Telecommunications in Peru
Telecommunications in Peru include radio and television and mobile telephones, the Internet. The technical regulator of communications in Peru is the Presidency of the Minister Council, through the Organismo Supervisor de la Inversión Privada en Telecomunicaciones in English, Supervisory Agency for Private Investment in Telecommunications; the Ministry of Transport and Communications grants concessions, authorizations and licenses. The resale of telecommunication services is permitted as a regulated activity. Voice Over IP services are not expressly regulated, but may need a concession or a registry depending on the type of service provided. Carrier interconnection is interconnection fees are regulated; the Peruvian government maintains a Telecommunications Investment Fund to promote universal service within the country's most isolated regions, including rural areas and areas of social interest. Following the successful implementation of mobile number portability, the government requires fixed number portability be launched by July 2014.
All telecommunication services have been liberalized and are rendered under a free competition regime according to the Telecommunications Law. Under Peru's single concession regime all telecom services, including fixed-line, pay TV, Internet, are provided under unified concessions that cover the entire country. Privatization began in 1994 when the state-owned companies Compañía Peruana de Teléfonos S. A. and Entel Perú were auctioned to Telefónica de España. In December 1994, Entel Perú was merged into CPT. In 1995, CPT changed its name to Telefónica del Perú S. A.. Telefónica del Perú continues to dominate the market for basic telephone services; the operation of broadcasting companies is governed by the Law of Television. Spectrum is controlled by the Ministry of Transport and Communications. Radio stations: More than 2,000 radio stations, including a substantial number of indigenous language stations. Radios: 24 million. TV networks: 10 major TV networks of which only one, Television Nacional de Peru, is state-owned.
Television sets: 5.5 million. Pay television subscribers: 967,943. Broadcast television system: NTSC, NTSC broadcasts to be abandoned by 31 December 2017, simulcasting ISDB-Tb. Calling code: +51. International call prefix: 00 Fixed lines: 3.4 million lines in use. Fixed-line teledensity: about 12 per 100 persons. Mobile subscribers: 15.2 million unique subscribers. Mobile lines: 29.4 million, 29.6 million. Mobile teledensity: exceeds 100 telephones per 100 persons, spurred by competition among multiple providers. Domestic system: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations, adequate for most requirements. International communication cables: South America-1 and Pan American submarine cables link to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, the US. International satellite earth stations: 2 Intelsat. Peru's fixed-line penetration is the third lowest in South America after Paraguay. Barriers include widespread poverty, expensive services, little meaningful competition, the geographical barriers imposed by the Andean mountains and Amazon jungles.
Under the name Movistar, Telefónica del Perú dominates the basic telephone market. América Móvil’s Claro occupies second place, while Americatel Peru is third with 1% of the market; the remaining companies have market shares below 0.3%. Mobile penetration is below the regional average with about one quarter of the population having no mobile phone at all, while others in urban areas, have multiple subscriptions. Telefónica, operating as Movistar, is the mobile leader. Vietnam's Viettel is expected to begin offering mobile services in the second half of 2014 and Virgin Mobile is expected to enter the market as a Mobile Virtual Network Operator. Top-level domain:.pe. Internet Service Providers: 158 providers. Internet hosts: 234,102 hosts. Internet users: 11.3 million users, 37th in the world. Fixed broadband: 1.4 million subscriptions, 49th in the world. Mobile broadband: 820,295 subscriptions, 77th in the world. Peru enjoyed a remarkably high dial-up Internet penetration rate, but broadband Internet penetration is more than two-thirds below the average for Latin America and Caribbean countries.
Barriers include widespread poverty, limited literacy, limited computer ownership and access, rugged topography and most significant, a lack of meaningful competition which has made broadband Internet access in Peru one of the slowest and most expensive in the region. In 2011 the OpenNet Initiative reported no evidence of Internet filtering in all areas for which it tests. There are no government restrictions on access to the Internet or credible reports that the government monitors e-mail or Internet chat rooms without appropriate legal authority. Individuals and groups engage including by e-mail; the chief impediment to Internet access is a lack of infrastructure. The constitution provides for freedom of speech and press, the government respects these rights. An independent press and a functioning democratic political system combine to promote freedom of speech and press. A number of journalists and media outlets
Telecommunications in the Bahamas
Telecommunications in the Bahamas includes telephones, radio and the Internet. Access to the Internet is unrestricted. There were no government restrictions on access to the Internet or credible reports that the government monitors e-mail or Internet chat rooms without judicial oversight; the constitution provides for freedom of speech and press, the government respects these rights in practice. An independent press combined with a effective—albeit backlogged—judiciary, a functioning democratic political system ensures freedom of speech and press; the constitution prohibits arbitrary interference with privacy, home, or correspondence, the government respects these prohibitions in practice. Strict and antiquated libel laws dating to British legal codes are invoked. In April 2013, the Bahamas Commissioner of Police Ellison Greenslade warned that the police would press charges against people who post “lewd” or “obscene” pictures on social media websites and Attorney General Allyson Maynard-Gibson announced that the government was working on legislation that will police information posted on the Internet.
