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Telecommunications in Sweden

This article covers telecommunications in Sweden. Sweden liberalized its telecommunications industry starting in 1980s and being formally liberalized in 1993; this was three years ahead of USA and five years before the European common policy introduced in January 1998 allowed for an open and competitive telecommunication market. The Swedes, most of who are computer literate, enjoy a continuous growth in the Internet market and the availability of technologies such as Metro Ethernet, satellite, WAN access technologies and the availability of 3G services. Statistically, 6.447 million telephone main lines are in use, 8.0436 million mobile cellular telephones are in use and 6.7 million Swedes are regular internet users. This abundance of telecommunication technology is a result of promoting a competitive industry, made possible by deregulation. Since Sweden was the first to take on this arduous task the government had to come up with “a regulatory framework of its own”; the processes that went about resulting in the liberalization of the telecommunications’ industry can be structured into three phases: “Phase 1 of monopoly to Phase 2 with a mix of monopoly and competition to a “mature” Phase 3 with extensive competition”.

Phase 1Started in 1980 with a parliamentary decision to open the market for terminals attached to the public network. Televerket, a dominant telephone company in Sweden had sole right to attach equipment to the public network. Televerket creates a subsidiary called the Swedish Telecom International in 1989 to compete for international customers. Telia asks the government to become a limited liability company in 1990 and the government transforms Televerket into a public company by selling some shares. In fact, in 1987 the Director General of Televerket in his speech stated that he wanted the liberalization process to be completed; this initiative brings about the Telecommunication act effective on 1 July 1993, the first significant liberalization effect. The most important reason behind it was, “paradoxically, the efficiency of the national operator”; the operator being Televerket. “In 1993 the new company Telia AB was formed and a new Telecommunications Act was launched”. At this point the government has an indirect control over the company, wants to promote market competition, does not want to hinder the support “for Televerket’s growth strategies”.

Televerket moves from just being a national operator to being the national regulation body till 1992. Having a monopoly control by the blessing of the state. Phase 2 The emphasis is on the local loop known as the “last mile”; the aim is to introduce competition but maintain some monopoly to deter entry into the market. Telia AB was not required to undergo a horizontal split. “It was and is the largest provider of both cable TV and mobile telecommunication”. Several instances prevail to break up the company but that state does not approve, it continued to keep the company as a parastatal, the incumbent continued to maintain a monopoly in the market. The main area of concern during Phase 2 is the issue of interconnection. Before the Telecommunications Act of 1993, the parastatal, could dictate its own terms, but after 1993, Telia was told to negotiate with companies seeking interconnection. Phase 3During the period of 1993-2000 there is rise in competition with legislation of the regulatory body being changed several times.

In the case of the POTS, Telia in 2000 still held monopoly in the fixed-line access market. Whereas, mobile phone and Internet penetration in the household market ended up being one of the highest in the world with more than 50 percent of the revenue coming from these two industries. There were three major organizations providing 120 internet service providers. One of the major causes that lead competitions thrive in areas that did not have a history of monopoly was the light handed approach taken towards the interconnection issue by the regulatory body initially. Telia held high interconnection charges, making it difficult for new entrants to enter, but what it did do was push the new entrants to enter other markets. Tele2 did just that by taking out a massive marketing campaign to attract a huge number of customers to its internet access service; this campaign was successful enough to bring back Telia to the negotiation table over the interconnection issue. This process lead to the abolition of the light handed regulatory approach towards interconnection and put more power in the hands of the regulatory body.

The intensity of regulation kept increasing around 1999 in areas other than POTS the mobile market. Main lines in use: 5.014 million mobile cellular: 10.65 million general assessment: developed telecommunications infrastructure.

