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Telecommunications in Tanzania

Telecommunications in Tanzania include radio, television and mobile telephones, the Internet available in mainland Tanzania and the semiautonomous Zanzibar archipelago. In 2005, mainland Tanzania, but not the semiautonomous Zanzibar archipelago, modified its licensing system for electronic communications, modelling it on the approach pioneered in Malaysia in the late 1990s where traditional "vertical" licenses are replaced by "horizontal" licenses. Called the "Converged Licensing Framework", this reform was the first of its kind put into practice on the African continent, allows investors to concentrate on their area of expertise across a larger number of separate sectors; this reform should, among other things, facilitate the arrival of telephone services over cable television networks, television services over telecommunications networks, Internet services over all types of networks. Under the Converged Licensing Framework four categories of license are available: Network facility, the provision of any element or combination of physical infrastructure used principally for, or in connection with, the provision of Content services and other Application services, but not including customer premises equipment.

At the end of 2013 there were: 21 network facility operators: 8 international and national, 11 national, 2 regional. A complete list of licensed operators and contractors is available from the Tanzania Communication Regulatory Authority website. A state-owned national radio station and more than 40 owned radio stations are in operation. A state-owned TV station and multiple owned TV stations are in operation; the transmissions of several international broadcasters are available. There are government restrictions on broadcasting in tribal languages; the semiautonomous Zanzibari government controls the content of all public and private radio and television broadcasts in its islands. In the case of state television broadcast from the mainland, there was a delay in the feed, allowing Zanzibari censors to intervene. However, Zanzibari radio stations operate independently reading the content of national dailies, including articles critical of the Zanzibari government. Calling code: +255 International call prefix: 000 Main lines: 161,100 lines in use, 133rd in the world.

Mobile cellular: 27.2 million lines, 39th in the world. Telephone system: telecommunications services are marginal. Communications cables: landing point for two fiber-optic cables: SEACOM submarine and terrestrial high speed fibre-optic cable linking the countries of the east and west coasts of Africa to each other and on to Europe and India. Satellite earth stations: 2 Intelsat. Mobile phone companiesSome of the mobile phone companies operating in Tanzania are: Airtel Tanzania MIC Tanzania Limited Mobitel Smart Telecom Tanzania Telecommunications Company Limited Viettel Tanzania Limited Vodacom Tanzania Zanzibar Telecom Limited, providing service in Zanzibar, owned by Millicom, the government of Zanzibar, Meeco International of Tanzania. Top-level Internet users: 7.2 million users. Wireless broadband: 698,531 subscriptions, 81st in the world. Internet hosts: 26,074 hosts, 110th in the world. IPv4: 846,152 addresses allocated as of 27 November 2014, 0.02 percent of the world total, 17.9 addresses per 1,000 people.

Internet services have been available since 1995, but there was no international fiber connectivi

National Board of Review Awards 2003

The 75th National Board of Review Awards, honoring the best in filmmaking in 2003, were given on 3 December 2003. Mystic River The Last Samurai The Station Agent 21 Grams House of Sand and Fog Lost in Translation Cold Mountain In America Seabiscuit Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World The Barbarian Invasions The Best of Youth Monsieur Ibrahim Autumn Spring Man on the Train The Fog of War Capturing the Friedmans My Architect Winged Migration Spellbound Best Film: Mystic River Best Foreign Language Film: Les invasions barbares, Canada/France Best Actor: Sean Penn - 21 Grams and Mystic River Best Actress: Diane Keaton - Something's Gotta Give Best Supporting Actor: Alec Baldwin - The Cooler Best Supporting Actress: Patricia Clarkson - Pieces of April and The Station Agent Best Acting by an Ensemble: The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King Breakthrough Performance Actor: Paul Giamatti - American Splendor Breakthrough Performance Actress: Charlize Theron - Monster Best Director: Edward Zwick - The Last Samurai Outstanding Directorial Debut: Vadim Perelman - House of Sand and Fog Best Screenplay: Anthony Minghella - Cold Mountain Best Screenplay Jim Sheridan, Naomi Sheridan and Kirsten Sherdian - In America Best Documentary Feature: The Fog of War Best Animated Feature: Finding Nemo Best Film or Mini-Series Made for Cable TV: Angels in America Career Achievement Award: Morgan Freeman Billy Wilder Award For Excellence In Directing: Norman Jewison Special Filmmaking Achievement: Sofia Coppola, for writing and producing Lost in Translation Career Achievement - Music Composition: Hans Zimmer Career Achievement - Cinematography: John Toll William K. Everson Award For Film History: Richard LaGravenese and Ted Demme, A Decade Under the Influence Producers Award: Gale Anne Hurd Kathleen Kennedy Christine Vachon Freedom Of Expression: Capturing the Friedmans Dirty Pretty Things The Magdalene Sisters 11'9"01 September 11 Special Recognition For Excellence In Filmmaking: American Splendor Bend It Like Beckham The Cooler Dirty Pretty Things Girl with a Pearl Earring Pieces of April The Secret Lives of Dentists Shattered Glass The Statement Thirteen Whale Rider National Board of Review of Motion Pictures:: Awards for 2003


