Prehistory of France
Prehistoric France is the period in the human occupation of the geographical area covered by present-day France which extended through prehistory and ended in the Iron Age with the Celtic "La Tène culture". Stone tools indicate. Stone tools discovered at Lézignan-la-Cèbe in 2009 indicate that early humans were present in France at least 1.57 million years ago. France includes Olduwan and Acheulean sites from early or non-modern Hominini species, most notably Homo erectus and Homo heidelbergensis. Tooth Arago 149 - 560,000 years. Tautavel Man, is a proposed subspecies of the hominid Homo erectus, the 450,000-year-old fossil remains of whom were discovered in the Arago cave in Tautavel; the Grotte du Vallonnet near Menton contained simple stone tools dating to 1 million to 1.05 million years BC. Cave sites were exploited for habitation, but the hunter-gatherers of the Palaeolithic era possibly built shelters such as those identified in connection with Acheulean tools at Grotte du Lazaret and Terra Amata near Nice in France.
Excavations at Terra Amata found traces of the earliest known domestication of fire in Europe, from 400,000 BC. The Neanderthals are thought to have arrived there around 300,000 BC, but seem to have died out by about by 30,000 BC unable to compete with modern humans during a period of cold weather. Numerous Neanderthal, or "Mousterian", artifacts have been found from this period, some using the "Levallois technique", a distinctive type of flint knapping developed by hominids during the Lower Palaeolithic but most associated with the Neanderthal industries of the Middle Palaeolithic. Recent findings suggest that Neandertals and modern humans may have interbred. Evidence of cannibalism among Neanderthals found in Neanderthal settlements Moula-Guercy and Les Pradelles; the earliest modern humans – Cro-Magnons – were present in Europe by 43,000 years ago during a long interglacial period of mild climate, when Europe was warm, food was plentiful. When they arrived in Europe, they brought with them sculpture, painting, body ornamentation and the painstaking decoration of utilitarian objects.
Some of the oldest works of art in the world, such as the cave paintings at Lascaux in southern France, are datable to shortly after this migration. European Palaeolithic cultures are divided into several chronological subgroups: Aurignacian – responsible for Venus figurines, cave paintings at the Chauvet Cave. Périgordian – use of this term is debated. Châtelperronian – culture derived from the earlier, Mousterian industry as it made use of Levallois cores and represents the period when Neanderthals and modern humans occupied Europe together. Gravettian – responsible for Venus figurines, cave paintings at the Cosquer Cave. Solutrean Magdalenian – thought to be responsible for the cave paintings at Pech Merle, the Trois-Frères cave and the Rouffignac Cave known as The Cave of the hundred mammoths, it possesses the most extensive cave system of the Périgord in France with more than 8 kilometers of underground passageways. Experts sometimes refer to the "Franco-Cantabrian region" to describe this densely populated region of southern France and northern Spain in the late Palaeolithic.
From the Paleolithic to the Mesolithic, the Magdalenian culture evolved. In South-West France and Spain, one finds the Azilian culture of the Late Glacial Maximum which co-existed with similar early Mesolithic European cultures such as the Tjongerian of North-Western, the Ahrensburgian of Northern and the Swiderian of North-Eastern Europe, all succeeding the Federmesser complex; the Azilian culture was followed by the Sauveterrian in Southern France and Switzerland, the Tardenoisian in Northern France, the Maglemosian in Northern Europe. Archeologists are unsure. If Gravettian or Epipaleolithic immigrants to Europe were indeed Indo-European populations speaking non-Indo-European languages are obvious candidates for previous Paleolithic remnants; the Vascons of the Pyrenees present the strongest case, since their language is related to none other in the world, the Basque population has a unique genetic profile. The disappearance of the Doggerland affected the surrounding territories; the Doggerland population had to go as far as northern France and eastern Ireland to escape from the floods.
