An Internet café is a café that provides Internet access to the public. The fee for using a computer is charged as a time-based rate; the first online café in South Korea called Electronic Café opened in front of Hongik University in March 1988 by Ahn Sang-Su and Keum Nuri in Seoul. It had two 16bit computers connected to Online service networks through telephone lines. Online service users’ offline meetings were held in the Electronic Café, which served as a place that connected online and offline activities; the opening of the online café in Korea was 2–3 years ahead of other countries. The online café phenomenon in the United States was started in July 1991 by Wayne Gregori in San Francisco when he began SFnet Coffeehouse Network. Gregori designed and installed 25 coin-operated computer terminals in coffeehouses throughout the San Francisco Bay Area; the café terminals dialed into a 32 line Bulletin Board System that offered an array of electronic services including FIDOnet mail and, in 1992, Internet mail.
The concept of a café with full Internet access was invented in early 1994 by Ivan Pope. Commissioned to develop an Internet event for an arts weekend at the Institute of Contemporary Arts in London, inspired by the SFnet terminal based cafes, Pope wrote a proposal outlining the concept of a café with Internet access. After an initial run in late 1993 as a café showcasing computers, a bar called CompuCafé was established in Helsinki, Finland in the spring of 1994 featuring both Internet access and a robotic beer seller. Around June 1994, The Binary Cafe, Canada's first Internet café, opened in Ontario. Inspired by the ICA event, a commercial establishment of this type, called Cyberia, opened on September 1, 1994, in London, England. In January 1995, CB1 Café in Cambridge, installed an Internet connection and is the longest running Internet Café in the UK, still operating today; the first public, commercial American Internet café was conceived and opened by Jeff Anderson and Alan Weinkrantz in August 1994, at Infomart in Dallas and was called The High Tech Cafe.
The Scottish Bar is the first Internet café in French-speaking Switzerland, connected on June 27, 1995, by Pierre Hemmer and his company MC Management & Communication. Three Internet cafés subsequently opened in the East Village neighborhood of New York City: Internet Cafe, opened by Arthur Perley, the @Cafe, the Heroic Sandwich. In 1996, the Internet café Surf City opened in downtown Alaska. A variation of Internet café called PC bang became popular in South Korea when StarCraft was released in 1998. Although computer and broadband penetration per capita were high, young people went to PC bangs to play multiplayer games. Internet cafés are located worldwide, many people use them when traveling to access webmail and instant messaging services to keep in touch with family and friends. Apart from travelers, in many developing countries Internet cafés are the primary form of Internet access for citizens as a shared-access model is more affordable than personal ownership of equipment and/or software.
A variation on the Internet café business model is the LAN gaming center, used for multiplayer gaming. These cafés have several computer stations connected to a LAN; the connected computers are custom-assembled for gameplay, supporting popular multiplayer games. This is reducing the need for video arcades and arcade games, many of which are being closed down or merged into Internet cafés; the use of Internet cafés for multiplayer gaming is popular in certain areas of Asia like India, Taiwan, Hong Kong, South Korea and the Philippines. In some countries, since all LAN gaming centers offer Internet access, the terms net cafe and LAN gaming center have become interchangeable. Again, this shared-access model is more affordable than personal ownership of equipment and/or software since games require high end and expensive PCs. There are Internet kiosks, Internet access points in public places like public libraries, airport halls, sometimes just for brief use while standing. Many hotels and cruise ships offer Internet access for the convenience of their guests.
As with telephone service, in the US most mid-price hotels offer Internet access from a computer in the lobby to registered guests without charging an additional fee, while fancier hotels are more to charge for the use of a computer in their "business center." For those traveling by road in North America, many truck stops have Internet kiosks, for which a typical charge is around 20 cents per minute. Internet cafés come in a wide range of styles, reflecting their location, main clientele, sometimes, the social agenda of the proprietors. In the early days they were important in projecting the image of the Internet as a'cool' phenomenon. Internet cafés are a natural evolution of the traditional café. Cafés started as places for information exchange, have always been used as places to read the paper, send postcards home, play traditional or electronic games, chat to friends, find out local information; as Internet access is in increasing demand, many pubs and cafés have terminals, so the distinction between the Internet café and normal café is eroded.