"We have to balance freedom of the press with protecting the public,” she added. In April Rodney Moncur was charged with "committing a grossly indecent act" by posting autopsy photographs of a man who died in police custody on his Facebook page. Phone calls to the Bahamas are monitored by the National Security Agency's MYSTIC program. Bahamas BTC, Bahamas Telecommunications Company, primary telecommunications provider for the Bahamas government owned. List of television stations in the Caribbean Television in the Bahamas ZNS-1, Radio Bahamas, state-owned ZNS-TV 13, state-owned This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html. BSNIC, Bahamas Network Information Center. Bahamas Telecommunications Company, website. ZNS Bahamas, website
Intelsat Corporation—formerly INTEL-SAT, INTELSAT, Intelsat—is a communications satellite services provider. Formed as International Telecommunications Satellite Organization, it was—from 1964 to 2001—an intergovernmental consortium owning and managing a constellation of communications satellites providing international broadcast services; as of March 2011, Intelsat operates a fleet of 52 communications satellites, one of the world's largest fleet of commercial satellites. They claim to serve around 1,500 customers and employ a staff of 1,100 people. John F. Kennedy instigated the creation of INTELSAT with his speech to the United Nations on the 25th of September 1961. Less than a year John F. Kennedy signed the Communications Satellite Act of 1962. INTELSAT was formed as International Telecommunications Satellite Organization and operated from 1964 to 2001 as an intergovernmental consortium owning and managing a constellation of communications satellites providing international broadcast services.
In 2001, the international satellite market was commercialized, the US predominant role in INTELSAT was privatized after 2001 as Intelsat was formed up as a private Luxembourg corporation. The International Governmental Organization began on 20 August 1964, with 7 participating countries; the 1964 agreement was an interim arrangement on a path to a more permanent agreement. The permanent international organization was established in 1973, following inter-nation negotiations from 1969 to 1971; the most difficult issue to "resolve concerned the shift from management of the system by a national entity to management by the international organization itself."On 6 April 1965, INTELSAT's first satellite, the Intelsat I, was placed in geostationary orbit above the Atlantic Ocean by a Delta D rocket. In 1973, the name was changed and there were 81 signatories. INTELSAT was "governed by two international agreements: The Agreement setting forth the basic provisions and principles and structure of the organization, signed by the governments through their foreign ministries, an Operating Agreement setting forth more detailed financial and technical provisions and signed by the governments or their designated telecommunications entities."—in most cases the latter are the ministries of communications of the party countries, but in the case of the United States, was the Communications Satellite Corporation, a private corporation established by federal legislation to represent the US in international governance for the global communication satellite system.
INTELSAT at that time directly owned and managed a global communications satellite system, structurally consisted of three parts: the Assembly of Parties—meeting every two years and concerned with aspects "primarily of interest to the Parties as sovereign States."—with each country having one vote. The Meeting of Signatories—meeting annually and composed of all the signatories to the Operating Agreement—primarily working on financial and program matters, with each countries' signatory having one vote. A Board of Governors, meeting at least four times each year, making decisions on design, establishment and maintenance of the in-space assets, appointed by signatories, but weighted to each signatories "investment share" in the space assets; the 1973 Agreement called for a seven-year transition from national to international management, but continued until 1976 to carve out "technical and operational management of the system the Communications Satellite Corporation served as the Manager of the global system under the interim arrangements in force from 1964 to 1973."