The Neolithic period lasted in northern Europe for 3,000 years. It is characterised by the so-called Neolithic Revolution, a transitional period that included the adoption of agriculture, the development of tools and pottery, the growth of larger, more complex settlements. There was an expansion of peoples from southwest Asia into Europe; some archaeologists believe that this expansion, marking the eclipse of Mesolithic culture, coincided with the introduction of Indo-European speakers, wherea
Internet service provider
An Internet service provider is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet. Internet service providers may be organized in various forms, such as commercial, community-owned, non-profit, or otherwise owned. Internet services provided by ISPs include Internet access, Internet transit, domain name registration, web hosting, Usenet service, colocation; the Internet was developed as a network between government research laboratories and participating departments of universities. Other companies and organizations joined by direct connection to the backbone, or by arrangements through other connected companies, sometime using dialup tools such as UUCP. By the late 1980s, a process was set in place towards commercial use of the Internet; the remaining restrictions were removed by 1991, shortly after the introduction of the World Wide Web. During the 1980s, online service providers such as CompuServe and America On Line began to offer limited capabilities to access the Internet, such as e-mail interchange, but full access to the Internet was not available to the general public.
In 1989, the first Internet service providers, companies offering the public direct access to the Internet for a monthly fee, were established in Australia and the United States. In Brookline, The World became the first commercial ISP in the US, its first customer was served in November 1989. These companies offered dial-up connections, using the public telephone network to provide last-mile connections to their customers; the barriers to entry for dial-up ISPs were low and many providers emerged. However, cable television companies and the telephone carriers had wired connections to their customers and could offer Internet connections at much higher speeds than dial-up using broadband technology such as cable modems and digital subscriber line; as a result, these companies became the dominant ISPs in their service areas, what was once a competitive ISP market became a monopoly or duopoly in countries with a commercial telecommunications market, such as the United States. On 23 April 2014, the U.
S. Federal Communications Commission was reported to be considering a new rule that will permit ISPs to offer content providers a faster track to send content, thus reversing their earlier net neutrality position. A possible solution to net neutrality concerns may be municipal broadband, according to Professor Susan Crawford, a legal and technology expert at Harvard Law School. On 15 May 2014, the FCC decided to consider two options regarding Internet services: first, permit fast and slow broadband lanes, thereby compromising net neutrality. On 10 November 2014, President Barack Obama recommended that the FCC reclassify broadband Internet service as a telecommunications service in order to preserve net neutrality. On 16 January 2015, Republicans presented legislation, in the form of a U. S. Congress H. R. discussion draft bill, that makes concessions to net neutrality but prohibits the FCC from accomplishing the goal or enacting any further regulation affecting Internet service providers. On 31 January 2015, AP News reported that the FCC will present the notion of applying Title II of the Communications Act of 1934 to the Internet in a vote expected on 26 February 2015.
Adoption of this notion would reclassify Internet service from one of information to one of the telecommunications and, according to Tom Wheeler, chairman of the FCC, ensure net neutrality. The FCC is expected to enforce net neutrality in its vote, according to The New York Times. On 26 February 2015, the FCC ruled in favor of net neutrality by adopting Title II of the Communications Act of 1934 and Section 706 in the Telecommunications Act of 1996 to the Internet; the FCC Chairman, Tom Wheeler, commented, "This is no more a plan to regulate the Internet than the First Amendment is a plan to regulate free speech. They both stand for the same concept." On 12 March 2015, the FCC released the specific details of the net neutrality rules. On 13 April 2015, the FCC published the final rule on its new "Net Neutrality" regulations; these rules went into effect on 12 June 2015. Upon becoming FCC chairman in April 2017, Ajit Pai proposed an end to net neutrality, awaiting votes from the commission. On 21 November 2017, Pai announced that a vote will be held by FCC members on 14 December on whether to repeal the policy.
On 11 June 2018, the repeal of the FCC's network neutrality rules took effect. Access provider ISPs provide Internet access, employing a range of technologies to connect users to their network. Available technologies have ranged from computer modems with acoustic couplers to telephone lines, to television cable, Wi-Fi, fiber optics. For users and small businesses, traditional options include copper wires to provide dial-up, DSL asymmetric digital subscriber line, cable modem or Integrated Services Digital Network. Using fiber-optics to end users is called Fiber To The Home or similar names. For customers with more demanding requirements can use higher-speed DSL, metropolitan Ethernet, gigabit Ethernet, Frame Relay, ISDN Primary Rate Interface, ATM and synchronous optical networking. Wireless access is another option, including satellite Internet access. A mailbox provider is an organization that provides services for hosting electronic mail domains with access to storage for mail boxes
FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation technology. Invented in 1933 by American engineer Edwin Armstrong, wide-band FM is used worldwide to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. FM broadcasting is capable of better sound quality than AM broadcasting, the chief competing radio broadcasting technology, so it is used for most music broadcasts. Theoretically wideband AM can offer good sound quality, provided the reception conditions are ideal. FM radio stations use the VHF frequencies; the term "FM band" describes the frequency band in a given country, dedicated to FM broadcasting. Throughout the world, the FM broadcast band falls within the VHF part of the radio spectrum. 87.5 to 108.0 MHz is used, or some portion thereof, with few exceptions: In the former Soviet republics, some former Eastern Bloc countries, the older 65.8–74 MHz band is used. Assigned frequencies are at intervals of 30 kHz; this band, sometimes referred to as the OIRT band, is being phased out in many countries.
