Multimedia Messaging Service
Multimedia Messaging Service is a standard way to send messages that include multimedia content to and from a mobile phone over a cellular network. Users and providers may refer to such a message as a PXT, a picture message, or a multimedia message; the MMS standard extends the core SMS capability, allowing the exchange of text messages greater than 160 characters in length. Unlike text-only SMS, MMS can deliver a variety of media, including up to forty seconds of video, one image, a slideshow of multiple images, or audio; the most common use involves sending photographs from camera-equipped handsets. Media companies have utilized MMS on a commercial basis as a method of delivering news and entertainment content, retailers have deployed it as a tool for delivering scannable coupon codes, product images and other information; the 3GPP and WAP groups fostered the development of the MMS standard, now continued by the Open Mobile Alliance. Multimedia messaging service was built using the technology of SMS messaging, first developed in 1984 as a captive technology which enabled service providers to "collect a fee every time anyone snaps a photo."Early MMS deployments were plagued by technical issues and frequent consumer disappointments.
In recent years, MMS deployment by major technology companies have solved many of the early challenges through handset detection, content optimization, increased throughput. China was one of the early markets to make MMS a major commercial success as the penetration rate of personal computers was modest but MMS-capable camera phones spread rapidly; the chairman and CEO of China Mobile said at the GSM Association Mobile Asia Congress in 2009 that MMS in China was now a mature service on par with SMS text messaging. Europe's most advanced MMS market has been Norway, in 2008, the Norwegian MMS usage level passed 84% of all mobile phone subscribers. Norwegian mobile subscribers sent on average one MMS per week. Between 2010 and 2013, MMS traffic in the U. S. increased by 70% from 57 billion to 96 billion messages sent. This is due in part to the wide adoption of smartphones. MMS messages are delivered in a different way from SMS; the first step is for the sending device to encode the multimedia content in a fashion similar to sending a MIME message.
The message is forwarded to the carrier's MMS store and forward server, known as the MMSC. If the receiver is on a carrier different from the sender the MMSC acts as a relay, forwards the message to the MMSC of the recipient's carrier using the internet. Once the recipient's MMSC has received a message, it first determines whether the receiver's handset is "MMS capable", that it supports the standards for receiving MMS. If so, the content is sent to a temporary storage server with an HTTP front-end. An SMS "control message" containing the URL of the content is sent to the recipient's handset to trigger the receiver's WAP browser to open and receive the content from the embedded URL. Several other messages are exchanged to indicate the status of the delivery attempt. Before delivering content, some MMSCs include a conversion service that will attempt to modify the multimedia content into a format suitable for the receiver; this is known as "content adaptation". If the receiver's handset is not MMS capable, the message is delivered to a web-based service from where the content can be viewed from a normal internet browser.
The URL for the content is sent to the receiver's phone in a normal text message. This behavior is known as a "legacy experience" since content can still be received by a phone number if the phone itself does not support MMS; the method for determining whether a handset is MMS capable is not specified by the standards. A database is maintained by the operator, in it each mobile phone number is marked as being associated with a legacy handset or not; this method is unreliable, because customers can independently change their handsets, many of these databases are not updated dynamically. MMS does not utilize operator-maintained "data" plans to distribute multimedia content, only used if the operator clicks links inside the message. E-mail and web-based gateways to the MMS system are common. On the reception side, the content servers can receive service requests both from WAP and normal HTTP browsers, so delivery via the web is simple. For sending from external sources to handsets, most carriers allow a MIME encoded message to be sent to the receiver's phone number using a special e-mail address combining the recipient's public phone number and a special domain name, carrier-specific.