Phases of the transition resulted in full international governance by 1980. Financial contribution to the organization, it's so-called "investment share," was proportional to each member's use of the system, determined annually. Intelsat provides service to over 600 Earth stations in more than 149 countries and dependencies. By 2001, INTELSAT had over 100 members, it was this year that INTELSAT privatized and changed its name to Intelsat. Since its inception, Intelsat has used several versions of its dedicated Intelsat satellites. Intelsat completes each block of spacecraft independently, leading to a variety of contractors over the years. Intelsat’s largest spacecraft supplier is Space Systems/Loral, having built 31 spacecraft, or nearly half of the fleet; the network in its early years was not as robust. A failure of the Atlantic satellite in the spring of 1969 threatened to stop the Apollo 11 mission. During the Apollo 11 moonwalk, the moon was over the Pacific Ocean, so other antennas were used, as well as INTELSAT III, in geostationary orbit over the Pacific.
By the 1990s, building and launching satellites was no longer a government domain and as country-specific telecommunications systems were privatized, several private satellite operators arose to meet the growing demand. In the U. S. satellite operators such as PanAmSat, Orion Communications, Columbia Communications, Globalstar, TRW and others formed under the umbrella of the Alliance for Competitive International Satellite Services to press for an end to the IGOs and the monopoly position of COMSAT the US signatory to Intelsat and Inmarsat. In March 2001, the US Congress passed the Open Market Reorganisation for the B
A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly. A telephone converts sound and most efficiently the human voice, into electronic signals that are transmitted via cables and other communication channels to another telephone which reproduces the sound to the receiving user. In 1876, Scottish emigrant Alexander Graham Bell was the first to be granted a United States patent for a device that produced intelligible replication of the human voice; this instrument was further developed by many others. The telephone was the first device in history that enabled people to talk directly with each other across large distances. Telephones became indispensable to businesses and households and are today some of the most used small appliances; the essential elements of a telephone are a microphone to speak into and an earphone which reproduces the voice in a distant location. In addition, most telephones contain a ringer to announce an incoming telephone call, a dial or keypad to enter a telephone number when initiating a call to another telephone.
The receiver and transmitter are built into a handset, held up to the ear and mouth during conversation. The dial may be located either on a base unit to which the handset is connected; the transmitter converts the sound waves to electrical signals which are sent through a telephone network to the receiving telephone, which converts the signals into audible sound in the receiver or sometimes a loudspeaker. Telephones are duplex devices; the first telephones were directly connected to each other from one customer's office or residence to another customer's location. Being impractical beyond just a few customers, these systems were replaced by manually operated centrally located switchboards; these exchanges were soon connected together forming an automated, worldwide public switched telephone network. For greater mobility, various radio systems were developed for transmission between mobile stations on ships and automobiles in the mid-20th century. Hand-held mobile phones were introduced for personal service starting in 1973.
In decades their analog cellular system evolved into digital networks with greater capability and lower cost. Convergence has given most modern cell phones capabilities far beyond simple voice conversation, they may be able to record spoken messages and receive text messages and display photographs or video, play music or games, surf the Internet, do road navigation or immerse the user in virtual reality. Since 1999, the trend for mobile phones is smartphones that integrate all mobile communication and computing needs. A traditional landline telephone system known as plain old telephone service carries both control and audio signals on the same twisted pair of insulated wires, the telephone line; the control and signaling equipment consists of three components, the ringer, the hookswitch, a dial. The ringer, or beeper, light or other device, alerts the user to incoming calls; the hookswitch signals to the central office that the user has picked up the handset to either answer a call or initiate a call.
A dial, if present, is used by the subscriber to transmit a telephone number to the central office when initiating a call. Until the 1960s dials used exclusively the rotary technology, replaced by dual-tone multi-frequency signaling with pushbutton telephones. A major expense of wire-line telephone service is the outside wire plant. Telephones transmit both the outgoing speech signals on a single pair of wires. A twisted pair line rejects electromagnetic interference and crosstalk better than a single wire or an untwisted pair; the strong outgoing speech signal from the microphone does not overpower the weaker incoming speaker signal with sidetone because a hybrid coil and other components compensate the imbalance. The junction box arrests lightning and adjusts the line's resistance to maximize the signal power for the line length. Telephones have similar adjustments for inside line lengths; the line voltages are negative compared to earth. Negative voltage attracts positive metal ions toward the wires.