Peikkarumbankottai is a village in the Orathanadu taluk of Thanjavur district, Tamil Nadu, India. Peikkarambankottai is a small village located in Orathanadu of Thanjavur district, Tamil Nadu with total 600 families residing; the Peikkarambankottai village has population of 1600 of which 768 are males while 832 are females as per Population Census 2011. In Peikkarambankottai village population of children with age 0-6 is 154 which makes up 9.63% of total population of village. Average Sex Ratio of Peikkarambankottai village is 1083, higher than Tamil Nadu state average of 996. Child Sex Ratio for the Peikkarambankottai as per census is 1000, higher than Tamil Nadu average of 943. Peikkarambankottai village has lower literacy rate compared to Tamil Nadu. In 2011, literacy rate of Peikkarambankottai village was 77.32% compared to 80.09% of Tamil Nadu. In Peikkarambankottai Male literacy stands at 87.84% while female literacy rate was 67.68%. As per constitution of India and Panchyati Raaj Act, Peikkarambankottai village is administrated by Sarpanch, elected representative of village.

As per the 2001 census, Peikkarambankottai had a total population of 1491 with 692 males and 799 females. The sex ratio was 1155; the literacy rate was 61.96. Just 30 km from Thanjavur, Pattukkottai 15 km, Orathanadu 7 km. Peikkarumbankottai is well connected by roads and railways with other parts of India and with cities and towns in Tamil Nadu; the nearest airport is Tiruchirapalli International Airport, located at a distance of 80 kilometres. The nearest seaport is Nagapattinam, 84 kilometres from Thanjavur. Peikkarumbankottai Thamizhannai Volleyball club continually 19 year conduct state level volleyball Tournament in Thanjavur district. NO.1 Volleyball Team in the Thanjavur district Thamizhannai boys. Every Year May Month Contact State level Volleyball match in Peikkarumbankottai By Thamizhannai Volleyball Club Peikkarumbankottai Ayyanar Kovil Vinayagar kovil Pattavar Kovil Kamaan Kovil Kudikadu Mariamman Kovil Samantha Moorthy Kovil Orathanadu - 7 km southeast Pattukkottai - 18 km southeast Thanjavur - 28 km west Tiruchirappalli - 80 km west Kumbakonam - 70 km North east Thiruvaiyaru - 43 km northwest Tiruvarur - 40 km east Nagappattinam - 84 km east Mannargudi- 25 km east Perambalur - 70 km northwest Vailankanni - 96 km east Vedaranyam - 100 km southeast Pudukkottai - 55 km south Muthupetti - 25 km east The major occupation of the inhabitants of the town is tourism and service-oriented industry, while the traditional occupation is agriculture.

Thanjavur is known as the "Rice bowl of Tamil Nadu". Paddy is the crops and the other crops grown are Blackgram, Coconut, Ragi, Red gram, Green gram and Maize; the total percentage of land fit for cultivation is 58%. There are three seasons for agriculture in Thanjavur - Kuruvai and Thaladi; the total rice production has been maintained at 10.615 L. M. T and 7.077 L. M. T; the town acts as a focal point for food grains transported from the adjoining areas of the Cauvery Delta. Organic farming is being known to the farmers of Thanjavur. In order to maximize agricultural produce organic farming is being implemented. Thanjavur city is an important centre of silk manufacture of musical instruments. There were 200 silk-weaving units in the city in 1991 with around 80,000 people working in them; the sarees produced in the villages surrounding Thanjavur are sold in Thanjavur and neighbouring towns. Increasing production costs and competition from large-scale producers have reduced the number of people involved in the production Peikkarumbankottai, in modern times, is well-connected with Chennai, Tirupur, Erode, Madurai, Pattukkottai, Dindigul Pudukkottai, Bangalore, Nagercoil, Thiruvananthapuram and through regular bus services.