There are some interesting challenges with MMS that do not exist with SMS: Content adaptation: Multimedia content created by one brand of MMS phone may not be compatible with the capabilities of the recipient's MMS phone. In the MMS architecture, the recipient MMSC is responsible for providing for content adaptation, if this feature is enabled by the mobile network operator; when content adaptation is supported by a network operator, its MMS subscribers enjoy compatibility with a larger network of MMS users than would otherwise be available. Distribution lists: Current MMS specifications do not include distribution lists nor methods by which large numbers of recipients can be conveniently addressed by content providers, called Value-added service providers in 3GPP. Since most SMSC vendors have adopted FTP as an ad-hoc method by which large distribution lists are transferred to the SMSC prior to being used in a bulk-mess
Optical fiber cable
An optical fiber cable known as a fiber optic cable, is an assembly similar to an electrical cable, but containing one or more optical fibers that are used to carry light. The optical fiber elements are individually coated with plastic layers and contained in a protective tube suitable for the environment where the cable will be deployed. Different types of cable are used for different applications, for example long distance telecommunication, or providing a high-speed data connection between different parts of a building. Optical fiber consists of a core and a cladding layer, selected for total internal reflection due to the difference in the refractive index between the two. In practical fibers, the cladding is coated with a layer of acrylate polymer or polyimide; this coating protects the fiber from damage but does not contribute to its optical waveguide properties. Individual coated fibers have a tough resin buffer layer or core tube extruded around them to form the cable core. Several layers of protective sheathing, depending on the application, are added to form the cable.
Rigid fiber assemblies sometimes put light-absorbing glass between the fibers, to prevent light that leaks out of one fiber from entering another. This reduces flare in fiber bundle imaging applications. For indoor applications, the jacketed fiber is enclosed, with a bundle of flexible fibrous polymer strength members like aramid, in a lightweight plastic cover to form a simple cable; each end of the cable may be terminated with a specialized optical fiber connector to allow it to be connected and disconnected from transmitting and receiving equipment. For use in more strenuous environments, a much more robust cable construction is required. In loose-tube construction the fiber is laid helically into semi-rigid tubes, allowing the cable to stretch without stretching the fiber itself; this protects the fiber from tension during due to temperature changes. Loose-tube fiber may be gel-filled. Dry block offers less protection to the fibers than gel-filled, but costs less. Instead of a loose tube, the fiber may be embedded in a heavy polymer jacket called "tight buffer" construction.
Tight buffer cables are offered for a variety of applications, but the two most common are "Breakout" and "Distribution". Breakout cables contain a ripcord, two non-conductive dielectric strengthening members, an aramid yarn, 3 mm buffer tubing with an additional layer of Kevlar surrounding each fiber; the ripcord is a parallel cord of strong yarn, situated under the jacket of the cable for jacket removal. Distribution cables have an overall Kevlar wrapping, a ripcord, a 900 micrometer buffer coating surrounding each fiber; these fiber units are bundled with additional steel strength members, again with a helical twist to allow for stretching. A critical concern in outdoor cabling is to protect the fiber from contamination by water; this is accomplished by use of solid barriers such as copper tubes, water-repellent jelly or water-absorbing powder surrounding the fiber. The cable may be armored to protect it from environmental hazards, such as construction work or gnawing animals. Undersea cables are more armored in their near-shore portions to protect them from boat anchors, fishing gear, sharks, which may be attracted to the electrical power, carried to power amplifiers or repeaters in the cable.
Modern cables come in a wide variety of sheathings and armor, designed for applications such as direct burial in trenches, dual use as power lines, installation in conduit, lashing to aerial telephone poles, submarine installation, insertion in paved streets. In September 2012, NTT Japan demonstrated a single fiber cable, able to transfer 1 petabit per second over a distance of 50 kilometers. Modern fiber cables can contain up to a thousand fibers in a single cable, with potential bandwidth in the terabytes per second. In some cases, only a small fraction of the fibers in a cable may be "lit". Companies can lease or sell the unused fiber to other providers who are looking for service in or through an area. Companies may "overbuild" their networks for the specific purpose of having a large network of dark fiber for sale, reducing the overall need for trenching and municipal permitting, they may deliberately under-invest to prevent their rivals from profiting from their investment. The highest strand-count singlemode fiber cable manufactured is the 864-count, consisting of 36 ribbons each containing 24 strands of fiber.