The landline telephone contains a switchhook and an alerting device a ringer, that remains connected to the phone line whenever the phone is "on hook", other components which are connected when the phone is "off hook". The off-hook components include a transmitter, a receiver, other circuits for dialing and amplification. A calling party wishing to speak to another party will pick up the telephone's handset, thereby operating a lever which closes the switchhook, which powers the telephone by connecting the transmitter and related audio components to the line; the off-hook circuitry has a low resistance which causes a direct current, which comes down the line from the telephone exchange. The exchange detects this current, attaches a digit receiver circuit to the line, sends a dial tone to indicate readiness. On a modern push-button telephone, the caller presses the number keys to send the telephone number of the called party; the keys control a tone generator circuit. A rotary-dial telephone uses pulse
Caracas Santiago de León de Caracas, is the capital and largest city of Venezuela, centre of the Greater Caracas Area. Caracas is located along the Guaire River in the northern part of the country, following the contours of the narrow Caracas Valley on the Venezuelan coastal mountain range. Terrain suitable for building lies between 760 and 1,140 m above sea level, although there is some settlement above this range; the valley is close to the Caribbean Sea, separated from the coast by a steep 2,200-metre-high mountain range, Cerro El Ávila. The Metropolitan Region of Caracas has an estimated population of 4,923,201. Speaking, the centre of the city is still "Catedral", located near Bolívar Square though it is assumed that it is Plaza Venezuela, located in the Los Caobos neighbourhood. Chacaíto area, Luis Brión Square and El Rosal neighborhood are considered the geographic center of the Metropolitan Region of Caracas called "Greater Caracas". Businesses in the city include service companies and malls.
Caracas has a service-based economy, apart from some industrial activity in its metropolitan area. The Caracas Stock Exchange and Petróleos de Venezuela are headquartered in Caracas. PDVSA is the largest company in Venezuela. Caracas is Venezuela's cultural capital, with many restaurants, theaters and shopping centers; some of the tallest skyscrapers in Latin America are located in Caracas. Caracas has been considered one of the most important cultural, tourist and economic centers of Latin America; the Museum of Contemporary Art of Caracas is one of the most important in South America. The Museum of Fine Arts and the National Art Gallery of Caracas are noteworthy; the National Art Gallery is projected to be the largest museum in Latin America, according to its architect Carlos Gómez De Llarena. Caracas is home to two of the tallest skyscrapers in South America: the Parque Central Towers, it has a nominal GDP of 91,988 million dollars, a nominal GDP per capita of 18,992 and a PPP GDP per capita of 32,710 dollars.
Being the seventh city in GDP and the seventh metropolitan area in population of Latin America. Caracas has the highest per capita murder rate in the world, with 111.19 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants. At the time of the founding of the city in 1567, the valley of Caracas was populated by indigenous peoples. Francisco Fajardo, the son of a Spanish captain and a Guaiqueri cacica, attempted to establish a plantation in the valley in 1562 after founding a series of coastal towns. Fajardo's settlement did not last long, it was destroyed by natives of the region led by Guaicaipuro. This was the last rebellion on the part of the natives. On 25 July 1567, Captain Diego de Losada laid the foundations of the city of Santiago de León de Caracas; the foundation − 1567 – "I take possession of this land in the name of God and the King" These were the words of Don Diego de Losada in founding the city of Caracas on 25 July 1567. In 1577, Caracas became the capital of the Spanish Empire's Venezuela Province under Governor Juan de Pimentel.
During the 17th century, the coast of Venezuela was raided by pirates. With the coastal mountains as a barrier, Caracas was immune to such attacks. However, in 1595, around 200 English privateers including George Sommers and Amyas Preston crossed the mountains through a little-used pass while the town's defenders were guarding the more often-used one. Encountering little resistance, the invaders sacked and set fire to the town after a failed ransom negotiation; as the cocoa cultivation and exports under the Compañía Guipuzcoana de Caracas grew in importance, the city expanded. In 1777, Caracas became the capital of the Captaincy General of Venezuela. José María España and Manuel Gual led an attempted revolution aimed at independence, but the rebellion was put down on 13 July 1797. Caracas was the site of the signing of a Declaration of independence on 17 August 1811. In 1812, an earthquake destroyed Caracas; the independentist war continued until 24 June 1821, when Bolívar defeated royalists in the Battle of Carabobo.
