All People's Congress
The All People's Congress is one of the two major political parties in Sierra Leone, the other being the Sierra Leone People's Party. The APC is the main opposition party in Sierra Leone since April 4, 2018 when Julius Maada Bio of the SLPP won the 2018 presidential elections, though it maintains a majority in parliament; the APC party was founded in 1960 by a breakaway group from the Sierra Leone People's Party that vehemently opposed elections before independence and instead supported independence before elections. The APC governed the country from 1968 to 1992 and became the ruling party again in 2007 after the party presidential candidate Ernest Bai Koroma won the 2007 presidential election, he contested and won the 2012 elections also; the APC lost power, with its flagbearer Dr. Samura Mathew Wilson Kamara on 4 April 2018 to Julius Maada Bio Following a manipulated plebiscite in 1978, the APC became the sole legal party in the country, a status it retained until 1991. Presidents Siaka Stevens and Joseph Saidu Momoh were members of the APC.
Momoh was overthrown in a military coup in 1992, during the civil war that followed, the party was weakened. In the parliamentary election held on 14 May 2002, the party won 19.8% of the popular vote and 22 out of 112 seats. Its candidate in the presidential elections, Ernest Bai Koroma, won 22.3% of the vote. For several years Koroma's leadership was challenged by some in the party, who took the issue to court, he was the party's candidate for president in the election, with the first round held in August 2007. In the first round he took first place with 44.3% of the vote, ahead of Solomon Berewa of the ruling Sierra Leone People's Party with 38.3%, but Koroma did not receive enough votes to win outright, a second round was necessary. In the parliamentary election, held concurrently with the presidential first round, the APC won 59 out of 112 seats and became the largest party in Parliament. Koroma was victorious in the second round of the 2007 presidential election, held on September 8, winning 54.6% of the vote against 45.4% for Berewa.
He was sworn in as President on September 17. APC has traditionally been based among the Limba people in the north. Official site
Microwave transmission is the transmission of information by microwave radio waves. Although an experimental 40-mile microwave telecommunication link across the English Channel was demonstrated in 1931, the development of radar in World War II provided the technology for practical exploitation of microwave communication. In the 1950s, large transcontinental microwave relay networks, consisting of chains of repeater stations linked by line-of-sight beams of microwaves were built in Europe and America to relay long distance telephone traffic and television programs between cities. Communication satellites which transferred data between ground stations by microwaves took over much long distance traffic in the 1960s. In recent years, there has been an explosive increase in use of the microwave spectrum by new telecommunication technologies such as wireless networks, direct-broadcast satellites which broadcast television and radio directly into consumers' homes. Microwaves are used for point-to-point communications because their small wavelength allows conveniently-sized antennas to direct them in narrow beams, which can be pointed directly at the receiving antenna.
This allows nearby microwave equipment to use the same frequencies without interfering with each other, as lower frequency radio waves do. Another advantage is that the high frequency of microwaves gives the microwave band a large information-carrying capacity. A disadvantage is. Microwave radio transmission is used in point-to-point communication systems on the surface of the Earth, in satellite communications, in deep space radio communications. Other parts of the microwave radio band are used for radars, radio navigation systems, sensor systems, radio astronomy; the next higher part of the radio electromagnetic spectrum, where the frequencies are above 30 GHz and below 100 GHz, are called "millimeter waves" because their wavelengths are conveniently measured in millimeters, their wavelengths range from 10 mm down to 3.0 mm. Radio waves in this band are strongly attenuated by the Earthly atmosphere and particles contained in it during wet weather. In a wide band of frequencies around 60 GHz, the radio waves are attenuated by molecular oxygen in the atmosphere.
The electronic technologies needed in the millimeter wave band are much more difficult to utilize than those of the microwave band. Wireless transmission of informationOne-way and two-way telecommunication using communications satellite Terrestrial microwave relay links in telecommunications networks including backbone or backhaul carriers in cellular networksWireless transmission of powerProposed systems e.g. for connecting solar power collecting satellites to terrestrial power grids Microwave radio relay is a technology used in the 1950s and 1960s for transmitting signals, such as long-distance telephone calls and television programs between two terrestrial points on a narrow beam of microwaves. In microwave radio relay, microwaves are transmitted on a line of sight path between relay stations using directional antennas, forming a fixed radio connection between the two points; the requirement of a line of sight limits the separation between stations to the visual horizon, about 30 to 50 miles.
