SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Telecommunications in the Cook Islands

Like most countries and territories in Oceania, telecommunications in the Cook Islands is limited by its isolation and low population, with only one major television broadcasting station and six radio stations. However, most residents have mobile phone, its telecommunications are provided by Telecom Cook Islands, working with O3b Networks, Ltd. for faster Internet connection. In July 2012, there were about 7,500 main line telephones, which covers about 98% of the country's population. There were 7,800 mobile phones in 2009. Telecom Cook Islands, owned by Spark New Zealand, is the islands' main telephone system and offers international direct dialling, email and Telex; the individual islands are connected by a combination of satellite earth stations, microwave systems, high frequency and high frequency radiotelephone. For international communication, they rely on the satellite earth station Intelsat. In 2003, the largest island of Rarotonga started using a GSM/GPRS mobile data service system with GSM 900 by 2013 3G UMTS 900 was introduce covering 98% of Rarotonga with HSPA+.

In March 2017 4G+ launch in Rarotonga with LTE700 and LTE1800. Mobile service covers Aitutaki GSM/GPRS mobile data service system in GSM 900 from 2006 to 2013 while in 2014 3G UMTS 900 was introduce with HSPA+ stand system. In March 2017 4G+ launch in Aitutaki with LTE700; the rest of the Outer Islands mobile was well establish in 2007 with mobile coverage at GSM 900 from Mangaia 3 villages, Mauke, Palmerston in the Southern Group and the Northern Group Nassau, Rakahanga, Manihiki 2 Village and Penrhyn 2 villages. The Cook Islands uses the country calling code +682. There are six radio stations in the Cook Islands, with one reaching all islands; as of 1997 there were 14,000 radios. Cook Islands Television broadcasts from Rarotonga, providing a mix of local news and overseas-sourced programs; as of 1997 there were 4,000 television sets. There were 6,000 Internet users in 2009 and 3,562 Internet hosts as of 2012; the country code top-level domain for the Cook Islands is.ck. In June 2010, Telecom Cook Islands partnered with O3b Networks, Ltd. to provide faster Internet connection to the Cook Islands.

On 25 June 2013 the O3b satellite constellation was launched from an Arianespace Soyuz ST-B rocket in French Guiana. The medium Earth orbit satellite uses the Ka band, it has a latency of about 100 milliseconds because it is much closer to Earth than standard geostationary satellites, whose latencies can be over 600 milliseconds. Although the initial launch consisted of 4 satellites, as many as 20 may be launched to serve various areas with little or no optical fibre service, the first of, the Cook Islands. In December 2015, Alcatel-Lucent and Bluesky Pacific Group announced that they would build the Moana Cable system connecting New Zealand to Hawaii with a single fibre pair branching off to the Cook Islands; the Moana Cable is expected to be completed in 2018. Telecom Cook Islands Bluesky Cook Islands

The Storm (Danish band)

The Storm is a Danish rock band formed in 2006 by Pernille Rosendahl and Johan Wohlert which are to date the only permanent members of the band. Ex-couple Pernille Rosendahl and Johan Wohlert formed The Storm in 2006 after they had a child together and had left their previous musical groups, Swan Lee and Mew respectively. In December 2006, they signed a contract with Universal Music in Denmark; the band's first official public appearance was on 11 January 2008 when they performed live at P3 Guld as the final act. The band released "Drops in the Ocean", they appeared with Rosendahl as the vocalist and Mads Wegner on guitar, Michel Swan as the drummer, Jakob Millung as the bassist and the keyboardist. Their debut studio album followed up entitled Where the Storm Meets the Ground and was released on 11 February 2008; the album was produced by famous producer Roy Thomas Baker, who among other things has worked with Queen, The Cars and Danish band Gasolin'. Richard Fortus from Guns N' Roses contributed on the album.

The album was not well received among the Danish reviewers, The Storm was accused of using material from other artists. However, the album became a commercial success with 25,000 copies sold and the band scored gold record for it; the band returned to the studio in 2009 to record their second studio album. Black Luck was produced by Jacob Hansen who Pernille got introduced to through Volbeat after she sang a duet with Michael Poulsen on the song "Mary Ann's Place". About the album, Pernille said: "It's like coming home after a long journey to have total control again. We're back to our roots and bring back our fingerprints on everything". Black Luck was released on 12 October 2009 by the group's own company WR Production in collaboration with Target Records; the album debuted at number seven on the album chart. The album spent four weeks on the top 40 and by March 2010 it had sold 10,000 copies according to the record company. In August 2010, the band signed an international contract with Finnish record label Spinefarm Records.

On 27 October 2010, Black Luck was released in the United Kingdom, Switzerland and Finland through Spinefarm. On 7 March 2011, the band released "Lost in the Fire" as the preceding single for their third studio album, Rebel Against Yourself; the single became the band's biggest hit to date with a peak position at number three on the charts and a platinum record for more than 30,000 digits sold. Rebel Against Yourself was released on 29 August 2011 and among the album's inspirations are artists such as ABBA, Dire Straits and Pet Shop Boys. Compared to the duo's previous albums, they have moved away from the heavy rock sound to a more Nordic pop sound; the Storm has collaborated with the Swedish rock band Kent on two of the album's tracks, including the second single of the album "My Crown". Rebel Against Yourself went in at number five on the album chart with sales of 955 copies in the first week; the album spent just four weeks on the chart. In October 2013, it was announced that Pernille Johan Wohlert had been divorced.

