A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly. A telephone converts sound and most efficiently the human voice, into electronic signals that are transmitted via cables and other communication channels to another telephone which reproduces the sound to the receiving user. In 1876, Scottish emigrant Alexander Graham Bell was the first to be granted a United States patent for a device that produced intelligible replication of the human voice; this instrument was further developed by many others. The telephone was the first device in history that enabled people to talk directly with each other across large distances. Telephones became indispensable to businesses and households and are today some of the most used small appliances; the essential elements of a telephone are a microphone to speak into and an earphone which reproduces the voice in a distant location. In addition, most telephones contain a ringer to announce an incoming telephone call, a dial or keypad to enter a telephone number when initiating a call to another telephone.
The receiver and transmitter are built into a handset, held up to the ear and mouth during conversation. The dial may be located either on a base unit to which the handset is connected; the transmitter converts the sound waves to electrical signals which are sent through a telephone network to the receiving telephone, which converts the signals into audible sound in the receiver or sometimes a loudspeaker. Telephones are duplex devices; the first telephones were directly connected to each other from one customer's office or residence to another customer's location. Being impractical beyond just a few customers, these systems were replaced by manually operated centrally located switchboards; these exchanges were soon connected together forming an automated, worldwide public switched telephone network. For greater mobility, various radio systems were developed for transmission between mobile stations on ships and automobiles in the mid-20th century. Hand-held mobile phones were introduced for personal service starting in 1973.
In decades their analog cellular system evolved into digital networks with greater capability and lower cost. Convergence has given most modern cell phones capabilities far beyond simple voice conversation, they may be able to record spoken messages and receive text messages and display photographs or video, play music or games, surf the Internet, do road navigation or immerse the user in virtual reality. Since 1999, the trend for mobile phones is smartphones that integrate all mobile communication and computing needs. A traditional landline telephone system known as plain old telephone service carries both control and audio signals on the same twisted pair of insulated wires, the telephone line; the control and signaling equipment consists of three components, the ringer, the hookswitch, a dial. The ringer, or beeper, light or other device, alerts the user to incoming calls; the hookswitch signals to the central office that the user has picked up the handset to either answer a call or initiate a call.
A dial, if present, is used by the subscriber to transmit a telephone number to the central office when initiating a call. Until the 1960s dials used exclusively the rotary technology, replaced by dual-tone multi-frequency signaling with pushbutton telephones. A major expense of wire-line telephone service is the outside wire plant. Telephones transmit both the outgoing speech signals on a single pair of wires. A twisted pair line rejects electromagnetic interference and crosstalk better than a single wire or an untwisted pair; the strong outgoing speech signal from the microphone does not overpower the weaker incoming speaker signal with sidetone because a hybrid coil and other components compensate the imbalance. The junction box arrests lightning and adjusts the line's resistance to maximize the signal power for the line length. Telephones have similar adjustments for inside line lengths; the line voltages are negative compared to earth. Negative voltage attracts positive metal ions toward the wires.
The landline telephone contains a switchhook and an alerting device a ringer, that remains connected to the phone line whenever the phone is "on hook", other components which are connected when the phone is "off hook". The off-hook components include a transmitter, a receiver, other circuits for dialing and amplification. A calling party wishing to speak to another party will pick up the telephone's handset, thereby operating a lever which closes the switchhook, which powers the telephone by connecting the transmitter and related audio components to the line; the off-hook circuitry has a low resistance which causes a direct current, which comes down the line from the telephone exchange. The exchange detects this current, attaches a digit receiver circuit to the line, sends a dial tone to indicate readiness. On a modern push-button telephone, the caller presses the number keys to send the telephone number of the called party; the keys control a tone generator circuit. A rotary-dial telephone uses pulse
Telecommunications in the British Virgin Islands
Country Code: +1284International Call Prefix: 011 Calls from the British Virgin Islands to the US, other NANP Caribbean nations, are dialled as 1 + NANP area code + 7-digit number. Calls from the British Virgin Islands to non-NANP countries are dialled as 011 + country code + phone number with local area code. Number Format: nxx-xxxx Telephones - main lines in use: 11,700 Telephones - mobile cellular: 8,000 Telephone system: worldwide telephone service general assessment: worldwide telephone service domestic: NA international: Connected via submarine cable to Bermuda. Prior to 2006, in common with many other Caribbean countries, Cable & Wireless had a statutory monopoly on telephone and other electronic communications services. However, in the 1990s, a local company called CCT Boatphone, which had provided radio boatphones to tourists on charter boats, expanded into cellular telecommunications for land-based users. Although technically in breach of the statutory monopoly, CCT Boatphone was backed by a powerful collection of local interests known as the BVI Investment Club.