In some European countries, the number of pure Internet cafés is decreasing since more and more normal cafés offer the same services. H
1981 Seychelles coup d'état attempt
The 1981 Seychelles coup d'état attempt, sometimes referred to as the Seychelles affair or Operation Angela, was a failed South African–orchestrated mercenary takeover attempt in the country of Seychelles. The Republic of Seychelles achieved independence on 29 June 1976. James Mancham was president and France-Albert René was prime minister, but relations between the two soured. In 1977 René's leftist supporters launched an armed coup. Though René denied any responsibility, he assumed the presidency in June. Two plots were formulated the following year to depose him. In 1979 his party won an election and he pursued a socialist agenda, upsetting the small but influential middle class population, his reign saw the withdrawal of South Africa's landing rights as well as a deterioration of economic ties between the two countries. René warned that sympathizers of the old government were conspiring to use mercenaries to stage a counter-coup. Most of his critics dismissed the alleged plots as exaggerated or fabricated excuses to jail political opponents.
In 1978 the deposed Mancham approached the South African government through Seychelles exiles to garner support for a counter-coup. The South African government was willing to set aside a small number of special forces for a plot, but directed Mancham's representative to Mike Hoare. "Mad" Mike Hoare had served as a mercenary during the Congo Crisis and, at the time, had retired to Hilton, KwaZulu-Natal and was living as a stock broker and investment manager. He agreed to lead the coup. South African officials organized the coup under the code name "Operation Angela"; as plans developed, an internal struggle emerged between the Defence Intelligence Division and the National Intelligence Service over which agency would be responsible for the operation. In the end, SADF was given charge of the plot but an NIS agent, Martin Dolinchek, was appointed to be a liaison officer with the task force. Seychellois exiles Gérard Hoarau, Paul Chow, Edie Camille helped orchestrate the coup plot. Hoare determined that bringing in weapons via boat was, in spite of its effectiveness, too expensive a method to carry out.
Hoare managed to assemble a force of 54 white putschists. Of these, 27 were members of the South African Defence Force, 9 ex-Rhodesian soldiers, 7 ex-Congo mercenaries, 1 NIS agent, 3 civilians. Hoare advised that US$5 million be raised for the operation, but only US$300,000 was garnered; the rest of the mercenaries' salaries would come from the Seychelles Treasury. Nine of Hoare's team were sent to the island of Seychelles in advance, they were to rally support from dissident Seychellois soldiers. The rest would arrive on a chartered Royal Swazi National Airways plane in the afternoon of 25 November 1981 disguised as vacationing rugby players and members of a charitable beer drinking club, they took the name of their beer club –Ye Ancient Order of Froth-Blowers – from a London society, defunct since the 1930s. As part of their cover, the mercenaries disguised as AOFB members filled their baggage with toys that were to be distributed to local orphanages. In reality, these were meant to conceal the weight of AK-47 rifles hidden under the false bottoms of each item of luggage.
Hoare ensured. The putschists' plan was to arrive on Mahé, rendezvous with the advance team, disperse around the island to various hotels, they were to wait for several days until René would be holding a cabinet meeting in the Maison du Peuple during which time they would launch their coup. They would seize the government, the airport, the radio station, police station, the army camp at Pointe La Rue, other strategic locations. From the radio station they would broadcast; the Seychellois exiles had assured the putschists that they would have the assistance of a 400-strong "local resistance force", but none existed. At 17:30 on 25 November 1981, Hoare and 43 mercenaries flew into Seychelles International Airport at Pointe La Rue on Mahé. All but two of the putschists had made it through customs when a security supervisor began a thorough search of the luggage of a mercenary, discovering an AK-47. Realizing their cover was blown, the mercenaries produced their weapons. One security guard ran towards the office to request assistance.
The guard reached the office, bolted the door, raised the alarm, beginning a six-hour gun battle at the airport. About 70 present airport staff were taken hostage by the mercenaries. President René was in his residence, he put the island on alert, calling all police and militia into service and imposing a 24-hour curfew. Colonel Ogilvy Berlouis, the chief of the Defence Force, was ordered to secure the airport and prevent the mercenaries from escaping; the number of mercenaries was unknown to the Seychellois, as was the fact of whether the attack at the airport was supposed to coincide with a seaborne invasion. Hoare's men erected a roadblock on the north end of the airport and mounted an unsuccessful attack on the Pointe La Rue Barracks in which one mercenary was wounded. Seychellois forces, with two armoured vehicles, occupied the airstrip, confining the putschists to the airport's buildings, they fired upon the chartered aircraft, disabling it. One of the armoured vehicles made its way to the terminal forecourt, but the lights were out in the building and the driver had difficulty spotting the mercenaries.