They said, that they will continue to make music together. Since the formation of the band in 2006, the band consisted of two permanent members: Pernille Rosendahl, the vocalist of the band and Johan Wohlert, the guitarist of the band. There have been various supporting members throughout the band's history. Johan Wohlert is the bass player of Danish indie band Mew, he left the band on 11 April 2006, because he did not feel that he could be a rock star and a good father at the same time. He is married to Pernille Rosendahl, vocalist of the now-dissolved band Swan Lee, the mother of his child, born in May 2006, he is the guitarist of the band. Pernille Rosendahl is a Danish singer, who besides her solo career was lead singer of the Danish band Swan Lee, she started music at an early age. In 1985, she formed a reggae band with drummer Emil Jørgensen, named Rocka, she sang in a choir between 1991 and 1994. In 1995, she recorded an album in London with producer Tim Simenon. In 1996 she formed a band with her boyfriend Tim Christensen, her Rocka band partner Emil Jørgensen, guitarist Jonas Struck.

Christensen left the band in 1999. She is the vocalist of the band. Alexander Brown - "Mind Distorted" Official website

Manuel MarĂ­a de Salcedo

Manuel María de Salcedo y Quiroga, was a governor of Spanish Texas from 1808 until his execution in 1813. Salcedo gained leadership experience helping his father Juan Manuel de Salcedo, the 11th and last Spanish governor of Louisiana. In 1807, the younger Salcedo was appointed governor of Texas, he assumed that role on November 7, 1808; as governor, he and his uncle Nemesio Salcedo, the Commandant General of the Interior Provinces disagreed on immigration issues. Salcedo was overthrown by Juan Bautista de las Casas in January 1811 and imprisoned for several months in Monclova. After he persuaded his captor, Ignacio Elizondo, to switch allegiances, Salcedo assisted in capturing documents detailing the movements of Miguel Hidalgo's army; the rebel army was captured one week and Salcedo led the military tribunal which sentenced the rebel leaders to death. After fulfilling his duties with the tribunal Salcedo returned to Texas, but he did not resume his duties for several months as a result of a dispute with his uncle and whether he was at fault for his own capture.

In 1812, Salcedo led the Spanish army in Texas against the filibusters calling themselves the Republican Army of the North. He was never able to defeat that army, he surrendered on April 2, 1813. Despite assurances that he would be imprisoned, extremists of the filibuster forces executed him the following day. To avenge Salcedo's death, the Spanish army reconquered Texas and dealt harshly with any they suspected of treason. Manuel María de Salcedo was born in Málaga, Spain, on April 3, 1776, to Juan Manuel de Salcedo and Francisca de Quiroga y Manso; when he was seven, Salcedo enrolled at the Royal Academy of Ocana transferring to the Royal Seminary of Nobles, where he trained until he was 17. Salcedo joined the infantry, where he reached the rank of lieutenant and served under his father at Santa Cruz de Tenerife in the Canary Islands. In 1801, his father became the governor of Spanish Louisiana, Salcedo accompanied him to New Orleans. In New Orleans, Salcedo served as a boundary commissioner as Spain prepared to transfer the colony back to France.

He married in 1803 to a local woman of Spanish and French ancestry, Maria Guadalupe Prietto y la Ronde. They returned to Spain the following year after Napoleon transferred Louisiana to the United States through the Louisiana Purchase. While living in Spain, Salcedo was appointed the governor of Spanish Texas. At this time, Texas was a sparsely populated province consisting of three primary settlements connected by the Camino Real, with a few presidios and over a dozen missions scattered throughout the wilderness; the province was bordered on the south and west by the Nueces and Medina Rivers, with the Red River comprising its northern and eastern border. The capital was the villa of San Fernando called San Antonio de Bexar after the local presidio, Presidio San Antonio de Bexar. 2,500 people, including soldiers, lived in San Antonio, with an additional 600 residents at La Bahia and about 770 people in Nacogdoches. As governor, Salcedo would be the representative of the Spanish king in Texas.

As a deputy of the Commandant General of the Interior Provinces, at this time his uncle, Nemesio Salcedo, the governor was the military commander for the province and had the power to appoint lieutenants and corporals to oversee the presidios and mission defenses. He would serve as the civil administrator, had final approval of the results of all elections. Salcedo took a preliminary oath of office on May 1, 1807, he and his wife and daughter left for North America; the family traveled by boat to New Bedford, where they took a stagecoach to Providence, Rhode Island, New Haven, Connecticut. They visited New York City and Pittsburgh, in Pennsylvania, before cruising down the Mississippi River to Natchez and traveling overland to Texas. Salcedo assumed the governorship of the province on November 7, 1808. In his first year in office, Salcedo faced many issues pitting himself against his uncle, Nemesio Salcedo. After visiting with the Americans for so many months, Salcedo warned of "the aggressive spirit of Anglo-American frontiersmen."

To minimize the threat to the Spanish borderlands, Salcedo recommended that Texas welcome more settlers and soldiers to the area. He recommended that immigrants who could demonstrate their loyalty to Spain be welcomed into the province, including men deserting from the U. S. Army, his uncle instead ordered the border be closed to all people from Louisiana, regardless of their ethnic background. Despite the order, Salcedo still permitted slave owners from the U. S. to enter Texas in order to reclaim runaway slaves. Money was continually tight in the province, with little coming from the interior provinces. At one point, Salcedo became desperate enough for funds that he asked citizens in the province to donate money to pay the troops who helped protect them, he continued to receive complaints and reprimands from his uncle, who "commended every high-ranking officer in the borderlands except" for Salcedo. After eighteen months in office, Salcedo decided to inspect other areas of the province, he left San Antonio de Bexar on March 1810, to tour East Texas.

The United States and Spain were contesting the location of the border between Louisiana and Texas, in response the local military commanders had declared the area between the Sabine River and the Red River to be a neutral ground which neither army would cross. As a result, this section of land became a haven for outlaws. While visiting Nacogdoches, Salcedo recommended that Spanish troops comb