Negotiations between Cable & Wireless and CCT Boatphone led to a split of the monopolies, with Cable & Wireless retaining a monopoly over fixed line and internet services, CCT Boatphone keeping a de facto monopoly over cellular telephones. In 2007 the government abolished the existing monopolies under an order made pursuant to the new legislation; the process proved politically fraught, the government's Minister for Communications and Works, Alvin Christopher, ended up leaving the government and joining the opposition party as a result of the furore. The process was criticised as cumbersome and slow, the initial deregulation having been announced in 2004, taking no less than three years to come to fruition through delays in legislation and regulation. Although there have been no new entrants into the fixed line industry, the government issued three licences under the new regime to cellular telephone service providers; the existing provider, CCT Boatphone, obtained one licence. Bmobile, the cellular arm of Cable & Wireless, obtained a second.
The third licence was obtained by a local cable television service. The licence in favour of BVI Cable was controversial, as the Regulator had announced in advance that only three licences in total would be issued, BVI Cable TV had crumbling cable television infrastructure, was in no position to office cellular telephone services. However, bmobile's main regional competitor, was rejected for a licence; the decision was regarded as controversial in the local media. Digicel issued court proceedings against the Regulator, arguing that he had acted improperly by imposing an arbitrary limit of three licences. Bmobile was joined to the suit as an interested party. High Court Judge Rita Joseph-Olivetti quashed the original decision. Digicel commenced separate proceedings against Cable and Wireless in the English courts, claiming that Cable & Wireless has unfairly stifled competition in several Caribbean jurisdictions. During the intervening period, bmobile has obtained a virtual stranglehold on the cellular telecommunications market in the British Virgin Islands by a combination of low prices and aggressive advertising, as well as significant investment in infrastructure and technology.
Digicel was granted a licence on 17 December 2007 and started operations in the BVI on 28 November 2008. This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html
Telecommunications in Barbados
Communications in Barbados refers to the telephony, postal and television systems of Barbados. Barbados has long been an informational and communications centre in the Caribbean region. Electricity coverage throughout Barbados is reliable. Usage is high and provided by a service monopoly, Barbados Light & Power Company Ltd.. The International Telecommunication Union call sign prefix allocated for all radio and television broadcasts in Barbados is 8P, this replaced the former ZN as a British territory. Barbados has had various forms of Communications as early as the 1840s; some of the earliest expressions of inter-island communication includes a number of signal stations built along the high points of the island to relay acts of transgression towards the island to the Saint Ann's Garrison on the south-west coast. The first telephone network in the country was developed in 1884; as the former British Empire's All Red Line came into existence during the early 1900s, Barbados played an important role as a crucial link in the trans-Atlantic communications network.
By 1935 a hard wired cable-based radio network was deployed throughout the country to broadcast the Rediffusion service directly from London to homes and business across Barbados. In 2001 the Government of Barbados and the local Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier provider, Cable & Wireless signed a MOU beginning a phased process of liberalisation of the international segment of Barbados' telecommunications sector; the process was aimed at bringing Barbados' sector into compliance with the World Trade Organization. The plan outlined the first phase commencing on 1 December 2001 and the entire process ending with full liberalisation being achieved on 1 August 2003; as these target dates were missed, the Phase I process was commenced on 1 November 2002, with Phase II and III beginning on 16 November 2003 and 21 February 2004 respectively. Full liberalisation was attained in February, 2005, for the international telecommunications services market. Country Code: +1246International Call Prefix: 011 Calls from Barbados to the US, other NANP Caribbean nations, are dialed as 1 + NANP area code + 7-digit number.