Optical fibers are strong, but the strength is drastically reduced by unavoidable microscopic surface flaws inherent in the manufacturing process. The initial fiber strength, as well as its change with time, must be considered relative to the stress imposed on the fiber during handling and installation for a given set of environmental conditions. There are three basic scenarios that can lead to strength degradation and failure by inducing flaw growth: dynamic fatigue, static fatigues, zero-stress aging. Telcordia GR-20, Generic Requirements for Optical Fiber and Optical Fiber Cable, contains reliability and quality criteria to protect optical fiber in all operating conditions; the criteria concentrate on conditions in an outside plant environment. For the indoor plant, similar criteria are in Telcordia GR-409, Generic Requirements for Indoor Fiber Optic Cable. OFC: Optical fiber, conductive OFN: Optical fiber, nonconductive OFCG: Optical fiber, general use OFNG: Optical fiber, general use OFCP: Optical fiber, conductive
Submarine communications cable
A submarine communications cable is a cable laid on the sea bed between land-based stations to carry telecommunication signals across stretches of ocean and sea. The first submarine communications cables laid beginning in the 1850s carried telegraphy traffic, establishing the first instant telecommunications links between continents, such as the first transatlantic telegraph cable which became operational on 16 August 1858. Subsequent generations of cables carried telephone traffic data communications traffic. Modern cables use optical fiber technology to carry digital data, which includes telephone and private data traffic. Modern cables are about 1 inch in diameter and weigh around 2.5 tons per mile for the deep-sea sections which comprise the majority of the run, although larger and heavier cables are used for shallow-water sections near shore. Submarine cables first connected all the world's continents when Java was connected to Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia in 1871 in anticipation of the completion of the Australian Overland Telegraph Line in 1872 connecting to Adelaide, South Australia and thence to the rest of Australia.
After William Cooke and Charles Wheatstone had introduced their working telegraph in 1839, the idea of a submarine line across the Atlantic Ocean began to be thought of as a possible triumph of the future. Samuel Morse proclaimed his faith in it as early as 1840, in 1842, he submerged a wire, insulated with tarred hemp and India rubber, in the water of New York Harbor, telegraphed through it; the following autumn, Wheatstone performed a similar experiment in Swansea Bay. A good insulator to cover the wire and prevent the electric current from leaking into the water was necessary for the success of a long submarine line. India rubber had been tried by Moritz von Jacobi, the Prussian electrical engineer, as far back as the early 19th century. Another insulating gum which could be melted by heat and applied to wire made its appearance in 1842. Gutta-percha, the adhesive juice of the Palaquium gutta tree, was introduced to Europe by William Montgomerie, a Scottish surgeon in the service of the British East India Company.
Twenty years earlier, Montgomerie had seen whips made of gutta-percha in Singapore, he believed that it would be useful in the fabrication of surgical apparatus. Michael Faraday and Wheatstone soon discovered the merits of gutta-percha as an insulator, in 1845, the latter suggested that it should be employed to cover the wire, proposed to be laid from Dover to Calais, it was tried on a wire laid across the Rhine between Cologne. In 1849, C. V. Walker, electrician to the South Eastern Railway, submerged a two-mile wire coated with gutta-percha off the coast from Folkestone, tested successfully. Having earlier obtained a concession from the French government, in August 1850 John Watkins Brett's English Channel Submarine Telegraph Company laid the first line across the English Channel, using the converted tug Goliath, it was a copper wire coated with gutta-percha, without any other protection, was not successful. The experiment served to secure renewal of the concession, in September 1851, a protected core, or true, cable was laid by the reconstituted Submarine Telegraph Company from a government hulk, the Blazer, towed across the Channel.
In 1853 further successful cables were laid, linking Great Britain with Ireland and the Netherlands, crossing The Belts in Denmark. The British & Irish Magnetic Telegraph Company completed the first successful Irish link on May 23 between Portpatrick and Donaghadee using the collier William Hutt; the same ship was used for the link from Dover to Ostend in Belgium, by the Submarine Telegraph Company. Meanwhile, the Electric & International Telegraph Company completed two cables across the North Sea, from Orford Ness to Scheveningen, The Netherlands; these cables were laid by the Monarch, a paddle steamer which became the first vessel with permanent cable-laying equipment. In 1858 the steamship Elba was used to lay a telegraph cable from Jersey to Guernsey, on to Alderney and to Weymouth, the cable being completed in September of that year. Problems soon developed with eleven breaks occurring by 1860 due to storms and sand movements and wear on rocks. A report to the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1860 set out the problems to assist in future cable laying operations.