In those countries the 87.5–108.0 MHz band is referred to as the CCIR band. In Japan, the band 76–95 MHz is used; the frequency of an FM broadcast station is an exact multiple of 100 kHz. In most of South Korea, the Americas, the Philippines and the Caribbean, only odd multiples are used. In some parts of Europe and Africa, only multiples are used. In the UK odd or are used. In Italy, multiples of 50 kHz are used. In most countries the maximum permitted frequency error is specified, the unmodulated carrier should be within 2000 Hz of the assigned frequency. There are other unusual and obsolete FM broadcasting standards in some countries, including 1, 10, 30, 74, 500, 300 kHz. However, to minimise inter-channel interference, stations operating from the same or geographically close transmitter sites tend to keep to at least a 500 kHz frequency separation when closer frequency spacing is technically permitted, with closer tunings reserved for more distantly spaced transmitters, as interfering signals are more attenuated and so have less effect on neighboring frequencies.
Frequency modulation or FM is a form of modulation which conveys information by varying the frequency of a carrier wave. With FM, frequency deviation from the assigned carrier frequency at any instant is directly proportional to the amplitude of the input signal, determining the instantaneous frequency of the transmitted signal; because transmitted FM signals use more bandwidth than AM signals, this form of modulation is used with the higher frequencies used by TV, the FM broadcast band, land mobile radio systems. The maximum frequency deviation of the carrier is specified and regulated by the licensing authorities in each country. For a stereo broadcast, the maximum permitted carrier deviation is invariably ±75 kHz, although a little higher is permitted in the United States when SCA systems are used. For a monophonic broadcast, again the most common permitted. However, some countries specify a lower value for monophonic broadcasts, such as ±50 kHz. Random noise has a triangular spectral distribution in an FM system, with the effect that noise occurs predominantly at the highest audio frequencies within the baseband.
This can be offset, to a limited extent, by boosting the high frequencies before transmission and reducing them by a corresponding amount in the receiver. Reducing the high audio frequencies in the receiver reduces the high-frequency noise; these processes of boosting and reducing certain frequencies are known as pre-emphasis and de-emphasis, respectively. The amount of pre-emphasis and de-emphasis used is defined by the time constant of a simple RC filter circuit. In most of the world a 50 µs time constant is used. In the Americas and South Korea, 75 µs is used; this applies to both stereo transmissions. For stereo, pre-emphasis is applied to the left and right channels before multiplexing; the use of pre-emphasis becomes a problem because of the fact that many forms of contemporary music contain more high-frequency energy than the musical styles which prevailed at the birth of FM broadcasting. Pre-emphasizing these high frequency sounds would cause excessive deviation of the FM carrier. Modulation control devices are used to prevent this.
Systems more modern than FM broadcasting tend to use either programme-dependent variable pre-emphasis. Long before FM stereo transmission was considered, FM multiplexing of other types of audio level information was experimented with. Edwin Armstrong who invented FM was the first to experiment with multiplexing, at his experimental 41 MHz station W2XDG located on the 85th floor of the Empire State Building in New York City; these FM multiplex transmissions started in November 1934 and consisted of the main channel audio program and three subcarriers: a fax program, a synchronizing signal for the fax program and a telegraph “order” channel. These original FM multiplex subcarriers were amplitude modulated. Two musical programs, consisting of both the Red and Blue Network program feeds of the NBC Radio Network, were transmitted using the same system of subcarrier modulation as part of a studio-to-transmitter link system. In April 1935, the AM subcarriers were replaced with much improved results.
