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Telecommunications in Togo

Telecommunications in Togo include radio, television and mobile telephones, the Internet. Radio stations: state-owned radio network with multiple stations. Television stations: two state-owned TV stations with multiple transmission sites. Private media in Togo have proliferated, with dozens of commercial and community radios and a handful of private TV stations in operation. Radio is the most popular medium in rural areas; the main TV station is the government-owned Television Togolaise. The radio services of the BBC World Service, Gabon's Africa No. 1, Radio France Internationale are all available. Calling code: +228International call prefix: 00Main lines: 225,000 lines in use, 127th in the world. Mobile cellular: 3.5 million lines, 124th in the world. Telephone system: fair system based on network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and cellular system. Satellite earth stations: 1 Intelsat and 1 Symphonie. Communications cables: West Africa Cable System, a submarine cable linking countries along the west coast of Africa with each other and with Portugal and the United Kingdom.

Top-level domain:.tgInternet users: 278,442 users, 144th in the world. Fixed broadband: 5,560 subscriptions, 158th in the world. Wireless broadband: 47,892 subscribers, 125th in the world. Internet hosts: 1,168 hosts, 170th in the world. IPv4: 13,312 addresses allocated, less than 0.05% of the world total, 1.9 addresses per 1000 people. There are no known government restrictions on access to the Internet or reports that the government monitors e-mail or Internet chat rooms without judicial oversight. Although the constitution provides for freedom of speech and press, the government restricts these rights; the constitution and law prohibit arbitrary interference with privacy, home, or correspondence, the government respects these prohibitions. In criminal cases a judge or senior police official may authorize searches of private residences. Citizens believe the government monitors telephones and correspondence, although such surveillance has not been confirmed. Media of Togo Télévision Togolaise, the national broadcaster of Togo.

List of terrestrial fibre optic cable projects in Africa Economy of Togo This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of State. CAFE, C. A. F. E. Informatique et Telecommunications., by

Regular matroid

In mathematics, a regular matroid is a matroid that can be represented over all fields. A matroid is defined to be a family of subsets of a finite set; the sets in the family are called "independent sets". One of the ways of constructing a matroid is to select a finite set of vectors in a vector space, to define a subset of the vectors to be independent in the matroid when it is linearly independent in the vector space; every family of sets constructed in this way is a matroid, but not every matroid can be constructed in this way, the vector spaces over different fields lead to different sets of matroids that can be constructed from them. A matroid M is regular when, for every field F, M can be represented by a system of vectors over F. If a matroid is regular, so is its dual matroid, so is every one of its minors; every direct sum of regular matroids remains regular. Every graphic matroid is regular. Conversely, every regular matroid may be constructed by combining graphic matroids, co-graphic matroids, a certain ten-element matroid, neither graphic nor co-graphic, using an operation for combining matroids that generalizes the clique-sum operation on graphs.

The number of bases in a regular matroid may be computed as the determinant of an associated matrix, generalizing Kirchhoff's matrix-tree theorem for graphic matroids. The uniform matroid U 4 2 is not regular: it cannot be realized over the two-element finite field GF, so it is not a binary matroid, although it can be realized over all other fields; the matroid of the Fano plane and its dual are not regular: they can be realized over GF, over all fields of characteristic two, but not over any other fields than those. As Tutte showed, these three examples are fundamental to the theory of regular matroids: every non-regular matroid has at least one of these three as a minor. Thus, the regular matroids are the matroids that do not have one of the three forbidden minors U 4 2, the Fano plane, or its dual. If a matroid is regular, it must be realizable over the two fields GF and GF; the converse is true: every matroid, realizable over both of these two fields is regular. The result follows from a forbidden minor characterization of the matroids realizable over these fields, part of a family of results codified by Rota's conjecture.