Simon Cook (actor)

Simon Timothy Cook MBE is a British television actor, best known for his role as Andrew Warrington in the Five soap opera Family Affairs between 2000 and 2001. He attended Norwich School before studying English at the University of Sussex, he spent six years in business management before taking an acting course at the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School. Cook has had roles in EastEnders, Casualty, [[Cal, he has performed with the Royal Shakespeare Company. He is a Liberal Democrat politician, being a member of Bristol City Council since 1999, representing the Clifton East ward, he has served as Cabinet Member for Culture and Leisure, as Lord Mayor of Bristol and as Deputy Leader of Council. As of 8 May 2012, he was the leader of the Liberal Democrat Group and Leader of the Council. In November 2012, the position of Leader of the Council was to be replaced by a directly elected Mayor of Bristol. Which was won by Bristol 1st member George Ferguson. Cook is the director of a small company that makes audio podcasts.

Simon Cook on IMDb

Olive Percival

Olive May Graves Percival was a multi-talented writer, gardener and bibliophile in Los Angeles. Although she earned her living as an insurance clerk, she wrote for a variety of magazines, authored several books, was sought after as a lecturer on gardens, New England antiques, Japanese ceramics, children’s books, among other subjects. Percival was born in a log cabin on her family's farm near Illinois, her father died. In 1887, she moved to Los Angeles with her mother and sister, lured by the climate and the prospect of year-round gardening. Percival began work as a saleswoman in the People’s Store before joining the fire agency firm of McLellan & Golsh. In 1895, she joined the Home Insurance Company as a clerk and remained there for more than thirty years. Despite her modest salary, which never exceeded $150 a month, she built a home called the Down-hyl Claim in the Arroyo Seco, a scenic area northeast of Los Angeles described as an artists’ colony. Oddly, when she built her home, she did not have it wired for electricity.

Instead, it was warmed by fires in the fireplace. Her home was the setting for garden teas, moon-viewing parties, memorable salons attended by local and visiting celebrity authors and book lovers, her diaries from 1889 to 1943 are peopled with artists, writers, society leaders, career women, others active in the intellectual life of Los Angeles during that time. One guest thought of the occasions as a mingling of “the inconvenient and the cultivated.” Percival began writing for publication in 1896 and sold her first poem and first article just before her 28th birthday. She began to contribute to the Los Angeles Times, writing articles on subjects ranging from women’s suffrage to gardening. After the Los Angeles Times bombing in 1910, she penned an article titled Would Woman's Vote Suppress Anarchy, which appeared in the October 16, 1910 issue: If we needed the full representation of the whole people in government affairs, that need is emphasized by this distressing occurrence; as for equal suffrage, I have never in my life heard one sane argument against it.

I think the only argument that men who are opposed to the measure have advanced in justification of their unfair and un-American position, is that they do not want women to lose their delicacy and charm by rough contact with matters political. This is not'sentiment' but sentimentality.... There is no intelligence about it. Women must live in the world as as men and in many instances they are as well equipped for the actualities of life as men.... If there is to be anything democratic or republican about the government of America, that independence must be based upon the liberty of all of its citizens.... When half of the people of any country are disenfranchised, that country has no freedom. We pretend to be progressive and we boast our splendid republicanism, but our republic is more despotic than any monarchy unless all who are taxed have a voice in the control of public affairs, her books include Leaf-Shadows and Rose-Drift, Being Little Songs from a Los Angeles Garden and Mexico City: An Idler’s Note-Book which featured some of her own photographs and was reviewed favorably.

In her will, she arranged for the publication of two of her manuscripts, Our Old-fashioned Flowers and Yellowing Ivy. In 2005, the Huntington Library Press published excerpts from her book-length manuscript Children’s Garden Book, as Olive Percival’s Children’s Garden Book; the Huntington Library has seven hundred of her photographs, many of which are a record of her garden. Others are of scenes in Mexico, Los Angeles, San Pedro, San Francisco, she printed them herself—purposely on blueprint paper—because the colors reminded her of Oriental porcelain. In 1949, Los Angeles nurseryman Paul Howard patented an Olive Percival Rose, it was planted at the White House. Although she achieved some success as a writer, she lamented to her diary the fact that she was not able to make a living as a writer. Percival accumulated notable book and art collections, many of which are now in three Southern California libraries: Ella Strong Denison Library, The Libraries of the Claremont Colleges, the Huntington Library, Art Collections, Botanical Gardens and the University Research Library at the University of California, Los Angeles, CA.