Calls from Barbados to non-NANP countries are dialed as 011 + country code + phone number with local area code. Number Format: nxx-xxxx The rate of telecommunications penetration in Barbados ranks among the highest in the world. According to the International Telecommunication Union, telephone service for the period 2000-2004, stated Barbados had 124 telephones in usage for every 100 people. Telecommunications are universally accessible to all. Telephones - main lines in use 134,900 county comparison to the world: 133 Telephones - mobile cellular 237,100 county comparison to the world: 165 Telephone system general assessment: fixed-line teledensity of 50 per 100 persons. BB Internet hosts 104 county comparison to the world: 178 Internet users 160,000 county comparison to the world: 131 Globally, the country of Barbados was ranked by the International Telecommunications Union and UNICEF to be one of the most wired countries in the world on a per capita basis; the report entitled "State Of The World's Children 2007" stated Barbados had rate of Internet usage, 55 users for every 100 people.
This ranking meant that only 13 nations: Australia, Finland, South Korea, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, San Marino, Sweden and the United States had a higher ratios per head of population. In so scoring this placed Barbados in the lead for the Latin America regions. Telephone services in Barbados are provided by: LIME, Sunbeach, WIISCOM, Internet services in the country are provided by: CariAccess, CaribSurf, Sunbeach Communications, TeleBarbados/Freemotion.bb, WI-NET INC. ADSL services are available, as are Frame Relay and other more advanced services..bb Call signs in North America List of countries by number of Internet users List of television stations in the Caribbean#Barbados List of radio stations in Barbados Cable & Wireless in Barbados, Posted on 19th September 2016 by Burt's, BajanThings.com International Communication in Barbados 50 years ago, Posted on 15th March 2017 by Burt's Jnr, BajanThings.com This article incorporates public domain material from
Telecommunications in Peru
Telecommunications in Peru include radio and television and mobile telephones, the Internet. The technical regulator of communications in Peru is the Presidency of the Minister Council, through the Organismo Supervisor de la Inversión Privada en Telecomunicaciones in English, Supervisory Agency for Private Investment in Telecommunications; the Ministry of Transport and Communications grants concessions, authorizations and licenses. The resale of telecommunication services is permitted as a regulated activity. Voice Over IP services are not expressly regulated, but may need a concession or a registry depending on the type of service provided. Carrier interconnection is interconnection fees are regulated; the Peruvian government maintains a Telecommunications Investment Fund to promote universal service within the country's most isolated regions, including rural areas and areas of social interest. Following the successful implementation of mobile number portability, the government requires fixed number portability be launched by July 2014.
All telecommunication services have been liberalized and are rendered under a free competition regime according to the Telecommunications Law. Under Peru's single concession regime all telecom services, including fixed-line, pay TV, Internet, are provided under unified concessions that cover the entire country. Privatization began in 1994 when the state-owned companies Compañía Peruana de Teléfonos S. A. and Entel Perú were auctioned to Telefónica de España. In December 1994, Entel Perú was merged into CPT. In 1995, CPT changed its name to Telefónica del Perú S. A.. Telefónica del Perú continues to dominate the market for basic telephone services; the operation of broadcasting companies is governed by the Law of Television. Spectrum is controlled by the Ministry of Transport and Communications. Radio stations: More than 2,000 radio stations, including a substantial number of indigenous language stations. Radios: 24 million. TV networks: 10 major TV networks of which only one, Television Nacional de Peru, is state-owned.
