdiocese of Baltimore to form the new Archdiocese of Washington. While retaining his position as Archbishop of Baltimore, Curley was named the first Archbishop of Washington and governed the two archdioceses as a single unit, his years were burdened with progressive blindness and failing health. He was buried in the Basilica of the Assumption in Baltimore. After his death, separate archbishops were appointed for Washington. Archbishop Curley High School Website Most Rev. Michael J. Curley. Archdiocese of Baltimore. Retrieved on 2016-11-19. Archbishops of the Modern Era. Archdiocese of Baltimore. Retrieved on 2016-11-19. Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Baltimore

HSBC Building (Hong Kong)

HSBC Main Building is a headquarters building of The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, today a wholly owned subsidiary of London-based HSBC Holdings. It is located on the southern side of Statue Square near the location of the old City Hall, Hong Kong; the previous HSBC building pulled down to make way for the current building. The address remains as 1 Queen's Road Central; the building can be reached from Exit K of Central MTR Station. First buildingThe first HSBC building was Wardley House, used as an HSBC office between 1865 and 1882 on the present site. In 1864 the lease cost HKD 500 a month. After raising a capital of HKD 5 million, the bank opened its doors in 1865. Second buildingWardley House was subsequently demolished and replaced by a second HSBC building, completed in 1886; the main feature of the second building design was the division of the structure into two separate buildings. The building on Queen's Road Central was in Victorian style with a verandah, colonnades and an octagonal dome, whereas an arcade which harmonised with the adjacent buildings was constructed on Des Voeux Road.

It was designed by Clement Palmer in 1883. Third buildingIn 1934, the second building was demolished and a third design was erected; the new building opened in October 1935. Upon completion, the building stood as the tallest building in Hong Kong; the third design used part of the land of the old City Hall, was built in a mixed Art Deco and Stripped Classical style. During the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong, the building served as the government headquarters, it was the first building in Hong Kong to be air-conditioned. By the 1970s, the bank had outgrown its headquarters. In 1978, the bank decided to tear down its headquarters and construct a new, larger headquarters building. Current buildingThe new building was finished on 18 November 1985. At the time, it was the most expensive building in the world; the first major addition to the building, designed by Hong Kong's One Space Ltd, was completed on 23 November 2006, in the form of a ground floor lobby that improves security access to the upper floors and creates a prestigious reception area.

Its design and construction included the installation of the "Asian Story Wall", a multimedia installation consisting of twin banks of 30 seamless plasma screens displaying archived bank heritage and artworks. The atrium of the HSBC building was the site of the Occupy Hong Kong protests which maintained a presence in the building from 15 October 2011 until their eviction in September 2012; the new building was designed by the British architect Norman Foster and civil & structural engineers Ove Arup & Partners with service design by J. Roger Preston & Partners, it was constructed by the John Lok / Wimpey Joint Venture. From the concept to completion, it took seven years; the building is 180 metres high with four basement levels. The building has a modular design consisting of five steel modules prefabricated in the UK by Scott Lithgow Shipbuilders near Glasgow, shipped to Hong Kong. About 30,000 tons of steel and 4,500 tons of aluminium were used; the original design was inspired by the Douglas Gilling designed Qantas International Centre in Sydney.

The new lobby and its two-part Asian Story Wall were designed by Greg Pearce, of One Space Limited. Pearce was the Principal Architect of the Hong Kong Airport Express station. Conceived as a minimalist glass envelope, the new lobby is designed to be deferential to Foster's structure and appears to be part of the original; the building is one of the few to not have lifts as the primary carrier of building traffic. Instead, lifts only stop every few floors, floors are interconnected by escalators; the main characteristic of HSBC Hong Kong headquarters is its absence of internal supporting structure. Another notable feature is that natural sunlight is the major source of lighting inside the building. There is a bank of giant mirrors at the top of the atrium, which can reflect natural sunlight into the atrium and hence down into the plaza. Through the use of natural sunlight, this design helps to conserve energy. Additionally, sun shades are provided on the external facades to block direct sunlight going into the building and to reduce heat gain.

Instead of fresh water, sea water is used as coolant for the air-conditioning system. All flooring is made from lightweight movable panels, under which lies a comprehensive network of power, telecommunication, air-conditioning systems; this design was to allow equipment such as computer terminals to be installed and easily. Because of the urgency to finish the project, the construction of the building relied on off-site prefabrication. For example, the structural steel came from Britain; the inverted'va' segments of the suspension trusses spanning the construction at double-height levels is the most obvious characteristic of the building. It consists of eight groups of four aluminium-clad steel columns which ascend from the foundations up through the core structure, five levels of

List of Flame of Recca episodes

Flame of Recca is a 42-episode anime series produced by Studio Pierrot and directed by Noriyuki Abe. It is an adaptation of the shōnen manga series of the same name by Nobuyuki Anzai; the plot follows the protagonist Recca Hanabishi, a teenage ninja with the ability to manipulate fire and a descendant of the Hokage, a ninja clan wiped out centuries ago. The series aired in Japan from July 1997 to July 10, 1998 on Fuji Television. Flame of Recca has aired on the satellite network Animax in Japan and Asia. Pony Canyon has released the entire series on DVD and laserdisc, while Geneon released it in two DVD boxsets on April 22 and June 24, 2004 in Japan. In North America, Viz Media released the series in ten separate DVD volumes between October 26, 2004 and January 9, 2007; the Flame of Recca anime series featured background music composed by Yusuke Honma. The series featured "Nanka Shiawase" by The Oystars as its opening theme, used "Love is Changing" by Hikaru Nishida and "Zutto Kimi no Soba de" by Yuki Masuda as its ending themes for episodes 1-32 and episodes 33-42 respectively.