The first FM subcarrier transmissions emanating from Major Armstrong's experimental station KE2XCC at Alpine, New Jersey occurred in 1948. These transmissions consisted of two-cha
French Fifth Republic
The Fifth Republic, France's current republican system of government, was established by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958. The Fifth Republic emerged from the collapse of the Fourth Republic, replacing the former parliamentary republic with a semi-presidential, or dual-executive, system that split powers between a Prime Minister as head of government and a President as head of state. De Gaulle, the first French President elected under the Fifth Republic in December 1958, believed in a strong head of state, which he described as embodying l'esprit de la nation; the Fifth Republic is France's third-longest political regime, after the hereditary and feudal monarchies of the Ancien Régime and the parliamentary Third Republic. The trigger for the collapse of the French Fourth Republic was the Algiers crisis of 1958. France was still a colonial power, although conflict and revolt had begun the process of decolonization. French West Africa, French Indochina, French Algeria still sent representatives to the French parliament under systems of limited suffrage in the French Union.
Algeria in particular, despite being the colony with the largest French population, saw rising pressure for separation from the Metropole. The situation was complicated by those in Algeria, such as European settlers and many native Jews, who wanted to stay part of France; the Algerian War was not just a separatist movement. Further complications came when a section of the French Army rebelled and backed the "Algérie française" movement to defeat separation. Charles de Gaulle, who had retired from politics a decade before, placed himself in the midst of the crisis, calling on the nation to suspend the government and create a new constitutional system. De Gaulle was carried to power by the inability of the parliament to choose a government, popular protest, the last parliament of the Fourth Republic voting for their dissolution and the convening of a constitutional convention; the Fourth Republic suffered from a lack of political consensus, a weak executive, governments forming and falling in quick succession since 1946.
With no party or coalition able to sustain a parliamentary majority, Prime Ministers found themselves unable to risk their political position with unpopular reforms. De Gaulle and his supporters proposed a system of strong presidents elected for seven-year terms; the President, under the proposed constitution, would have executive powers to run the country in consultation with a prime minister whom he would appoint. On 1 June 1958, Charles de Gaulle was appointed head of the government; these plans were approved by more than 80% of those who voted in the referendum of 28 September 1958. The new constitution was signed into law on 4 October 1958. Since each new constitution established a new republic, France moved from the Fourth to the Fifth Republic; the new constitution contained transitional clauses extending the period of rule by decree until the new institutions were operating. René Coty remained President of the Republic. On 21 December 1958, Charles de Gaulle was elected President of France by an electoral college.
The provisional constitutional commission, acting in lieu of the Constitutional Council, proclaimed the results of the election on 9 January 1959. The new president began his office on that date; the 1958 constitution replaced the French Union with the French Community, which allowed fourteen member territories to assert their independence. 1960 became known as the "Year of Africa" because of this wave of newly independent states. Algeria became independent on 5 July 1962; the president was elected by an electoral college, but in 1962 de Gaulle proposed that the president be directly elected by the citizens, held a referendum on the change. Although the method and intent of de Gaulle in that referendum were contested by most political groups except for the Gaullists, the change was approved by the French electorate; the Constitutional Council declined to rule on the constitutionality of the referendum. The president is now elected every five years, changed from seven by a constitutional referendum in 2000, to reduce the probability of cohabitation due to former differences in the length of terms for the National Assembly and Presidency.
The President is elected in one or two rounds of voting: if one candidate gets a majority of votes in the first round that person is president-elect. Two major changes balances. Traditionally, France operated according to parliamentary supremacy: no authority was empowered to rule on whether statutes passed by Parliament respected the constitutional rights of the citizens. In 1971, the Constitutional Council, arguing that the preamble of the Constitution referenced the rights defined in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and the preamble of the 1946 Constitution, concluded that statutes must respect these rights and declared unconstitutional a statute because it violated freedom of association. However, only the President of the Republic, the Prime Minister, the President of each house of Parliament could ask for a constitutional rev
The Napoleonic era is a period in the history of France and Europe. It is classified as including the fourth and final stage of the French Revolution, the first being the National Assembly, the second being the Legislative Assembly, the third being the Directory; the Napoleonic era begins with Napoleon Bonaparte's coup d'état, overthrowing the Directory, establishing the French Consulate, ends during the Hundred Days and his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo. The Congress of Vienna soon set out to restore Europe to pre-French Revolution days. Napoleon brought political stability to a land torn by war, he made peace with the Roman Catholic Church and reversed the most radical religious policies of the Convention. In 1804 Napoleon promulgated the Civil Code, a revised body of civil law, which helped stabilize French society; the Civil Code affirmed the political and legal equality of all adult men and established a merit-based society in which individuals advanced in education and employment because of talent rather than birth or social standing.