The first attempt at laying a transatlantic telegraph cable was promoted by Cyrus West Field, who persuaded British industrialists to fund and lay one in 1858. However, the technology of the day was not capable of supporting the project. Subsequent attempts in 1865 and 1866 with the world's largest steamship, the SS Great Eastern, used a more advanced technology and produced the first successful transatlantic cable. Great Eastern went on to lay the first cable reaching to India from Aden, Yemen, in 1870. From the 1850s until 1911, British submarine cable systems dominated the most important market, the North Atlantic Ocean; the British had demand side advantages. In terms of supply, Britain had entrepreneurs willing to put forth enormous amounts of capital necessary to build and maintain these cables. In terms of demand, Britain's vast colonial empire led to business for the cable companies from news agencies and shipping companies, the British government. Many of Britain's colonies had significant populations of European settlers, making news about them of interest to the general public in the home country.
British officials believed that depending on telegraph lines that passed through non-British territory posed a security
Telecommunications in Peru
Telecommunications in Peru include radio and television and mobile telephones, the Internet. The technical regulator of communications in Peru is the Presidency of the Minister Council, through the Organismo Supervisor de la Inversión Privada en Telecomunicaciones in English, Supervisory Agency for Private Investment in Telecommunications; the Ministry of Transport and Communications grants concessions, authorizations and licenses. The resale of telecommunication services is permitted as a regulated activity. Voice Over IP services are not expressly regulated, but may need a concession or a registry depending on the type of service provided. Carrier interconnection is interconnection fees are regulated; the Peruvian government maintains a Telecommunications Investment Fund to promote universal service within the country's most isolated regions, including rural areas and areas of social interest. Following the successful implementation of mobile number portability, the government requires fixed number portability be launched by July 2014.
All telecommunication services have been liberalized and are rendered under a free competition regime according to the Telecommunications Law. Under Peru's single concession regime all telecom services, including fixed-line, pay TV, Internet, are provided under unified concessions that cover the entire country. Privatization began in 1994 when the state-owned companies Compañía Peruana de Teléfonos S. A. and Entel Perú were auctioned to Telefónica de España. In December 1994, Entel Perú was merged into CPT. In 1995, CPT changed its name to Telefónica del Perú S. A.. Telefónica del Perú continues to dominate the market for basic telephone services; the operation of broadcasting companies is governed by the Law of Television. Spectrum is controlled by the Ministry of Transport and Communications. Radio stations: More than 2,000 radio stations, including a substantial number of indigenous language stations. Radios: 24 million. TV networks: 10 major TV networks of which only one, Television Nacional de Peru, is state-owned.
Television sets: 5.5 million. Pay television subscribers: 967,943. Broadcast television system: NTSC, NTSC broadcasts to be abandoned by 31 December 2017, simulcasting ISDB-Tb. Calling code: +51. International call prefix: 00 Fixed lines: 3.4 million lines in use. Fixed-line teledensity: about 12 per 100 persons. Mobile subscribers: 15.2 million unique subscribers. Mobile lines: 29.4 million, 29.6 million. Mobile teledensity: exceeds 100 telephones per 100 persons, spurred by competition among multiple providers. Domestic system: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations, adequate for most requirements. International communication cables: South America-1 and Pan American submarine cables link to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, the US. International satellite earth stations: 2 Intelsat. Peru's fixed-line penetration is the third lowest in South America after Paraguay. Barriers include widespread poverty, expensive services, little meaningful competition, the geographical barriers imposed by the Andean mountains and Amazon jungles.