The vehicle's tires were shot out and it was set ablaze by a Molotov cocktail. 2nd Lieutenant David Antat, the vehicle's commander, e
Grand'Anse Mahé is an administrative district of Seychelles located on the island of Mahé
The Pirate Bay
The Pirate Bay is an online index of digital content of entertainment media and software. Founded in 2003 by Swedish think tank Piratbyrån, The Pirate Bay allows visitors to search and contribute magnet links and torrent files, which facilitate peer-to-peer file sharing among users of the BitTorrent protocol. In April 2009, the website's founders were found guilty in the Pirate Bay trial in Sweden for assisting in copyright infringement and were sentenced to serve one year in prison and pay a fine. In some countries, Internet service providers have been ordered to block access to the website. Subsequently, proxy websites have been providing access to it. Founders Svartholm and Sunde were all released by 2015 after having served shortened sentences; the Pirate Bay has sparked controversies and discussion about legal aspects of file sharing and civil liberties and has become a platform for political initiatives against established intellectual property laws and a central figure in an anti-copyright movement.
The website faced several shutdowns and domain seizures, switching to a series of new web addresses to continue operating. The Pirate Bay was established in September 2003 by the Swedish anti-copyright organisation Piratbyrån; the Pirate Bay was first run by Gottfrid Svartholm and Fredrik Neij, who are known by their nicknames "anakata" and "TiAMO", respectively. They have both been accused of "assisting in making copyrighted content available" by the Motion Picture Association of America. On 31 May 2006, the website's servers in Stockholm were raided and taken away by Swedish police, leading to three days of downtime; the Pirate Bay claims to be a non-profit entity based in the Seychelles, however this is disputed. The Pirate Bay has been involved both as plaintiff and as defendant. On 17 April 2009, Peter Sunde, Fredrik Neij, Gottfrid Svartholm, Carl Lundström were found guilty of assistance to copyright infringement and sentenced to one year in prison and payment of a fine of 30 million SEK, after a trial of nine days.
The defendants accused the judge of giving in to political pressure. On 26 November 2010, a Swedish appeals court upheld the verdict, decreasing the original prison terms but increasing the fine to 46 million SEK. On 17 May 2010, because of an injunction against their bandwidth provider, the site was taken offline. Access to the website was restored with a message making fun of the injunction on their front page. On 23 June 2010, the group Piratbyrån disbanded due to the death of Ibi Kopimi Botani, a prominent member and co-founder of the group; the Pirate Bay was hosted for several years by PRQ, a Sweden-based company, owned by creators of TPB Gottfrid Svartholm and Fredrik Neij. PRQ is said to provide "highly secure, no-questions-asked hosting services to its customers". From May 2011, Serious Tubes Networks started providing network connectivity to The Pirate Bay. On 23 January 2012, The Pirate Bay added the new category Physibles; these are 3D files described as "data objects" using a 3D printer.
In May 2012, as part of Google's newly inaugurated "Transparency Report", the company reported over 6,000 formal requests to remove Pirate Bay links from the Google Search index. On 10 August 2013, The Pirate Bay announced the release of PirateBrowser, a free web browser used to circumvent internet censorship; the site was the most visited torrent directory on the World Wide Web from 2003 until November 2014, when KickassTorrents had more visitors according to Alexa. On 8 December 2014, Google removed most of the Google Play apps from its app store that have "The Pirate Bay" in the title. On 9 December 2014, The Pirate Bay was raided by the Swedish police, who seized servers and other equipment. Several other torrent related sites including EZTV, Zoink and the Istole tracker were shut down in addition to The Pirate Bay's forum Suprbay.org. On the second day after the raid EZTV was reported to be showing "signs of life" with uploads to ExtraTorrent and KickassTorrents and supporting proxy sites like eztv-proxy.net via the main website's backend IP addresses.