Television sets: 5.5 million. Pay television subscribers: 967,943. Broadcast television system: NTSC, NTSC broadcasts to be abandoned by 31 December 2017, simulcasting ISDB-Tb. Calling code: +51. International call prefix: 00 Fixed lines: 3.4 million lines in use. Fixed-line teledensity: about 12 per 100 persons. Mobile subscribers: 15.2 million unique subscribers. Mobile lines: 29.4 million, 29.6 million. Mobile teledensity: exceeds 100 telephones per 100 persons, spurred by competition among multiple providers. Domestic system: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations, adequate for most requirements. International communication cables: South America-1 and Pan American submarine cables link to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, the US. International satellite earth stations: 2 Intelsat. Peru's fixed-line penetration is the third lowest in South America after Paraguay. Barriers include widespread poverty, expensive services, little meaningful competition, the geographical barriers imposed by the Andean mountains and Amazon jungles.
Under the name Movistar, Telefónica del Perú dominates the basic telephone market. América Móvil’s Claro occupies second place, while Americatel Peru is third with 1% of the market; the remaining companies have market shares below 0.3%. Mobile penetration is below the regional average with about one quarter of the population having no mobile phone at all, while others in urban areas, have multiple subscriptions. Telefónica, operating as Movistar, is the mobile leader. Vietnam's Viettel is expected to begin offering mobile services in the second half of 2014 and Virgin Mobile is expected to enter the market as a Mobile Virtual Network Operator. Top-level domain:.pe. Internet Service Providers: 158 providers. Internet hosts: 234,102 hosts. Internet users: 11.3 million users, 37th in the world. Fixed broadband: 1.4 million subscriptions, 49th in the world. Mobile broadband: 820,295 subscriptions, 77th in the world. Peru enjoyed a remarkably high dial-up Internet penetration rate, but broadband Internet penetration is more than two-thirds below the average for Latin America and Caribbean countries.
Barriers include widespread poverty, limited literacy, limited computer ownership and access, rugged topography and most significant, a lack of meaningful competition which has made broadband Internet access in Peru one of the slowest and most expensive in the region. In 2011 the OpenNet Initiative reported no evidence of Internet filtering in all areas for which it tests. There are no government restrictions on access to the Internet or credible reports that the government monitors e-mail or Internet chat rooms without appropriate legal authority. Individuals and groups engage including by e-mail; the chief impediment to Internet access is a lack of infrastructure. The constitution provides for freedom of speech and press, the government respects these rights. An independent press and a functioning democratic political system combine to promote freedom of speech and press. A number of journalists and media outlets
Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of 1,128 square kilometres and a population of 376,480 inhabitants as of January 2016. Like Guadeloupe, it is an overseas region of France, consisting of a single overseas department. One of the Windward Islands, it is directly north of Saint Lucia, southeast of Greater Antilles, northwest of Barbados, south of Dominica; as with the other overseas departments, Martinique is one of the eighteen regions of France and an integral part of the French Republic. As part of France, Martinique is part of the European Union, its currency is the euro; the official language is French, the entire population speaks Antillean Creole. Christopher Columbus landed on 15 June 1502, after a 21-day trade wind passage, his fastest ocean voyage, he spent three days there refilling his water casks and washing laundry. The island was called "Jouanacaëra-Matinino", which came from a mythical island described by the Taínos of Hispaniola.
According to historian Sydney Daney, the island was called "Jouanacaëra" by the Caribs, which means "the island of iguanas". When Columbus landed on the island in 1502, he christened the island as Martinica; the island is called "Madinina" by the locals. The island was occupied first by Arawaks by Caribs; the Carib people had migrated from the mainland to the islands about 1201 CE, according to carbon dating of artifacts. They were displaced and assimilated by the Taino, who were resident on the island in the 1490s. Martinique was charted by Columbus in 1493. On 15 September 1635, Pierre Belain d'Esnambuc, French governor of the island of St. Kitts, landed in the harbor of St. Pierre with 150 French settlers after being driven off St. Kitts by the English. D'Esnambuc claimed Martinique for the French King Louis XIII and the French "Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique", established the first European settlement at Fort Saint-Pierre. D'Esnambuc died in 1636, leaving the company and Martinique in the hands of his nephew, Jacques Dyel du Parquet, who in 1637, became governor of the island.