The Civil Code confirmed many of the moderate revolutionary policies of the National Assembly but retracted measures passed by the more radical Convention. The code restored patriarchal authority in the family, for example, by making women and children subservient to male heads of households. Whilst working to stabilise France, Napoleon sought to extend his authority throughout Europe. Napoleon's armies conquered the Iberian and Italian peninsulas, occupied lands, he forced Austria and Russia to ally with him and respect French hegemony in Europe; the United Kingdom continued the war throughout. The First French Empire began to unravel in 1812. Napoleon underestimated the difficulties. Convinced that the Tsar was conspiring with his British enemies, Napoleon led an army of 600,000 soldiers to Moscow, he defeated the Russian army at Borodino before capturing Moscow, but the Tsar withdrew and Moscow was set ablaze, leaving Napoleon's vast army without adequate shelter or supplies. Napoleon ordered a retreat, but the bitter Russian winter and repeated Russian attacks whittled down his army, only a battered remnant of 30,000 soldiers managed to limp back to French territory.
The allies continued a united effort against Napoleon until they had seized Paris forcing his abdication in 1814. His return to power the next year was resisted by all the allies and his army was defeated by an Anglo-Allied force at Waterloo. Heads and leaders of states affected by Napoleon's regime and the Napoleonic wars: Austria Archduchy of Austria: Francis II Austrian Empire: Francis I Confederation of the Rhine: Protector Napoleon I Denmark-Norway: Christian VII, Frederick VI Duchy of Warsaw: Frederick Augustus I of Saxony, by personal arrangement with Napoleon, partial liberation of the former Commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania Egypt: Muhammad Ali Etruria: Louis, Charles Louis France French Republic: First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte French Empire: Napoleon I Kingdom of France: Louis XVIII Great Britain Kingdom of Great Britain: King George III, Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland: King George III.
The Belle Époque or La Belle Époque was a period of Western history. It is conventionally dated from the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871 to the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Occurring during the era of the French Third Republic, it was a period characterized by optimism, regional peace, economic prosperity, an apex of colonial empires, technological and cultural innovations. In the climate of the period in Paris, the arts flourished. Many masterpieces of literature, music and visual art gained recognition; the Belle Époque was named in retrospect when it began to be considered a "Golden Age" in contrast to the horrors of World War I. The Belle Epoque was a period in which, according to historian R. R. Palmer, "European civilization achieved its greatest power in global politics, exerted its maximum influence upon peoples outside Europe."In the United Kingdom, the Belle Époque overlapped with the late Victorian era and the Edwardian era in a period known as Pax Britannica. In Germany, the Belle Époque coincided with the reigns of William I, Frederick III and the Wilhelminism of Wilhelm II.
In Italy, with the reigns of Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I and early of the reign of Victor Emmanuel III. In Russia, with the reigns of Alexander III and Nicholas II. In the United States, emerging from the Panic of 1873, the comparable period was the Gilded Age. In Brazil, it started with the end of the Paraguayan War, and in Mexico, the period was known as the Porfiriato. The French public's nostalgia for the Belle Époque period was based on the peace and prosperity connected with it in retrospect. Two devastating world wars and their aftermath made the Belle Époque appear to be a time of joie de vivre in contrast to 20th century hardships, it was a period of stability that France enjoyed after the tumult of the early years of the French Third Republic, beginning with France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, the Paris Commune, the fall of General Georges Ernest Boulanger. The defeat of Boulanger, the celebrations tied to the 1889 World's Fair in Paris, launched an era of optimism and affluence.
French imperialism was in its prime. It was a cultural center of global influence, its educational and medical institutions were at the leading edge of Europe, it was not the reality of life in Paris or in France, however. France had a large economic underclass who never experienced much of the Belle Époque's wonders and entertainments. Poverty remained endemic in Paris's urban slums and rural peasantry for decades after the Belle Époque ended. Conflicts between the government and the Roman Catholic Church were regular during the period; some of the artistic elite saw the Fin de siècle in a pessimistic light. Those who were able to benefit from the prosperity of the era were drawn towards new forms of light entertainment during the Belle Époque, the Parisian bourgeoisie, or the successful industrialists called nouveau-riches, became influenced by the habits and fads of the city's elite social class, known popularly as Tout-Paris; the Casino de Paris opened in 1890. For Paris' less affluent public, entertainment was provided by cabarets and music halls.