Before the widespread use of communications satellites, chains of microwave relay stations were used to transmit telecommunication signals over transcontinental distances. Beginning in the 1950s, networks of microwave relay links, such as the AT&T Long Lines system in the U. S. carried long distance telephone calls and television programs between cities. The first system, dubbed TD-2 and built by AT&T, connected New York and Boston in 1947 with a series of eight radio relay stations; these included long daisy-chained series of such links that traversed mountain ranges and spanned continents. Much of the transcontinental traffic is now carried by cheaper optical fibers and communication satellites, but microwave relay remains important for shorter distances; because the radio waves travel in narrow beams confined to a line-of-sight path from one antenna to the other, they don't interfere with other microwave equipment, so nearby microwave links can use the same frequencies. Antennas must be directional.
Typical types of antenna used in radio relay link installations are parabolic antennas, dielectric lens, horn-reflector antennas, which have a diameter of up to 4 meters. Directive antennas permit an economical use of the available frequency spectrum, despite long transmission distances; because of the high frequencies used, a line-of-sight path between the stations is required. Additionally, in order to avoid attenuation of the beam, an area around the beam called the first Fresnel zone must be free from obstacles. Obstacles in the signal field cause unwanted attenuation. High mountain peak or ridge positions are ideal. Obstacles, the curvature of the Earth, the geography of the area and reception issues arising from the use of nearby land are important issues to consider when planning radio links. In the planning process, it is essential that "path profiles" are produced, which provide information about the terrain and Fresnel zones affecting the transmission path; the presence of a water surface, such as a lake or river, along the path must be ta
Television in South Africa
Television in South Africa was introduced in 1976. South Africa was late in introducing television broadcasting to its population. Though the state-controlled South African Broadcasting Corporation had a virtual monopoly on radio broadcasting, it saw the new medium as a threat to Afrikaans and the Afrikaner volk, giving undue prominence to English, creating unfair competition for the Afrikaans press. Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd compared television with atomic bombs and poison gas, claiming that "they are modern things, but that does not mean they are desirable; the government has to watch for any dangers to the people, both spiritual and physical." Dr. Albert Hertzog, Minister for Posts and Telegraphs at the time, said that TV would come to South Africa "over dead body," denouncing it as "only a miniature bioscope, being carried into the house and over which parents have no control." He argued that "South Africa would have to import films showing race mixing. The new medium was regarded as the "devil's own box, for disseminating communism and immorality".
However, many white South Africans, including some Afrikaners, did not share Hertzog's hostility towards what he called "the little black box". When Neil Armstrong became the first man to set foot on the Moon in 1969, South Africa was one of the few countries unable to watch the event live, prompting one newspaper to remark, "The moon film has proved to be the last straw… The situation is becoming a source of embarrassment for the country." In response to public demand, the government arranged limited viewings of the landing, in which people were able to watch recorded footage for 15 minutes. The opposition United Party pointed out that less economically advanced countries in Africa had introduced television. In addition, neighbouring Southern Rhodesia had introduced its own television service in 1960, the first country in Africa south of the equator to do so. Known as Rhodesian Television, its major shareholders were South African companies, including the Argus Group of newspapers, parent company of the Rhodesia Herald, Davenport and Meyer, the latter of which operated LM Radio, based in Mozambique under Portuguese rule.
In the absence of television in South Africa, a radio version of the British television series The Avengers was produced by Sonovision for SABC's commercial network, Springbok Radio, in 1972. While it only ran for eighteen months, the radio series proved popular. In 1968, the government's opposition to the introduction of television began to soften after Hertzog was removed as Minister for Posts and Telegraphs by Prime Minister John Vorster. In 1971, it appointed a "Commission of Inquiry into Matters Relating to Television", headed by Piet Meyer, chairman of the Afrikaner Broederbond, of the SABC. A majority of its members, of whom nine were Broederbond members, recommended that a television service be introduced, provided that "effective control" was exercised "to the advantage of our nation and country"; the Commission argued that people in South Africa would be able to receive foreign television broadcasts via satellite, thereby bypassing government censorship, that this should be pre-empted through the introduction of a domestic service.