Thanjavur had a single bus terminus located at the heart of the city. The National Highways 67, 45C, 226 and 226 Extn pass through the city. An integrated bus terminus, called New Busstand has been constructed near the Serafoji College in order to handle the passenger traffic. Thanjavur has a well-maintained sub-urban public transport system. Government and private buses operate between the two bus termini and other towns and villages like Vallam, Pillaiyarpatti, Vallam Pudursethi, Vadakkur North and Kuruvadipatti. Peikkarumbankottai is connected by rail with most important towns in India; this district has 122.07 Kilometers of Broad gauge railway lines with 20 Railway stations connecting Thanjavur to Major centres in the state. There are daily trains from/to Chennai, Mysore, Thrissur, Coimbatore, Tirupur, Salem, Madurai, Rameswaram, Tiruchendur and weekly trains to Tirupati, Goa, Nagpur, Allahabad, Bhubaneshwar and to all main cities. In the early 1990s, Peikkarumbankottai was connected with Chennai via the Vayudoot flight service, stopped due to poor patronage.

A full-fledged Air Force Station is operational at Thanjavur which stations several Fighter including Sukhoi jets. Thanjavur Air Force Station started functioning as a major air base by 2012, The base will be developed to handle Fighter, Transport aircraft and Refuelling aircraft; the nearest Airport is Tiruchirapalli International Airport. Peikkarumbankottai is well known for its education. Peikkarumbankottai has a total of

Jane Chapman

Jane Chapman is a British academic, professor of communications at the University of Lincoln, a research associate and a former fellow at Wolfson College and the Centre of South Asian Studies, Cambridge. She is the author over 30 academic articles and book chapters. Chapman has a bachelor's degree in history from University College London, a postgraduate certificate in education from Cambridge University, a PhD from the London School of Economics; as the author of over 200 television films and videos, 10 academic books and over 40 articles and book chapters, Chapman's career combines equal amounts of experience in both university research and the media industry. She was Breakfast TV's first on-screen reporter for the north of England, ran her own independent production companies Chapman Clarke Television, Chapman Clarke films and Chapman Clarke Multi Media for 14 years, producing documentary and educational films and series for the UK's Channel Four, BBC and ITV, she has won awards ranging from the New York Film and TV Festival through best media history book of the year by American Universities, to best academic article of the year by Emerald Publishing, sharing the 2017 Colby Prize for Victorian Literature.

Since 2005 at the University of Lincoln, Chapman has gained and managed eight research grants in journalism and cultural heritage. She is acknowledged academically as an international pioneer in comparative method. Chapman and her team are working with community groups both nationally and locally to enable research and commemoration of the centenary of the First World War, re-discovering hundreds of original cartoons in soldier newspapers produced from the trenches, she was an academic advisor for the BBC’s World War One at Home. Chapman was elected to Haringey Borough Council in 1974, alongside future Labour Party leader Jeremy Corbyn, became chairman of the housing committee, she stood as a Labour candidate at two general elections, in October 1974 in Dorking, in 1979 in Dover and Deal. Chapman married future Labour Party leader Jeremy Corbyn in 1974, when she was 24 and he was 25; the marriage ended in 1979. Chapman has two adult sons. Since 1982 she has been married to Martin Clarke. Forthcoming in 2018, Jane: Afro Caribbean Voices from 1919, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK. 2015: Comics and the World Wars – a Cultural Record, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK 2015: Chapman, Jane L. Ellin, D and Sherif, A. Comics and the Holocaust, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK Chapman, Jane Gender and newspapers: historical and transnational perspectives.

Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK. ISBN 9780230232440 Nominated for US Best Book of Year, AJHA/AEJMC. King and Chapman, Jane L. Key readings in journalism. Routledge, New York London. ISBN 9780415880275 Chapman and Nuttall, Nick Journalism today: a themed history. Wiley-Blackwell, Malden, MA. ISBN 9781405179539 Chapman, Jane Issues in contemporary documentary. Polity Press, Cambridge, UK. ISBN 9780745640105 Chapman and Kinsey, Marie Broadcast journalism: a critical introduction. Routledge, London. ISBN 0203886453 Chapman, Jane Documentary in practice: filmmakers and production choices. Polity, Cambridge. ISBN 0745636128 Chapman, Jane Comparative media history, an introduction: 1789 to the present. Polity, Cambridge. ISBN 0745632424 Nominated for US Best Book of the Year, AJHA / AEJMC Chapman, Jane Women working it out. Careers & Occupational Information Centre, Sheffield, HMSO. ISBN 0861105524 Chapman, Jane Women working it out. Careers & Occupational Information Centre, Sheffield, HMSO. ISBN 0861104668 Chapman, Jane Transnational connections and the comparative approach.