The Moulin Rouge cabaret is a Paris landmark still open for business today. The Folies Bergère was another landmark venue. Burlesque performance styles were more mainstream in Belle Époque Paris than in more staid cities of Europe and America. Liane de Pougy, dancer and courtesan, was well known in Paris as a headline performer at top cabarets. Belle Époque dancers such as La Goulue and Jane Avril were Paris celebrities, who modelled for Toulouse-Lautrec's iconic poster art; the Can-can dance was a popular 19th-century cabaret style that appears in Toulouse-Lautrec's posters from the era. The Eiffel Tower, built to serve as the grand entrance to the 1889 World's Fair held in Paris, became the accustomed symbol of the city, to its inhabitants and to visitors from around the world. Paris hosted another successful World's Fair in the Exposition Universelle. Paris had been profoundly changed by the French Second Empire reforms to the city's architecture and public amenities. Haussmann's renovation of Paris changed its housing, street layouts, green spaces.
The walkable neighbourhoods were well-established by the Belle Époque. Cheap coal and cheap labor contributed to the cult of the orchid and made possible the perfection of fruits grown under glass, as the apparatus of state dinners extended to the upper classes. Exotic feathers and furs were more prominently featured in fashion than before, as haute couture was invented in Paris, the center of the Belle Époque, where fashion began to move in a yearly cycle. In Paris, restaurants such as Maxim's Paris achieved a new splendor and cachet as places for the rich to parade. Maxim's Paris was arguably the city's most exclusive restaurant. Bohemian lifestyles gained a different glamour, pursued in the cabarets of Montmartre. Fashion in the Belle Epoque era was the peak of luxury living for a select few. Not only did this era bring in new trends to fashion, they kept trends from the Edwardian trends; the Belle Epoque was different from the Edwardian era though they used the styles because the garments were not influenced by the English King or the Prince of Wales.
They wanted nothing to do with the era. Clothes were designed and marketed for those wealthy and those who were privileged; these garments covered most garments from daily wear to formal gowns. It is hard to distinguish between the two. La Belle Epoque influenced by custom designs and tailor-mad
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history; the causes of the French Revolution are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years' War and the American Revolution, the French government was in debt, it attempted to restore its financial status through unpopular taxation schemes, which were regressive.
Leading up to the Revolution, years of bad harvests worsened by deregulation of the grain industry and environmental problems inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy and the Catholic clergy of the established church. Some historians hold something similar to what Thomas Jefferson proclaimed: that France had "been awakened by our Revolution." Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates General in May 1789. During the first year of the Revolution, members of the Third Estate took control, the Bastille was attacked in July, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was passed in August, the Women's March on Versailles forced the royal court back to Paris in October. A central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime; the next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms.
The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats shaped the course of the Revolution; the Revolutionary Wars beginning in 1792 featured French victories that facilitated the conquest of the Italian Peninsula, the Low Countries and most territories west of the Rhine – achievements that had eluded previous French governments for centuries. Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins; the dictatorship imposed by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror, from 1793 until 1794, established price controls on food and other items, abolished slavery in French colonies abroad, de-established the Catholic church and created a secular Republican calendar, religious leaders were expelled, the borders of the new republic were secured from its enemies. After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795.
They suspended elections, repudiated debts, persecuted the Catholic clergy, made significant military conquests abroad. Dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. Napoleon, who became the hero of the Revolution through his popular military campaigns, established the Consulate and the First Empire, setting the stage for a wider array of global conflicts in the Napoleonic Wars; the modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution. All future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor, its central phrases and cultural symbols, such as La Marseillaise and Liberté, fraternité, égalité, ou la mort, became the clarion call for other major upheavals in modern history, including the Russian Revolution over a century later. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day; the Revolution resulted in the suppression of the feudal system, emancipation of the individual, a greater division of landed property, abolition of the privileges of noble birth, nominal establishment of equality among men.
The French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not only national, for it intended to benefit all humanity. Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of democracies, it became the focal point for the development of most modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism and secularism, among many others. The Revolution witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France and the lives of its citizens towards the objective of military conquest; some of its central documents, such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, continued to inspire movements for abolitionism and universal suffrage in the next century. Historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Rising social and economic inequality, new political ideas emerging from the Enlightenment, economic mismanagement, environmental factors leading to agricultural failure, unmanageable national debt, political mismanagement on the part of King Louis XVI have all been cited as laying the groundwork for the Revolution.
Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the "public sphere" in France and elsewhere