In addition, it would be inconceivable that the Publications Control Board would be able to censor each video cassette that came into the country when they became available in mass quantities. In 1971, the SABC was allowed to introduce a television service; the proposal was for two television channels, one in English and Afrikaans, aimed at white audiences, another, known as TV Bantu, aimed at black viewers. However, when television was introduced, there was only one channel with airtime divided evenly between English and Afrikaans, alternating between the two languages. Test transmissions in Johannesburg began on 5 May 1975, followed in July by ones in Cape Town and Durban. Nationwide services commenced on 5 January 1976. In common with most of Western Europe, South Africa used the PAL system for colour television, being only the second terrestrial television service in sub-Saharan Africa to launch with a colour-only service, Zanzibar in Tanzania having introduced the first such service in 1973.
The Government, advised by SABC technicians, took the view that colour television would have to be available so as to avoid a costly migration from black-and-white broadcasting technology. The TV service was funded through a licence fee as in the UK, charged at R36. However, advertising began on 1 January 1978. On 1 January 1982, two services were introduced, TV2 broadcasting in Zulu and Xhosa and TV3 broadcasting in Sotho and Tswana, aimed at a black urban audience. In 1985, a new service called TV4 was introduced, carrying sports and entertainment programming, using the channel shared by TV2 and TV3, which ended transmissions at 9:30 pm. In 1992, TV2, TV3 and TV4 were combined into a new service called CCV. A third channel was introduced known as TSS, or Topsport Surplus, Topsport being the brand name for the SABC's sport coverage, but this was replaced by NNTV, an educational, non-commercial channel, in 1994; the main channel, now called TV1, was divided evenly between Afrikaans, as before.
It became available in Walvis Bay, an enclave of South Africa in Namibia, itself under South African administration, with a live feed of the channel broadcast via Intelsat being retransmitted on a local low-power repeater
ACE (cable system)
The ACE submarine communications cable is a cable system along the west coast of Africa between France and South Africa managed by a consortium of 19 operators & administrations headed by Orange. The consortium agreement was signed on June 5, 2010; the cable was manufactured by Alcatel Submarine Networks and was laid by ships from ASN and France Telecom Marine. The first phase of the 17,000 km-long fiber optic cable was put in service on December 15, 2012, with an official inauguration ceremony held on December 19, 2012 in Banjul, The Gambia; however it was constructed only till the island of Sao Principle. The 5000 kilometers section northwards till South Africa has been taken up and is under construction with completion timeline of Q4 2019. MTN will be the landing party in South Africa and is expected to construct a new submarine cable landing station; the ACE Cable will connect 23 countries, either directly for coastal countries or through land links for landlocked countries, like Mali and Niger.
ACE is the first international submarine cable to land in Equatorial Guinea, The Gambia, Liberia, Sao Tome and Principe and Sierra Leone. The current members of the consortium are: Benin ACE GIE Cable Consortium of Liberia Canalink Africa SL Orange Côte d’Ivoire Dolphin Telecom JLT Gambia Submarine Cable La Guinéenne de Large Bande International Mauritania Telecom MEO MTN Orange Orange Cameroun Orange Mali Orange Niger Republic of Equatorial Guinea ACE Gabon République of Cameroun Sierra Leone Cable Company Sonatel STP CaboAgreements are in place for the entry of other operators or administrations along the cable route; the ACE system uses wavelength division multiplexing technology, the most advanced for submarine cables. With WDM, cable capacity can be increased without additional submarine work. With an overall potential capacity of 5.12 Tbit/s, the system will support the 40 Gbit/s technology from its launch. The cable landing points are planned to be in the following countries and territories: Penmarc'h, France Carcavelos, Portugal Casablanca, Morocco Tenerife, Canary Islands Nouakchott, Mauritania Dakar, Senegal Banjul, the Gambia Conakry, Guinea Freetown, Sierra Leone Monrovia, Liberia Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire Accra, Ghana Cotonou, Benin Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria São Tomé, São Tomé and Príncipe Kribi, Cameroon Bata, Equatorial Guinea Libreville, Gabon Muanda, Democratic Republic of Congo Luanda, Angola Swakopmund, Namibia Yzerfontein, South AfricaBesides the above landing points, connectivity is extended to landlocked countries Mali and Niger via land links.