In: The Routledge Handbook to Nineteenth-Century British Periodicals and Newspapers, eds Andrew King, Alexis Easley, John Morton, ISBN 9781409468882 Chapman, Jane The argument of the broken pane: Suffragette consumerism and newspapers. In: Redefining journalism in the era of the mass press, 1880-1920. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781138658806 Chapman and Ellin, Dan Dominion cartoon satire as trench culture narratives: complaints and stoicism. In: The British Empire and the First World War. Routledge. ISBN 9781138932197 Chapman, Jane Comic strip representation of female wartime bravery in Australia's Wanda the War Girl and Jane at War from the UK. In: Fashion and war in popular culture. Intellect Publishing, Bristol. ISBN 9781841507514 Chapman, Jane The essential Gandhi as literary journalism in Hind Swaraj. In: Global Literary Journalism: Exploring the Journalistic Imagination. Peter Lang. Chapman, Jane From India's big dams to jungle guerillas: Arundhati Roy and the literary polemics of global versus local.

In: Global literary journalism: exploring the journalistic imagination. Peter Lang, New York. ISBN 9781433118678 Chapman, Jane Female representation in Le Petit Journal, Europe's first mass circulation daily. In: Parcours de femmes: Twenty Years of Women in French. Peter Lang. ISBN 9783034302081 Chapman, Jane De-bunking feminisation claims and Northcliffe propaganda - Le Petit Journal and The Daily Mail, 19th century popular press and women. In: Media History. Sage. Chapman, Jane Assessing the female influence in Europe's first mass circulation daily newspaper. In: Modern and Contemporary France. Taylor and Francis. Chapman, Jane Republican Citizenship and the French Revolutionary Press. In: Communications Ethics Now. Richard Keeble, Troubadour. Chapman, Jane The personal is the political: George Sand's contribution to popular journalism. In: The journalistic imagination: literary j

New Providence Presbyterian Church (Brownsburg, Virginia)

New Providence Presbyterian Church is a historic Presbyterian church located at Brownsburg, Rockbridge County, Virginia. It was built in 1859, is a monumental, one-story Greek Revival style brick building. Rev. Robert Lewis Dabney may have had a hand in the design of New Providence; the front facade features a central recessed portico marked by projecting flanking piers and a projecting pediment supported on two massive, unfluted Doric order columns. In 1926 a three-story, brick Sunday School wing was added to the rear, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980

Richard Ellis (astronomer)

Richard Salisbury Ellis is Professor of Astrophysics at the University College London. He served as the Steele Professor of Astronomy at the California Institute of Technology, he was awarded the 2011 Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society. Ellis read astronomy at University College London and obtained a DPhil at Wolfson College at the University of Oxford in 1974. In 1985 he was appointed professor at the University of Durham for his research contributions. In 1993 he moved to the University of Cambridge as the Plumian Professor and became a professorial fellow at Magdalene College, he served as director of the Institute of Astronomy from 1994 to 1999, at which point he moved to Caltech. Shortly after his arrival at Caltech, he was appointed as director of the Palomar Observatory which he reorganized as the Caltech Optical Observatories taking into account the growing importance of Caltech's role in the Thirty Meter Telescope. After 16 years at Caltech, in September 2015 he returned to Europe via the award of a European Research Council Advanced Research Grant held at University College London.

Ellis works in observational cosmology, considering the origin and evolution of galaxies, the evolution of large scale structure in the universe, the nature and distribution of dark matter. He worked on the Morphs collaboration studying the formation and morphologies of distant galaxies. Particular interests include applications using high-redshift supernovae, he was a member of the Supernova Cosmology Project whose leader, Saul Perlmutter, shared the 2011 Nobel Prize for Physics for the team's surprising discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe. His most recent discoveries relate to searches for the earliest known galaxies, seen when the Universe was only a few percent of its present age. At Caltech, Ellis was director of the Palomar Observatory from 2000 to 2005 and played a key role in developing the scientific and technical case, as well as building the partnership, for the Thirty Meter Telescope - a collaborative effort involving Caltech, the University of California, Japan and India destined for Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

When constructed this will be near-infrared telescope. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1995, appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2008 New Year Honours and a Fellow and Corresponding Member of the Australian Academy of Science in 2018. Homepage at UCL Homepage at Caltech Caltech Oral History Interview with Richard Ellis by Heidi Aspaturian Jan-Feb 2014 Oral History interview transcript with Richard Ellis 27 July 2007, American Institute of Physics, Niels Bohr Library and Archives