Flame of Recca at Viz Media Flame of Recca at Studio Pierrot

Water supply and sanitation in Honduras

Drinking water supply and sanitation coverage in Honduras has increased in the last decades. However, the sector is still characterized by poor service quality and poor efficiency in many places. Coverage gaps still remain in rural areas. In 2003, a new framework law for water supply and sanitation was passed, it includes service decentralization from SANAA, to the municipalities. It creates a policy council and a regulatory agency; the new institutions remain weak and the process of decentralization has been slow. Furthermore, there is no policy of sector financing. In 2015, 91% of the total population had access to "improved" water, 97% and 84%, in urban and rural areas, respectively. Leaving out 738 thousand people. Regarding sanitation, 83% of the total population had access to "improved" sanitation, 87% and 78%, in urban and rural areas, respectively. Excluding around 1.5 million people. Data about access to water supply and sanitation in Honduras vary depending on the source of information. For example, according to a survey in 2006, 81% of houses had access to an improved water source and 86% had access to sanitation.

The sanitation figures are much higher than the 2010 information from the WHO Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation shown in the following table. Source: WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation The service quality in Honduras is low compared to other countries in Latin America. In 2006, 75% of the drinking water in urban areas was disinfected and 10% of collected wastewater received treatment. In rural areas, it was estimated that one-third of the systems provided continual service and less than 14% of the systems delivered disinfected water in 2004. According to the WHO, in 2000 98% of Honduran water systems provided water on an intermittent basis, for an average duration of 6 hours a day. In 51% of urban water systems was drinking water disinfected, only 3% of collected wastewater was treated; the country has water resources for a water potential of 1,542 m3/s, but in 2006 only 88.5 m3/s were used for consumption, whereof 75 m3/s was used for irrigation and 13.5 m3/s for domestic and industrial use.

There are high levels of pollution. The 4,300 rural water supply systems extract their water from the following sources: Water supply systems which use gravity correspond to 93% of all constructed systems. Mixed and pump using systems correspond to 4.5%. The scattered rural population intensely depends on about 15,000 dug wells. A general water law is proposed to ameliorate the management of water resources. Per capita water use in Honduras varies from one locality to another. In Tegucigalpa – which suffers from chronic problems of water supply – it is 172 liter/capita/day, while it is 545 liter/capita/day in small municipal systems. In small towns water use thus is much higher than it is for example in Central Europe, where it stands at 135–200 liter/capita/day. In 1998 the country was devastated by Hurricane Mitch, which destroyed many rural water supply systems. Subsequently, the external assistance provided to Honduras increased to assist in the reconstruction effort. In 2003 the National Assembly approved the water framework Law, under which SANAA will transfer its service provision functions to the concerned municipalities until 2008 and transform itself into an agency that provides technical assistance to municipalities and juntas.

The new sector structure foreseen by the law is still being established. The new institutions are still weak and new institutions are still adapting to their new roles. In 2006 the government issued a strategic plan for the modernization of the water sector and strengthen the decentralization of services. In 2012 the government announced that the responsibility for water supply and sanitation in Tegucigalpa would be handed over from SANAA to a municipal company to be called Aguas de San Miguel. A civil society group called Citizens' Front for Water would participate in the management of the company. According to the 2003 Water Framework Law sector policies are defined by the Consejo Nacional de Agua Potable y Saneamiento or National Water and Sanitation Council, chaired by the Minister of Health. Regulation is the responsibility of the Ente Regulador de los Servicios de Agua Potable y Saneamiento or Potable Water and Sanitation Regulatory Agency. Before the Water Framework Law was adopted, there was no regulatory framework that could have been applied in decentralizing processes such as the developments in San Pedro Sula and Puerto Cortés.

Thus, local regulatory agencies were created for the concession contracts to secure a sustained process. For instance, in Puerto Cortés a regulatory agency was created at the municipal level including selected representatives of civil society, such as doctors and lawyers. Water and sanitation service provision in Honduras is the responsibility of the following institutions: Municipalities in most urban areas A private utility under concession by the municipality of San Pedro Sula The Servicio Autónomo Nacional de Acueductos y Alcantarillados or National Autonomous Water and Sewerage Service, which operates half of the urban water supply and sanitation systems of Honduras, including Tegucigalpa About 5,000 water boards in rural areas and in marginal peri-urban areasAccording to the Water Framework Law which passed in 2003, SANAA will have to transfer management to the municipalities until 2008. All urban water supply and sanitation systems are public, except three: In San Pedro Sula, the municipality has given a concession to a private operator for 30 years in 2000.

In Puerto Cortés, the same happened in 1999, in Choloma, governments created mix