The regular matroids are the matroids that can be defined from a unimodular matrix, a matrix in which every square submatrix has determinant 0, 1, or −1. The vectors realizing the matroid may be taken as the rows of the matrix. For this reason, regular matroids are sometimes called unimodular matroids; the equivalence of regular matroids and unimodular matrices, their characterization by forbidden minors, are deep results of W. T. Tutte proved by him using the Tutte homotopy theorem. Gerards published an alternative and simpler proof of the characterization of unimodular matrices by forbidden minors. There is a polynomial time algorithm for testing whether a matroid is regular, given access to the matroid through an independence oracle

2012 Green Party of Prince Edward Island leadership election

The Green Party of Prince Edward Island leadership election took place on 2–3 November, Prince Edward Island. On 12 July 2012, Sharon Labchuk resigned from the leadership of the Green Party of PEI, triggering a leadership election. An interim leader and the details of the leadership election are to be announced. On 3 November 2012, Peter Bevan-Baker was elected leader; the None of the above ballot option was available to members. 12 July 2012 Sharon Labchuk resigned from the leadership after leading the party for 7 years, was the founding leader. 17 July 2012 Darcie Lanthier is appointed interim Leader. She says. 2 & 3 November 2012 Leadership convention in Charlottetown. 3 November 2012 Peter Bevan-Baker was elected leader. Peter Bevan-Baker Official website

Sydney Callaway

Sydney Thomas Callaway was an Australian cricketer who played in three Tests, all of them against England in Australia. In 1891/92 he played in Sydney and Melbourne, in 1894/95 he played in Adelaide where he took 5/37 in the first innings. In the Sydney Test, he was the second victim in a hat-trick by Johnny Briggs, he played in 62 first-class matches, taking 320 wickets at an average of just over 17 runs per wicket. After he moved to New Zealand to play for Canterbury he played several matches for New Zealand, including two against Australia, in the era before New Zealand played Test cricket. In the 1903-04 season in New Zealand he took 54 first-class wickets in five matches at an average of 8.77, with a best analysis of 8 for 33 and 7 for 27, bowling unchanged throughout, in the match against Hawke's Bay, as well as 5 for 94 and 6 for 4 against Wellington, when Wellington were dismissed for 22 in the second innings. At the time of his death, which came after a long illness, he was employed as a clerk for the Canterbury Frozen Meat Company.

He left a widow, a son. List of New South Wales representative cricketers Cricinfo article on Sydney Callaway Sydney Callaway at CricketArchive

Cape bulbul

The Cape bulbul is a member of the bulbul family of passerine birds. It is an endemic resident breeder in coastal bush, open forest and fynbos in western and southern South Africa; this species nests in the southern spring from September to November. The nest is thick walled cup concealed by foliage in a small shrub. In 1760 the French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson included a description of the Cape bulbul in his Ornithologie based on a specimen collected from the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa, he used the French name Le merle brun du Cap de Bonne Espérance and the Latin Merula Fusca Capitis Bonae Spei. Although Brisson coined Latin names, these do not conform to the binomial system and are not recognised by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature; when in 1766 the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus updated his Systema Naturae for the twelfth edition, he added 240 species, described by Brisson. One of these was the Cape bulbul. Linnaeus included a brief description, coined the binomial name Turdus capensis and cited Brisson's work.

The specific name capensis denotes the Cape of Good Hope. This species is now placed in the genus Pycnonotus, introduced by the German zoologist Friedrich Boie in 1826; the Cape bulbul is considered to belong to a superspecies along with the Himalayan bulbul, white-eared bulbul, white-spectacled bulbul, African red-eyed bulbul, the common bulbul. Alternate names for the Cape bulbul include two names used for other species; the Cape bulbul is 19–21 cm long dull, blackish brown with a diagnostic white eye-ring, yellow undertail coverts. The head has a small crest; the short, straight bill and feet are black and the iris is dark brown. The sexes are similar in plumage; this species is much darker than the other South African bulbuls, differs in the eye ring colour and brown lower belly, whereas the other dark bulbuls have a pale lower belly. The dark belly helps to identify juveniles; the most typical call of this species is a liquid whistle of two or more varied notes pit-peet-pitmajol, piet-piet-patata.

The Cape bulbul is a conspicuous bird, which tends to perch at the top of a bush. It is active and noisy seen in pairs or small groups foraging for fruit and insects. In part of its range, it gets parasitized by the Jacobin cuckoo. Sinclair and Tarboton, SASOL Birds of Southern Africa, ISBN 1-86872-721-1 Cape Bulbul - Species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds. SASOL e-guide Biodiversity Explorer iSpot

Wisdom (film)