List of international submarine communications cables Individual cable systems off the west coast of Africa include: ATLANTIS-2 GLO-1 Main One SAT-2 SAT-3/WASC WACS "Africa Coast to Europe Submarine Cable Consortium signs landmark Agreement in Paris". Retrieved 2010-06-08. "ACE submarine cable welcomes new members". Retrieved 2009-12-01. "ACE submarine cable extended to South Africa". Retrieved 2009-06-16
Self-censorship is the act of censoring or classifying one's own discourse. This is done out of fear of, or deference to, the sensibilities or preferences of others and without overt pressure from any specific party or institution of authority. Self-censorship is practiced by film producers, film directors, news anchors, journalists and other kinds of authors including individuals who use social media. In authoritarian countries, creators of artworks may remove material that their government might find controversial for fear of sanction by their governments. In pluralistic capitalist countries, repressive judicial lawmaking can cause widespread "rivercrabbing" of Western media. Self-censorship can occur in order to conform to the expectations of the market. For example, the editor of a periodical may consciously or unconsciously avoid topics that will anger advertisers, customers, or the owners in order to protect her or his livelihood either directly or indirectly; this phenomenon is referred to as soft censorship.
Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights guarantees freedom of speech from all forms of censorship. Article 19 explicitly states that "everyone has the right to freedom of expression. People communicate to affirm one's identity and sense of belonging. People may express their opinions or withhold their opinions due to the fear of exclusion or unpopularity. Shared social norms and beliefs create a sense of belonging, but they can create a suppression of expression in order to comply or belong. People may adjust their opinions to go along with the majority attitude. There are different factors that contribute to self-censorship such as gender, education, political interests and media exposure. For some, the reason for their change in beliefs and opinions are rooted in fear of isolation and exclusion; the risk of negative reactions is greater than expressing one's true beliefs. Journalists censor themselves due to threats against them or their interests from another party, editorial instructions from their supervisor, perceived conflicts of interest with a media organization's economic sponsors, advertisers or shareholders, etc.).
Self-censorship occurs when journalists deliberately manipulate their expression out of fear of, or deference to, the sensibilities or preferences of others and without overt pressure from any specific party or institution of authority. Self-censorship of journalists is most pervasive in societies where governments have official media censorship policies and where journalists will be jailed, fined, or lose their job if they do not follow the censorship rules. Organizations such as have raised concerns about news broadcasting stations Fox News, censoring their own content to be less controversial when reporting on certain types of issues such as the War on Terror. In their book Manufacturing Consent, Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman argue that corporate ownership of news media strongly encourages systematic self-censorship owing to market forces. In this argument with liberal media and self-censorship is evident in the selection and omission of news stories, the framing of acceptable discussion, in line with the interests of the corporations owning those media.
The journalists have sought censorship advice from military authorities in order to prevent the inadvertent revelation of military secrets. In 2009, The New York Times succeeded in suppressing news of a reporter's abduction by militants in Afghanistan for seven months until his escape from captivity in order to'reduce danger to the reporter and other hostages'. Journalists have sometimes self-censored publications of news stories out of concern for the safety of people involved. Jean Pelletier, the Washington D. C. correspondent for the Montreal La Presse newspaper, uncovered a covert attempt by the Canadian government to smuggle US diplomats out of Iran during the Iranian Hostage Crisis before the "Canadian Caper" had reached its conclusion. In order to preserve the safety of those involved, he refused to allow the paper to publish the story until the hostages had left Iran, despite the considerable news value to the paper and writer. Self-censorship became a quite frequent practice in Russia after 2000's government take-overs and consolidation of media, further deepened after 2014-2015 laws on'undesirable organisations'.