Several copies of The Pirate Bay went online during the next several days, most notably oldpiratebay.org, created by isoHunt. On 19 May 2015, the.se domain of The Pirate Bay was ordered to be seized following a ruling by a Swedish court. The site reacted by adding six new domains in its place; the judgment was appealed on 26 May 2015. On 12 May 2016 the appeal was dismissed and the Court ruled the domains be turned over to the Swedish state; the site returned to using its original.org domain in May 2016. In August 2016, the US government shut down KickassTorrents, which resulted in The Pirate Bay becoming once again the most visited BitTorrent website; the Pirate Bay allows users to search for Magnet links. These are used to reference resources available for download via peer-to-peer networks which, when opened in a BitTorrent client, begin downloading the desired content.. The torrents are organised into categories: "Audio", "Video", "Applications", "Games", "Porn" and "Other". Registration requires an email address an
Wildlife of Seychelles
The Wildlife of Seychelles comprises the flora and fauna of the Seychelles islands off the eastern coast of Africa in the western Indian Ocean. In common with many fragile island ecosystems, the early human history of Seychelles saw the loss of biodiversity including the disappearance of most of the giant tortoises from the granitic islands, felling of coastal and mid-level forests and extinction of species such as the Marianne white-eye, Seychelles parakeet, Seychelles black terrapin, the saltwater crocodile. However, extinctions were far fewer than on other islands such as Mauritius or Hawaii due to a shorter period of human occupation; the Seychelles today is known for success stories in protecting its fauna. Arguably the first scientific study of Seychelles was that of the Marion Dufresne expedition in 1768, two years prior to settlement. Dufresne instructed Duchemin, captain of the vessel La Digue, to...especially give the greatest attention to the study and prospects of all the species of inland productions such as trees, plants, quadruped animals, insects, freshwater fish, soil, minerals.
Nothing is unimportant. You must not avoid giving details and descriptions- everything is worthy of attention, their observations remain an intriguing window on Seychelles prior to human interference. Subsequent to settlement, Fairfax Moresby's hydrographic survey in 1822, was the first scientific study in the islands, while early collectors included those of Pervillé, Wright and Mobius during the early to mid-19th century; the first major avian collector was Newton in the granitics. Abbott collected in the granitics in 1890 and in the Aldabra group in 1893. Voeltzkow made general natural history collections on Aldabra in 1895. In 1882, Coppinger made extensive observations. Several expeditions followed, most significant of, the Percy Sladen Expedition aboard Sealark in 1905, when Gardiner made extensive collections in the granitics and outer islands, his collections for some islands remain the only records available into the 21st century. Studies subsequent to Gardiner were sparse up to the 1950s, though some residents of Seychelles made valuable contributions, notably Dupont, Thomasset and Vesey Fitzgerald.
Visiting oceanographic expeditions made some collections. In the 1950s, Smith conducted a major study of marine fish, while Cousteau visited in 1954 aboard Calypso. Legrand collected Lepidoptera in the 1950s, while the Bristol University expedition of 1964-65 focussed on birds and insects; the contribution of Royal Society to the knowledge of Aldabra from 1966 is legendary and work on Aldabra continued under the custodianship of Seychelles Islands Foundation In more modern times, International Council for Bird Preservation conducted a great deal of research on Cousin Island. In the second half of the 1980s and during the 1990s, many reports and published papers for the granitics were the result of work conducted on Aride Island first by Royal Society for Nature Conservation and by the local NGO Island Conservation Society, summarized in Annual Reports from 1987 to the present. Extensive scientific research is carried out since the 1990s and much of this is published in Seychelles in the scientific journal Phelsuma.
Although many of the conservation laws date back to British colonial days, the Seychelles government has protected the natural heritage of the islands for many years. Seychelles is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites run by the Seychelles Islands Foundation, they are the atoll of Aldabra, the world's largest raised coral atoll and the Vallée de Mai on Praslin island, billed as the original site of the Garden of Eden. The Cousin Island Special Reserve, purchased by Royal Society for Nature Conservation in 1968 and managed by Nature Seychelles, is an internationally known bird and marine sanctuary which has won several awards for conservation and ecotourism. Seychelles has six national marine parks including the St. Anne National Marine Park located adjacent to the capital, Port Victoria which are managed by the government parastatal, Marine Parks Authority. Much of the land territory and a substantial part of the coastal sea around Seychelles are protected as National Parks, including Marine Parks, Reserves.
Seychelles will soon become the first country to have half its land protected. A World Bank/Environment Facility project in 1999 and a project for rat eradication has led to a programme of restoration of private islands by the government, Nature Seychelles and private island owners; these islands include Fregate and Cousine. The management of these islands now employ full-time conservation officers and fund conservation programmes; the island restoration program has now been taken to the outer islands by the Island Conservation Society, with the first Island Conservation Centre opened at Alphonse Atoll in 2007. Island Conservation Society has implemented other conservation programmes on islands including Conception, North Island, Cosmoledo Atoll and Farquhar Atoll; the granitic islands of Seychelles are home to about 75 endemic plant species, with a further 25 or so species in the Aldabra group. Well known is the coco de mer, a species of palm that grows only on the islands of Praslin and neighbouring Curieuse.