In "Different Images, Portraits of Remembered People," author Hildegarde Flanner writes this of Percival: "It was in 1915 in Los Angeles that I first met Miss Olive Percival. More properly, let, I had the honor to be presented, she was a prominent figure in Southern California, a well-known hostess, a collector of books and art. She was an authority on Oriental art and early American antiques, she collected both. She had a fine collection of textiles and exquisite paper dolls, her library of children's books was one of the best in America. She was a direct descendant of Gov. William Tracy of Virginia. In the midst of her scrupulously filed and arranged ten thousand good books she was a important person, intellectually and at a time in the history of Los Angeles when such possessions as hers represented conspicuous achievement and impeccable position." Percival collected old hats while making new ones. Her hat making extended for whom she made nearly two hundred little hats, she made paper dolls, inspired by a letter about antique paper dolls from Wilbur Macey Stone, an authority on children’s literature and toys.

The Denison Library now h

Yes and no

Yes and no, or word pairs with a similar word, are expressions of the affirmative and the negative in several languages including English. Some languages make a distinction between answers to affirmative versus negative questions, thus they may have triplets or quadruplets of words instead. English used a four-form system up to and including Early Middle English but Modern English has reduced this to a two-form system consisting of just'yes' and'no', it exists in many facets of communication, such as: eye blink communication, head movements, Morse Code, sign language. Some languages do not answer yesses with single words meaning'yes' or'no'. Welsh and Chinese are among the languages that employ echo answers rather than using words for'yes' and'no', though both languages do have words broadly similar to'yes' and'no'. Other languages have systems named two-form, three-form, four-form systems, depending on how many words for yes and no they employ; some languages, such as Latin, do not have yes-no word systems.

The words yes and no are not classified into any of the eight conventional parts of speech. Although sometimes classified as interjections, they do not qualify as such, they are not adverbs, they are sometimes classified as a part of speech in their own right, sentence words, word sentences, or pro-sentences, although that category contains more than yes and no and not all linguists include them in their lists of sentence words. Sentences consisting of one of these two words are classified as minor sentences; the differences among languages, the fact that in different languages the various words for yes and no have different parts of speech and different usages, that some languages lack a'yes-no' word system, makes idiomatic translation difficult. Although sometimes classified as interjections, these words do not express emotion or act as calls for attention, they are sometimes classified as a part of speech in their own right: sentence words or word sentences. This is the position of Otto Jespersen, who states that "'Yes' and'No'... are to all intents and purposes sentences just as much as the most delicately balanced sentences uttered by Demosthenes or penned by Samuel Johnson."Georg von der Gabelentz, Henry Sweet, Philipp Wegener have all written on the subject of sentence words.

Both Sweet and Wegener include yes and no in this category, with Sweet treating them separately from both imperatives and interjections, although Gabelentz does not. Watts classifies yes and no as grammatical particles, in particular response particles, he notes their relationship to the interjections oh and ah, that the interjections can precede yes and no but not follow them. Oh as an interjection expresses surprise, but in the combined forms oh yes and oh no acts as an intensifier; the forms *yes oh, *yes ah, *no oh, *no ah are grammatically ill-formed. Aijmer categorizes the yes and no as response signals or reaction signals. Ameka classifies these two words in different ways according to context; when used as back-channel items, he classifies them as interjections. The distinction between an interjection and a formula is, in Ameka's view, that the former does not have an addressee, whereas the latter does; the yes or no in response to the question is addressed at the interrogator, whereas yes or no used as a back-channel item is a feedback usage, an utterance, said to oneself.

However, Sorjonen criticizes this analysis as lacking empirical work on the other usages of these words, in addition to interjections and feedback uses. Bloomfield and Hockett classify the words, when used to answer yes-no questions, as special completive interjections, they classify sentences comprising one of these two words as minor sentences. Sweet classifies the words in several ways, they are adverbs that act as modifiers to an entire sentence. They are sentence words, when standing alone, they may, as question responses be absolute forms that correspond to what would otherwise be the not in a negated echo response. For example, a "No." in response to the question "Is he here?" is equivalent to the echo response "He is not here." Sweet observes that there is no correspondence with a simple yes in the latter situation, although the sentence-word "Certainly." Provides an absolute form of an emphatic echo response "He is here." Many other adverbs can be used as sentence words in this way. Unlike yes, no can be an adverb of degree, applying to adjectives in the comparative, an adjective when applied to nouns.