In 1636, the indigenous Caribs rose against the settlers to drive them off the island in the first of many skirmishes. The French repelled the natives and forced them to retreat to the eastern part of the island, on the Caravelle Peninsula in the region known as the Capesterre; when the Carib revolted against French rule in 1658, the Governor Charles Houël du Petit Pré retaliated with war against them. Many were killed; some Carib had fled to St. Vincent, where the French agreed to leave them at peace; because there were few Catholic priests in the French Antilles, many of the earliest French settlers were Huguenots who sought greater religious freedom than what they could experience in mainland France. They became quite prosperous. Although edicts from King Louis XIV's court came to the islands to suppress the Protestant "heretics", these were ignored by island authorities until Louis XIV's Edict of Revocation in 1685. From September 1686 to early 1688, the French crown used Martinique as a threat and a dumping ground for mainland Huguenots who refused to reconvert to Catholicism.
Over 1,000 Huguenots were transported to Martinique during this period under miserable and crowded ship conditions that caused many of them to die en route. Those that survived the trip were distributed to the island planters as Engagés under the system of serf peonage that prevailed in the French Antilles at the time; as many of the planters on Martinique were themselves Huguenot, who were sharing in the suffering under the harsh strictures of the Revocation, they began plotting to emigrate from Martinique with many of their arrived brethren. Many of them were encouraged by their Catholic brethren who looked forward to the departure of the heretics and seizing their property for themselves. By 1688, nearly all of Martinique's French Protestant population had escaped to the British American colonies or Protestant countries back home; the policy decimated the population of Martinique and the rest of the French Antilles and set back their colonization by decades, causing the French king to relax his policies in the islands yet leaving the islands susceptible to British occupation over the next century.
Under Governor of the Antilles Charles de Courbon, comte de Blénac, Martinique served as a home port for French pirates including Captain Crapeau, Etienne de Montauban, Mathurin Desmarestz. In years pirate Bartholomew Roberts styled his jolly roger as a black flag depicting a pirate standing on two skulls labeled "ABH" and "AMH" for "A Barbadian's Head" and "A Martinican's Head", after Governors of those two islands sent warships to capture Roberts. Martinique was occupied several times by the British including once during the Seven Years' War and twice during the Napoleonic Wars. Excepting a period from 1802–1809 following signing of the Treaty of Amiens, Britain controlled the island for most of the time from 1794–1815, when it was traded back to France at the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars. Martinique has remained a French possession since then; as sugar prices declined in the early 1800s, the planter class lost political influence. In 1848, Victor Schoelcher persuaded the French government to end slavery in the French W
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, messages, writings and sounds or information of any nature by wire, optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology, it is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation. Such transmission paths are divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing. Since the Latin term communicatio is considered the social process of information exchange, the term telecommunications is used in its plural form because it involves many different technologies. Early means of communicating over a distance included visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, optical heliographs. Other examples of pre-modern long-distance communication included audio messages such as coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, loud whistles. 20th- and 21st-century technologies for long-distance communication involve electrical and electromagnetic technologies, such as telegraph and teleprinter, radio, microwave transmission, fiber optics, communications satellites.
A revolution in wireless communication began in the first decade of the 20th century with the pioneering developments in radio communications by Guglielmo Marconi, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909, other notable pioneering inventors and developers in the field of electrical and electronic telecommunications. These included Charles Wheatstone and Samuel Morse, Alexander Graham Bell, Edwin Armstrong and Lee de Forest, as well as Vladimir K. Zworykin, John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth; the word telecommunication is a compound of the Greek prefix tele, meaning distant, far off, or afar, the Latin communicare, meaning to share. Its modern use is adapted from the French, because its written use was recorded in 1904 by the French engineer and novelist Édouard Estaunié. Communication was first used as an English word in the late 14th century, it comes from Old French comunicacion, from Latin communicationem, noun of action from past participle stem of communicare "to share, divide out.