Sometimes nicknamed the'love nut' because of its suggestive shape, the coco de mer is the world's largest seed. The jellyfish tree is to be found in only a few locations today; this strange and ancient plant has resisted all efforts to propagate it. Other unique plant species include the Rothmannia annae found only on Arid
Submarine communications cable
A submarine communications cable is a cable laid on the sea bed between land-based stations to carry telecommunication signals across stretches of ocean and sea. The first submarine communications cables laid beginning in the 1850s carried telegraphy traffic, establishing the first instant telecommunications links between continents, such as the first transatlantic telegraph cable which became operational on 16 August 1858. Subsequent generations of cables carried telephone traffic data communications traffic. Modern cables use optical fiber technology to carry digital data, which includes telephone and private data traffic. Modern cables are about 1 inch in diameter and weigh around 2.5 tons per mile for the deep-sea sections which comprise the majority of the run, although larger and heavier cables are used for shallow-water sections near shore. Submarine cables first connected all the world's continents when Java was connected to Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia in 1871 in anticipation of the completion of the Australian Overland Telegraph Line in 1872 connecting to Adelaide, South Australia and thence to the rest of Australia.
After William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone had introduced their working telegraph in 1839, the idea of a submarine line across the Atlantic Ocean began to be thought of as a possible triumph of the future. Samuel Morse proclaimed his faith in it as early as 1840, in 1842, he submerged a wire, insulated with tarred hemp and India rubber, in the water of New York Harbor, telegraphed through it; the following autumn, Wheatstone performed a similar experiment in Swansea Bay. A good insulator to cover the wire and prevent the electric current from leaking into the water was necessary for the success of a long submarine line. India rubber had been tried by Moritz von Jacobi, the Prussian electrical engineer, as far back as the early 19th century. Another insulating gum which could be melted by heat and applied to wire made its appearance in 1842. Gutta-percha, the adhesive juice of the Palaquium gutta tree, was introduced to Europe by William Montgomerie, a Scottish surgeon in the service of the British East India Company.
Twenty years earlier, Montgomerie had seen whips made of gutta-percha in Singapore, he believed that it would be useful in the fabrication of surgical apparatus. Michael Faraday and Wheatstone soon discovered the merits of gutta-percha as an insulator, in 1845, the latter suggested that it should be employed to cover the wire, proposed to be laid from Dover to Calais, it was tried on a wire laid across the Rhine between Cologne. In 1849, C. V. Walker, electrician to the South Eastern Railway, submerged a two-mile wire coated with gutta-percha off the coast from Folkestone, tested successfully. Having earlier obtained a concession from the French government, in August 1850 John Watkins Brett's English Channel Submarine Telegraph Company laid the first line across the English Channel, using the converted tug Goliath, it was a copper wire coated with gutta-percha, without any other protection, was not successful. The experiment served to secure renewal of the concession, in September 1851, a protected core, or true, cable was laid by the reconstituted Submarine Telegraph Company from a government hulk, the Blazer, towed across the Channel.
In 1853 further successful cables were laid, linking Great Britain with Ireland and the Netherlands, crossing The Belts in Denmark. The British & Irish Magnetic Telegraph Company completed the first successful Irish link on May 23 between Portpatrick and Donaghadee using the collier William Hutt; the same ship was used for the link from Dover to Ostend in Belgium, by the Submarine Telegraph Company. Meanwhile, the Electric & International Telegraph Company completed two cables across the North Sea, from Orford Ness to Scheveningen, The Netherlands; these cables were laid by the Monarch, a paddle steamer which became the first vessel with permanent cable-laying equipment. In 1858 the steamship Elba was used to lay a telegraph cable from Jersey to Guernsey, on to Alderney and to Weymouth, the cable being completed in September of that year. Problems soon developed with eleven breaks occurring by 1860 due to storms and sand movements and wear on rocks. A report to the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1860 set out the problems to assist in future cable laying operations.
The first attempt at laying a transatlantic telegraph cable was promoted by Cyrus West Field, who persuaded British industrialists to fund and lay one in 1858. However, the technology of the day was not capable of supporting the project. Subsequent attempts in 1865 and 1866 with the world's largest steamship, the SS Great Eastern, used a more advanced technology and produced the first successful transatlantic cable. Great Eastern went on to lay the first cable reaching to India from Aden, Yemen, in 1870. From the 1850s until 1911, British submarine cable systems dominated the most important market, the North Atlantic Ocean; the British had demand side advantages. In terms of supply, Britain had entrepreneurs willing to put forth enormous amounts of capital necessary to build and maintain these cables. In terms of demand, Britain's vast colonial empire led to business for the cable companies from news agencies and shipping companies, the British government. Many of Britain's colonies had significant populations of European settlers, making news about them of interest to the general public in the home country.