Grammarians of other languages have created further, special classifications for these types of words. Tesnière classifies the French non as phrasillons logiques. Fonagy observes that such a classification may be justified for the former two, but suggests that pragmatic holophrases is more appropriate. While Modern English has a two-form system of yes and no for affirmatives and negatives, earlier forms of English had a four-form system, comprising the words yea, yes, no. In essence, yes and no were the responses to a question posed in the negative, whereas yea and nay were the responses to positivel

Chicago Independent Radio Project

The Chicago Independent Radio Project is a non-profit organization that operates a community radio station accessible via its web site and on 107.1 FM, via a new low-powered transmitter located in the Uptown neighborhood. CHIRP is a non-profit 5013 organization funded through individual giving, special event revenues, grant support. From 2007-2010, CHIRP partnered with organizations across the country to help convince Congress and the Federal Communications Commission to remove existing barriers to the granting of low power FM radio licenses in urban areas. In 2009, CHIRP's President and Vice President, Shawn Campbell and Jenny Lizak, were invited to lead a White House meeting on the issue with President Obama's technology team; the bill CHIRP worked on to expand low power FM was the Local Community Radio Act, signed into law in early 2011. On January 17, 2010, CHIRP began as an online radio station; the first song played was "Thank You Friends" by the band Big Star. In June 2011, CHIRP Radio was named "Best Overall Radio Station" by the Chicago Reader in its annual Best of Chicago issue.

In late 2014, CHIRP received a construction permit from the FCC to build a Low-Power FM broadcast outlet on Chicago's north side. In October 2017, the organization launched its broadcast at 107.1 FM with call letters WCXP-LP. The station began its CHIRP Factory Sessions series in January, 2015; these recordings consist of live sets recorded by local and touring bands in CHIRP's non-traditional space, a former factory building. Once a Factory Session airs on CHIRP, full video of the session is posted on the station's website. Person of Interest is a first-person storytelling feature. After airing on the station, they are hosted in the podcast section of the CHIRP website. CHIRP is well known for its two annual Record Fairs, a freestanding fair each April and another fair as part of the Pitchfork Music Festival in July; the April fair draws many independent vinyl dealers from around the Midwest, while the Pitchfork fair features independent labels and distributors from around the country. CHIRP hosts The First Time, a quarterly live storytelling and music series.

Following each reading, the house band, called The First Time Three plays a song that the reader has chosen that relates in some way to the piece. The series takes place at Martyrs' on Chicago's north side. CHIRP organizes a monthly concert series featuring local Chicago artists and bands at The Whistler, a Chicago bar. In 2015, this event was named Best Ongoing Local Music Showcase by NewCity. CHIRP Radio official website Query the FCC's FM station database for WCXP-LP

San Girolamo, Volterra

San Girolamo is a Renaissance style church just outside the old walled city of Volterra, Italy. The church and attached Franciscan convent, a complex known as of San Girolamo al Velloso, were designed by Michelozzo and construction was completed by about 1445; some have questioned the attribution and suggested that it was designed another famous Florentine architect, Lorenzo Ghiberti. Among it patrons was the Duke Cosimo de' Medici from Florence; the long portico in front of the church has similarities to another Michelozzo work, the church and convent of Bosco ai Frati in San Piero a Sieve. The facade has a long asymmetric portico leading to two chapels each contains terracota reliefs by Giovanni della Robbia depicting St Francis of Assisi consigns the third order to St Louis of France and St Elizabeth of Hungary and the Last Judgement; the main altar is flanked by two paintings: an Annunciation by Benvenuto di Giovanni, a Madonna and Child with Saints by Domenico di Michelino. An interior chapel has an Immaculate Conception by Santi di Tito.

The glazed terracotta statues of St Jerome and St Francis are attributed to Giovanni Gonmelli called il Cieco di Gambassi. The adjacent convent is now hotel. Hall Information