As for Europe, threats to media freedom have shown a significant increase in recent years. Journalists and whistleblowers have experienced threats. Self-censorship is one of the major consequences of such circumstances. A study published in 2017 by the Council of Europe found that in the period 2014-2016 that 40% of journalists involved in the survey experienced some kind of unwarranted interference, in particular psychological violence, including slandering and smear campaigning, cyberbulling. Other forms of unwarranted interference include intimidation by interest groups, threats with force, intimidation by political groups, targeted surveillance, intimidation by the police, etc. In terms of geography, cases of physical assault were more common in the South Caucasus, followed by Turkey, but were present in other regions as well. In China, the media has to go to greater extents to censor mu
In radio communications, a radio receiver known as a receiver, wireless or radio is an electronic device that receives radio waves and converts the information carried by them to a usable form. It is used with an antenna; the antenna intercepts radio waves and converts them to tiny alternating currents which are applied to the receiver, the receiver extracts the desired information. The receiver uses electronic filters to separate the desired radio frequency signal from all the other signals picked up by the antenna, an electronic amplifier to increase the power of the signal for further processing, recovers the desired information through demodulation; the information produced by the receiver may be in the form of sound, moving data. A radio receiver may be a separate piece of electronic equipment, or an electronic circuit within another device. Radio receivers are widely used in modern technology, as components of communications, remote control, wireless networking systems. In consumer electronics, the terms radio and radio receiver are used for receivers designed to reproduce sound transmitted by radio broadcasting stations the first mass-market commercial radio application.
The most familiar form of radio receiver is a broadcast receiver just called a radio, which receives audio programs intended for public reception transmitted by local radio stations. The sound is reproduced either by a loudspeaker in the radio or an earphone which plugs into a jack on the radio; the radio requires electric power, provided either by batteries inside the radio or a power cord which plugs into an electric outlet. All radios have a volume control to adjust the loudness of the audio, some type of "tuning" control to select the radio station to be received. Modulation is the process of adding information to a radio carrier wave. Two types of modulation are used in analog radio broadcasting systems. In amplitude modulation the strength of the radio signal is varied by the audio signal. AM broadcasting is allowed in the AM broadcast bands which are between 148 and 283 kHz in the longwave range, between 526 and 1706 kHz in the medium frequency range of the radio spectrum. AM broadcasting is permitted in shortwave bands, between about 2.3 and 26 MHz, which are used for long distance international broadcasting.
In frequency modulation the frequency of the radio signal is varied by the audio signal. FM broadcasting is permitted in the FM broadcast bands between about 65 and 108 MHz in the high frequency range; the exact frequency ranges vary somewhat in different countries. FM stereo radio stations broadcast in stereophonic sound, transmitting two sound channels representing left and right microphones. A stereo receiver contains the additional circuits and parallel signal paths to reproduce the two separate channels. A monaural receiver, in contrast, only receives a single audio channel, a combination of the left and right channels. While AM stereo transmitters and receivers exist, they have not achieved the popularity of FM stereo. Most modern radios are "AM/FM" radios, are able to receive both AM and FM radio stations, have a switch to select which band to receive. Digital audio broadcasting is an advanced radio technology which debuted in some countries in 1998 that transmits audio from terrestrial radio stations as a digital signal rather than an analog signal as AM and FM do.
Its advantages are that DAB has the potential to provide higher quality sound than FM, has greater immunity to radio noise and interference, makes better use of scarce radio spectrum bandwidth, provides advanced user features such as electronic program guide, sports commentaries, image slideshows. Its disadvantage is that it is incompatible with previous radios so that a new DAB receiver must be purchased; as of 2017, 38 countries offer DAB, with 2,100 stations serving listening areas containing 420 million people. Most countries plan an eventual switchover from FM to DAB; the United States and Canada have chosen not to implement DAB. DAB radio stations work differently from AM or FM stations: a single DAB station transmits a wide 1,500 kHz bandwidth signal that carries from 9 to 12 channels from which the listener can choose. Broadcasters can transmit a channel at a range of different bit rates, so different channels can have different audio quality. In different countries DAB stations broadcast in either Band L band.