Caracas grew in economic importance during Venezuela's oil boom in the early 20th century. During the 1950s, Caracas began an intensive modernization program which continued throughout the 1960s and early 1970s; the Universidad Central de Venezuela, designed by modernist architect Carlos Raúl Villanueva and declared World Heritage by UNESCO, was built. New working- and middle-class residential districts sprouted in the valley, extending the urban area toward the east and southeast. Joining El Silencio designed by Villanueva, were several workers' housing districts, 23 de Enero and Simon Rodriguez. Middle-class developments include Bello Monte, Los Palos Grandes, El Cafetal; the dramatic change in the economic structure of the country, which went from being agricultural to dependent on oil production, stimulated the fast development of Caracas, made it a magnet for people in rural communities who migrated to the capital city in an unplanned fashion searching for greater economic opportunity. This migration created the rancho belt of the valley of Caracas.
The flag of Caracas consists of a burgundy red field with the version of the Coat of Arms of the City. The red field symbolises the blood spilt by Caraquenian people in favour of independence and the highest ideals of the Venezuelan Nation. In the year 1994 as a result of the change of municipal authorities, it was decided to increase the size of the Caracas coat of arms and move it to the centre of the field; this version
Communications in Argentina
Communications in Argentina gives an overview of the postal, Internet, radio and newspaper services available in Argentina. The national postal service, Correo Argentino, was established in 1854, privatized in 1997, re-nationalized in 2003. There are no standard abbreviations for provinces' names; the format of the postal code was expanded in 1998 to include more specific information on location within cities. See Argentine postal code for details; the network was developed by ITT, grew following the system's nationalization in 1948 and the creation of the ENTel State enterprise. Its limitations notwithstanding, ENTel gave Argentines the widest access to phone service in Latin America. Following ENTel's privatization in 1990, a new numbering plan was enacted, the number of lines grew to cover the majority of households. A sizable minority of households, do not have land line telephone service, however; the growth of the mobile telephone market since the beginning of the economic recovery in 2003 has been impressive, with new customers now preferring a comparatively cheap cellular phone to land line household service.
As of January 2010, there are 9.2 million land lines, 50 million cellular phones and 143,000 public phones in the country. The domestic telephone trunk network is served by microwave radio relay and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations, it carries a monthly traffic of about 1.3 billion local calls, 400 million inter-city calls and around 24 million outgoing international calls. International communications employ satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat; this system is replaced with a domestic fiber optic ring connecting the main cities. This link runs at 2.5 Gbit/s. From these head central offices, local calls are routed through 10 Gbit/s fiber optic links, or 3 × 155 Mbit/s microwave links; these links are spaced at about 30 km. Some of these links are spaced at 60 km and this makes communications unreliable in certain weather conditions. According to a report released in January 2006 by INDEC, mobile phone lines increased by 68.8% during 2005. Eleven million mobile phones were sold that year and, by these serviced three-quarters of the population over 14.
A growing minority of users are children under 14, something that has raised concern and debate in Argentine society. A private study conducted by Investigaciones Económicas Sectoriales, covering January–October 2006, found a 51.2% growth compared to the same period of 2005. Most of the phones are imported from Mexico; the monthly volume of calls made with these units more than doubles the number made on land lines. In the 1990s the Argentine telephone system was sold to two private corporations looking to invest in the local market: Telefónica, a telco from Spain, Telecom Argentina, owned by Telecom Italia and the Argentine Werthein family; the country was divided in two zones, within which one of the companies was the exclusive provider of the service. The service was deregulated in several steps, first allowing the participation of other companies to provide international phone call services mobile services and the domestic service. Telecom has Arnet. Other ISPs, such as Flash, hire the facilities of Telefónica.
Several newcomer companies in the telephone market offer high-speed broadband access, Voice over IP and other services to a restricted market group. The number of Internet users in the country as of 2011 has been estimated at 27 million, the number of registered domain names was approx. 1.7 million in August 2008 and the number of internet hosts in 2009, 6,025,000. Besides monthly-paid Internet connections, in Argentina there are a number of Internet service providers that have commercial agreements with the telephone companies for charging a higher communication rate to the user for that communication, though without any monthly fixed fee. There were around 12 million PCs registered in Argentina in 2011; the number of residential and business internet networks totaled around 5.7 million in 2011, of which around 5.5 million were broadband connections ADSL. The number of dial-up users has decreased drastically since 2005 in favor of broadband internet access; this latter service grew from under 800,000 networks in late 2005, to nearly 2.6 million by December 2007, to over 5 million by late 2010.