Homing pigeons have been used throughout history by different cultures. Pigeon post had Persian roots, was used by the Romans to aid their military. Frontinus said; the Greeks conveyed the names of the victors at the Olympic Games to various cities using homing pigeons. In the early 19th century, the Dutch government used the system in Sumatra, and in 1849, Paul Julius Reuter started a pigeon service to fly stock prices between Aachen and Brussels, a service that operated for a year until the gap in the telegraph link was closed. In the Middle Ages, chains of beacons were used on hilltops as a means of relaying a signal. Beacon chains suffered the drawback that they could only pass a single bit of information, so the meaning of the message such as "the enemy has been sighted" had to be agreed upon in advance. One notable instance of their use was during the Spanish Armada, when a beacon chain relayed a signal from Plymouth to London. In 1792, Claude Chappe, a French engineer, built the first fixed visual telegraphy system between Lille and Paris.
However semaphore suffered from the need for skilled operators and expensive towers at intervals of ten to thirty kilometres. As a result of competition from the electrical telegraph, the last commercial line was abandoned in 1880. On 25 July 1837 the first commercial electrical telegraph was demonstrated by English inventor Sir William Fothergill Cooke, English scientist Sir Charles Wheatstone. Both inventors viewed their device as "an improvement to the electromagnetic telegraph" not as a new device. Samuel Morse independently developed a version of the electrical telegraph that he unsuccessfully demonstrated on 2 September 1837, his code was an important advance over Wheatstone's signaling method. The first transatlantic telegraph cable was completed on 27 July 1866, allowing transatlantic telecommunication for the first time; the conventional telephone was invented independently by Alexander Bell and Elisha Gray in 1876. Antonio Meucci invented the first device that allowed the electrical transmission of voice over a line in 1849.
However Meucci's device was of little practical value because it relied upon the electrophonic effect and thus required users to place the receiver in their mouth to "hear" what was being said. The first commercial telephone services were set-up in 1878 and 1879 on both sides of the Atlantic in the cities of New Haven and London. Starting in 1894, Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi began developing a wireless communication using the newly discovered phenomenon of radio waves, showing by 1901 that they could be transmitted across the Atlantic Ocean; this was the start of wireless telegraphy by radio. Voice and music had little early success. World War I accelerated the development of radio for military communications. After the war, commercial radio AM broadcasting began in the 1920s and became an important mass medium for entertainment and news. World War II again accelerated development of radio for the wartime purposes of aircraft and land communication, radio navigation and radar. Development of stereo FM broadcasting of radio
Telecommunications in the Bahamas
Telecommunications in the Bahamas includes telephones, radio and the Internet. Access to the Internet is unrestricted. There were no government restrictions on access to the Internet or credible reports that the government monitors e-mail or Internet chat rooms without judicial oversight; the constitution provides for freedom of speech and press, the government respects these rights in practice. An independent press combined with a effective—albeit backlogged—judiciary, a functioning democratic political system ensures freedom of speech and press; the constitution prohibits arbitrary interference with privacy, home, or correspondence, the government respects these prohibitions in practice. Strict and antiquated libel laws dating to British legal codes are invoked. In April 2013, the Bahamas Commissioner of Police Ellison Greenslade warned that the police would press charges against people who post “lewd” or “obscene” pictures on social media websites and Attorney General Allyson Maynard-Gibson announced that the government was working on legislation that will police information posted on the Internet.
"We have to balance freedom of the press with protecting the public,” she added. In April Rodney Moncur was charged with "committing a grossly indecent act" by posting autopsy photographs of a man who died in police custody on his Facebook page. Phone calls to the Bahamas are monitored by the National Security Agency's MYSTIC program. Bahamas BTC, Bahamas Telecommunications Company, primary telecommunications provider for the Bahamas government owned. List of television stations in the Caribbean Television in the Bahamas ZNS-1, Radio Bahamas, state-owned ZNS-TV 13, state-owned This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html. BSNIC, Bahamas Network Information Center. Bahamas Telecommunications Company, website. ZNS Bahamas, website