The signal strength of radio waves decreases the farther they travel from the transmitter, so a radio station can only be received within a limited range of its transmitter. The range depends on the power of the transmitter, the sensitivity of the receiver and internal noise, as well as any geographical obstructions such as hills between transmitter and receiver. AM broadcast band radio waves travel as ground waves which follow the contour of the Earth, so AM radio stations can be reliably received at hundreds of miles distance. Due to their higher frequency, FM band radio signals cannot travel far beyond the visual horizon; however FM radio has higher fidelity. So in many countries serious music is only broadcast by FM stations, AM stations specialize in radio news, talk radio, sports. Like FM, DAB signals travel by line of sight so reception distances are
Freedom of the press
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely. Such freedom implies the absence of interference from an overreaching state. With respect to governmental information, any government may distinguish which materials are public or protected from disclosure to the public. State materials are protected due to either of two reasons: the classification of information as sensitive, classified or secret, or the relevance of the information to protecting the national interest. Many governments are subject to sunshine laws or freedom of information legislation that are used to define the ambit of national interest; the United Nations' 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression. This philosophy is accompanied by legislation ensuring various degrees of freedom of scientific research and press.
The depth to which these laws are entrenched in a country's legal system can go as far down as its constitution. The concept of freedom of speech is covered by the same laws as freedom of the press, thereby giving equal treatment to spoken and published expression. Sweden was the first country in the world to adopt freedom of the press into its constitution with the Freedom of the Press Act of 1766. Freedom of the press is construed as an absence of interference by outside entities, such as a government or religious organization, rather than as a right for authors to have their works published by other people; this idea was famously summarized by the 20th century American journalist, A. J. Liebling, who wrote, "Freedom of the press is guaranteed only to those who own one". Freedom of the press gives the printer or publisher exclusive control over what the publisher chooses to publish, including the right to refuse to print anything for any reason. If the author cannot reach a voluntary agreement with a publisher to produce the author's work the author must turn to self-publishing.
Beyond legal definitions, several non-governmental organizations use other criteria to judge the level of press freedom around the world. Some create subjective lists, while others are based on quantitative data: Reporters Without Borders considers the number of journalists murdered, expelled or harassed, the existence of a state monopoly on TV and radio, as well as the existence of censorship and self-censorship in the media, the overall independence of media as well as the difficulties that foreign reporters may face to rank countries in levels of press freedom; the Committee to Protect Journalists systematically tracks the number of journalists killed and imprisoned in reprisal for their work. It says it uses the tools of journalism to help journalists by tracking press freedom issues through independent research, fact-finding missions, a network of foreign correspondents, including local working journalists in countries around the world. CPJ shares information on breaking cases with other press freedom organizations worldwide through the International Freedom of Expression Exchange, a global network of more than 119 free expression organizations.
CPJ tracks impunity in cases of journalist murders. CPJ staff applies strict criteria for each case. Freedom House studies the more general political and economic environments of each nation in order to determine whether relationships of dependence exist that limit in practice the level of press freedom that might exist in theory. Panels of experts assess the press freedom score and draft each country summary according to a weighted scoring system that analyzes the political, economic and safety situation for journalists based on a 100-point scale, it categorizes countries as having a free, party free, or not free press. Every year, the Committee to Protect Journalists releases its comprehensive list of all journalists killed in relation to their work, including profiles of each journalist and a database, an annual census of journalists in jail as of midnight on December 1. 2017 was a record year for journalists jailed with 262 journalists behind bars. Turkey and Egypt accounted for more than half of all journalists jailed globally.
Every year, Reporters Without Borders establish a subjective ranking of countries in terms of their freedom of the press. Press Freedom Index list is based on responses to surveys sent to journalists that are members of partner organizations of the RWB, as well as related specialists such as researchers and human rights activists; the survey asks questions about direct attacks on journalists and the media as well as other indirect sources of pressure against the free press, such as non-governmental groups. In 2016, the countries where press was the most free were Finland, Norway and New Zealand, followed by Costa Rica, Sweden and Jamaica; the country with the least degree of press freedom was Eritrea, followed by North Korea, Syria, China and Sudan. The problem with media in India, the world's largest democracy, is enormous. India doesn't have a model for a democratic press; the Canadian Journalists for Free Expression has published a report on India stating that Indian journalists are forced—or feel compelled for the sake of job security—to report in ways th