Wireless and satellite networks expanded markedly during 2008-09, totaled over 1.5 million in March 2011. Among residential users, 38.3% were located in Buenos Aires Province, 26.0% in the city of Buenos Aires, 8.2% in Córdoba and 7.4% in Santa Fe Province. Among companies and organizations, 788,000 connection contracts were valid as of March 2
Internet service provider
An Internet service provider is an organization that provides services for accessing, using, or participating in the Internet. Internet service providers may be organized in various forms, such as commercial, community-owned, non-profit, or otherwise owned. Internet services provided by ISPs include Internet access, Internet transit, domain name registration, web hosting, Usenet service, colocation; the Internet was developed as a network between government research laboratories and participating departments of universities. Other companies and organizations joined by direct connection to the backbone, or by arrangements through other connected companies, sometime using dialup tools such as UUCP. By the late 1980s, a process was set in place towards commercial use of the Internet; the remaining restrictions were removed by 1991, shortly after the introduction of the World Wide Web. During the 1980s, online service providers such as CompuServe and America On Line began to offer limited capabilities to access the Internet, such as e-mail interchange, but full access to the Internet was not available to the general public.
In 1989, the first Internet service providers, companies offering the public direct access to the Internet for a monthly fee, were established in Australia and the United States. In Brookline, The World became the first commercial ISP in the US, its first customer was served in November 1989. These companies offered dial-up connections, using the public telephone network to provide last-mile connections to their customers; the barriers to entry for dial-up ISPs were low and many providers emerged. However, cable television companies and the telephone carriers had wired connections to their customers and could offer Internet connections at much higher speeds than dial-up using broadband technology such as cable modems and digital subscriber line; as a result, these companies became the dominant ISPs in their service areas, what was once a competitive ISP market became a monopoly or duopoly in countries with a commercial telecommunications market, such as the United States. On 23 April 2014, the U.
S. Federal Communications Commission was reported to be considering a new rule that will permit ISPs to offer content providers a faster track to send content, thus reversing their earlier net neutrality position. A possible solution to net neutrality concerns may be municipal broadband, according to Professor Susan Crawford, a legal and technology expert at Harvard Law School. On 15 May 2014, the FCC decided to consider two options regarding Internet services: first, permit fast and slow broadband lanes, thereby compromising net neutrality. On 10 November 2014, President Barack Obama recommended that the FCC reclassify broadband Internet service as a telecommunications service in order to preserve net neutrality. On 16 January 2015, Republicans presented legislation, in the form of a U. S. Congress H. R. discussion draft bill, that makes concessions to net neutrality but prohibits the FCC from accomplishing the goal or enacting any further regulation affecting Internet service providers. On 31 January 2015, AP News reported that the FCC will present the notion of applying Title II of the Communications Act of 1934 to the Internet in a vote expected on 26 February 2015.
Adoption of this notion would reclassify Internet service from one of information to one of the telecommunications and, according to Tom Wheeler, chairman of the FCC, ensure net neutrality. The FCC is expected to enforce net neutrality in its vote, according to The New York Times. On 26 February 2015, the FCC ruled in favor of net neutrality by adopting Title II of the Communications Act of 1934 and Section 706 in the Telecommunications Act of 1996 to the Internet; the FCC Chairman, Tom Wheeler, commented, "This is no more a plan to regulate the Internet than the First Amendment is a plan to regulate free speech. They both stand for the same concept." On 12 March 2015, the FCC released the specific details of the net neutrality rules. On 13 April 2015, the FCC published the final rule on its new "Net Neutrality" regulations; these rules went into effect on 12 June 2015. Upon becoming FCC chairman in April 2017, Ajit Pai proposed an end to net neutrality, awaiting votes from the commission. On 21 November 2017, Pai announced that a vote will be held by FCC members on 14 December on whether to repeal the policy.
On 11 June 2018, the repeal of the FCC's network neutrality rules took effect. Access provider ISPs provide Internet access, employing a range of technologies to connect users to their network. Available technologies have ranged from computer modems with acoustic couplers to telephone lines, to television cable, Wi-Fi, fiber optics. For users and small businesses, traditional options include copper wires to provide dial-up, DSL asymmetric digital subscriber line, cable modem or Integrated Services Digital Network. Using fiber-optics to end users is called Fiber To The Home or similar names. For customers with more demanding requirements can use higher-speed DSL, metropolitan Ethernet, gigabit Ethernet, Frame Relay, ISDN Primary Rate Interface, ATM and synchronous optical networking. Wireless access is another option, including satellite Internet access. A mailbox provider is an organization that provides services for hosting electronic mail domains with access to storage for mail boxes