Wisdom is a 1986 American romantic crime film written and directed by its star Emilio Estevez in his filmmaking debut. The film stars Demi Moore, along with Tom Skerritt and Veronica Cartwright as Estevez's parents; the ending credits song is "Home Again" by the score by Danny Elfman. The film is dedicated to the memory of Henry Proach, a good friend of Estevez, who appears in the picture. John Wisdom is a young man just out of college. On the night of his high school graduation, he stole a car. With a grand theft auto conviction he is branded a felon and as a result can not hold down a decent job. Seeing no future for himself, Wisdom takes a left turn: he decides to become a criminal "for the people", evocative of Robin Hood. After seeing news reports about impoverished farmers and working class people being sent to the bank to pay ownership debts, Wisdom goes on a bank robbing spree with his girlfriend, Karen Simmons. With the FBI after them, things take a turn for the worse when a panicky Karen kills a local sheriff.

She and Wisdom make a run for the Canada–United States border, but when Karen is shot by a police helicopter, Wisdom leaves her in the care of some high school students and their teacher. He is surrounded by police and federal agents at a college football field; as Wisdom appears to be reaching for his gun, he dies. John wakes up, he emerges from proceeds to get ready for his job interview. His entire story has been a daydream. Emilio Estevez as John Wisdom Demi Moore as Karen Simmons Tom Skerritt as Lloyd Wisdom Veronica Cartwright as Samantha Wisdom William Allen Young as Agent Williamson Richard Minchenberg as Agent Cooper Ernie Brown as Bill, Motel manager Charlie Sheen as City Burger manager Brenda Medcalf as Girl on bike Estevez says the idea for the film "started as just the title. I thought. Just'Wisdom' across the screen."He wrote the first draft in three weeks. Wisdom became the surname of the lead character. Estevez says Wisdom is "without a place in society... He becomes a criminal because he feels it's the only thing society has left him to do."Estevez added at the film was "about two people - their relationship and their discoveries.

Those discoveries leave Wisdom not only wanted dead or alive in five states, but a modern-day folk hero."In October 1985 David Begelman's Gladden Entertainment announced it had signed a deal with the 23 year old Estevez to write and direct Wisdom. Estevez had written That Was Then This is Now. Begelman had been in charge of Columbia, MGM, during which time he gave Walter Hill, Barry Levinson and Richard Benjamin their first directing jobs. Comparisons were made with Orson Welles, 24 when he wrote and directed Citizen Kane. Estevez said "if they promote Wisdom as this most phenomenal thing that hasn't happened since Orson Welles, I'm going to get hit.""I have a kind of nihilistic point of view," he added. "I'm into making films that are not fluff. When you deal in reality, you're dealing with a lot of serious problems. We could be being vaporized by nuclear weapons by accidentally. That's reality... Life does not end ever after."The female lead went to Demi Moore, Estevez's fiancée."I'm not going to sit here and say it was the most positive professional move for me when I made that picture," she said later.

"Of course, doing it was based on my feelings for him and my desire to share it with him. It was special. I was around from the day Emilio wrote the first page. I would read every page, we would talk; the attachment to the project was real."The Gladden Entertainment Company suggested Robert Wise be hired to work as "executive director" and Estevez agreed. Wise said, "I was there to be an aid to him if he wanted to discuss something or whether he felt this kind of angle or editing standpoint was a good one, whether the different angles in a scene were enough coverage. I didn't step in when he was staging a scene. If I saw something that bothered me, I would get him aside and say,'Be careful of this or watch for that. Be careful, I think you have her looking the wrong way in this shot.' Technical things. We would discuss the pacing of scenes, and that would be it."The film was finished $200,000 under budget and a day ahead of schedule. It was one of the first film scores from Danny Elfman."In a way, it's a subversive film," Estevez said.

"A lot of people are angered by the message it gives the kids: If you want something changed pick up a gun and change it. But if they stay until the end, they'll realize. I'm going to take a beating on this one. "I can see myself getting my feet wet as a director, there's a choppiness, an awkwardness to it. It's not relaxed. I made the movie first for myself, I think just getting it done is an accomplishment. I fought my battle in just getting it done, being the youngest person to get it done. Not that I set out to break any kind of record or anything, or to prove to anybody that I could do it." The film received negative reviews from critics: Leonard Maltin considered it "wretchedly scripted, with one of the most self-defeating wrap-ups you'll see." Estevez said the film "was a disappointing experience - the outcome of it. I shouldn't say disappointing. I should say devastating - the response. I tell you what: It was not a great film, but it was a good film, and I believe that now... I