British officials believed that depending on telegraph lines that passed through non-British territory posed a security
Tanzania the United Republic of Tanzania, is a country in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region. It borders Uganda to the north. Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain, is in north-eastern Tanzania; the first humans known lived in Pliocene Tanzania 6 million years ago. The genus Australopithecus ranged all over Africa 4-2 million years ago. Following the rise of Homo erectus 1.8 million years ago, mankind spread all over the Old World, in the New World and Australia under the species Homo sapiens. Homo sapiens overtook Africa and absorbed the older archaic species and subspecies of humanity. One of the oldest known ethnic groups still existing, the Hadzabe, appears to have originated in Tanzania, their oral history recalls ancestors who were tall and were the first to use fire and lived in caves, much like Homo erectus or Homo heidelbergensis who lived in the same region before them. In the Stone and Bronze Age, prehistoric migrations into Tanzania included Southern Cushitic speakers who moved south from present-day Ethiopia.
These movements took place at about the same time as the settlement of the Mashariki Bantu from West Africa in the Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika areas. They subsequently migrated across the rest of Tanzania between 1,700 years ago. European colonialism began in mainland Tanzania during the late 19th century when Germany formed German East Africa, which gave way to British rule following World War I; the mainland was governed as Tanganyika, with the Zanzibar Archipelago remaining a separate colonial jurisdiction. Following their respective independence in 1961 and 1963, the two entities merged in April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanzania; the United Nations estimated Tanzania's 2016 population at 55.57 million. The population is composed of several ethnic and religious groups; the sovereign state of Tanzania is a presidential constitutional republic and since 1996 its official capital city has been Dodoma where the president's office, the National Assembly, some government ministries are located.
Dar es Salaam, the former capital, retains most government offices and is the country's largest city, principal port, leading commercial centre. Tanzania is a de facto one-party state with the democratic socialist Chama Cha Mapinduzi party in power. Tanzania is densely forested in the north-east, where Mount Kilimanjaro is located. Three of Africa's Great Lakes are within Tanzania. To the north and west lie Lake Victoria, Africa's largest lake, Lake Tanganyika, the continent's deepest lake, known for its unique species of fish. To the south lies Lake Malawi; the eastern shore is humid, with the Zanzibar Archipelago just offshore. The Menai Bay Conservation Area is Zanzibar's largest marine protected area; the Kalambo Falls, located on the Kalambo River at the Zambian border, is the second highest uninterrupted waterfall in Africa. Over 100 different languages are spoken in Tanzania, making it the most linguistically diverse country in East Africa; the country does not have a de jure official language.
Swahili is used in parliamentary debate, in the lower courts, as a medium of instruction in primary school. English is used in foreign trade, in diplomacy, in higher courts, as a medium of instruction in secondary and higher education, although the Tanzanian government is planning to discontinue English as a language of instruction altogether. 10 percent of Tanzanians speak Swahili as a first language, up to 90 percent speak it as a second language. The name "Tanzania" was created as a clipped compound of the names of the two states that unified to create the country: Tanganyika and Zanzibar, it comprises the first three letters of the two states, "Tan" and "Zan" as well as the only two vowels in the names of two states, "I" and "a" to form Tanzania. The name "Tanganyika" is derived from the Swahili words tanga and nyika, creating the phrase "sail in the wilderness", it is sometimes understood as a reference to Lake Tanganyika. The name of Zanzibar comes from "zenji", the name for a local people, the Arabic word "barr", which means coast or shore.
The indigenous populations of eastern Africa are thought to be the linguistically isolated Hadza and Sandawe hunter-gatherers of Tanzania. The first wave of migration was by Southern Cushitic speakers who moved south from Ethiopia and Somalia into Tanzania, they are ancestral to the Iraqw and Burunge. Based on linguistic evidence, there may have been two movements into Tanzania of Eastern Cushitic people at about 4,000 and 2,000 years ago, originating from north of Lake Turkana. Archaeological evidence supports the conclusion that Southern Nilotes, including the Datoog, moved south from the present-day South Sudan / Ethiopia border region into central northern Tanzania between 2,900 and 2,400 years ago; these movements took place at the same time as the settlement of the iron-making Mashariki Bantu from West Africa in the Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika areas. They brought with them the west African planting tradition and the p