Under the name Movistar, Telefónica del Perú dominates the basic telephone market. América Móvil’s Claro occupies second place, while Americatel Peru is third with 1% of the market; the remaining companies have market shares below 0.3%. Mobile penetration is below the regional average with about one quarter of the population having no mobile phone at all, while others in urban areas, have multiple subscriptions. Telefónica, operating as Movistar, is the mobile leader. Vietnam's Viettel is expected to begin offering mobile services in the second half of 2014 and Virgin Mobile is expected to enter the market as a Mobile Virtual Network Operator. Top-level domain:.pe. Internet Service Providers: 158 providers. Internet hosts: 234,102 hosts. Internet users: 11.3 million users, 37th in the world. Fixed broadband: 1.4 million subscriptions, 49th in the world. Mobile broadband: 820,295 subscriptions, 77th in the world. Peru enjoyed a remarkably high dial-up Internet penetration rate, but broadband Internet penetration is more than two-thirds below the average for Latin America and Caribbean countries.
Barriers include widespread poverty, limited literacy, limited computer ownership and access, rugged topography and most significant, a lack of meaningful competition which has made broadband Internet access in Peru one of the slowest and most expensive in the region. In 2011 the OpenNet Initiative reported no evidence of Internet filtering in all areas for which it tests. There are no government restrictions on access to the Internet or credible reports that the government monitors e-mail or Internet chat rooms without appropriate legal authority. Individuals and groups engage including by e-mail; the chief impediment to Internet access is a lack of infrastructure. The constitution provides for freedom of speech and press, the government respects these rights. An independent press and a functioning democratic political system combine to promote freedom of speech and press. A number of journalists and media outlets
Telecommunications in Mexico
Communications in Mexico are regulated by the Secretariat of Communication and Transportation, a federal executive cabinet ministry and by the Federal Telecommunications Institute. Mexico's communication services market is among the largest in Latin America, liberalized in the 1990s, with the landmark privatization of Teléfonos de México, a state-owned monopoly. Since new operators have entered the market, but Telmex still remains the dominant player. Founded on 13 May 1891, as the Secretariat of Communications and Public Works, the SCT is divided into three subsecretariats: the Subsecretariat of Infrastructure, the Subsecretariat of Communications and the Subsecretariat of Transportation; the SCT has ceded many of its regulatory functions to the Federal Telecommunications Institute. See Radio in Mexico, List of Mexican television networks and List of television stations in MexicoUsage of radio and Internet in Mexico nowadays is prevalent; the first television transmission in Mexico was conducted by Javier Stavoli in 1931.
Guillermo González Camarena built his own monochromatic camera in 1934, in 1940 he developed the first trichromatic system and obtained the first patent for color television in the world. After developing radio and television stations, in 1948, he built the studio Gon-Cam, considered the best television system in the world in the time, according to survey conducted by the Columbia College of Chicago. With the passage of the century, the television broadcasting market became dominated by two powerful companies, Televisa—the largest Spanish media company in the Spanish-speaking world — and Azteca though several dozen regional networks operate in the country. In addition, many states have their own television networks, public television has increased its market penetration in recent years. In 2014 there were 1,762 radio stations and 1,063 separately licensed analog and digital television stations. In general, the telecommunications industry is dominated by Telmex and América Móvil; the telecommunications industry was privatized in 1990 under the control of Grupo Carso and since 1996 under Carlos Slim.
Telmex has diversified its operations by incorporating mobile telephony. It has expanded its operations to Colombia, Chile, Brazil, Uruguay and the United States. Due to Mexican diverse orography—the country is crossed by two high altitude mountain ranges extending from the Rocky Mountains—providing landline telephone service at remote mountainous areas is expensive, penetration of line-phones per capita is low compared to other Latin American countries, with 20 million lines. Mobile telephony has the advantage of reaching all areas at a lower cost, due to reduced investments in required infrastructure, the total number of mobile lines in Mexico is nearly five times that of landlines, with an estimated 95 million lines; the telecommunications industry is regulated by the government through the Federal Telecommunications Institute. In April 2009, the ITESM reported 25,217,500 users. Ranking ninth in the world; the satellite system is domestic with 120 earth stations. There is extensive microwave radio relay network and considerable use of fiber-optic and coaxial cable.
Mexican satellites are operated by Satélites Mexicanos, a leading private company in Latin America which services both North and South America. Satmex offers broadcast and telecommunication services to 37 countries in the Americas, from Canada to Argentina. Through business partnerships, Satmex provides high-speed connectivity to ISPs and Digital Broadcast Services; the system is composed of three main satellites: Solidaridad 2, Satmex 5 and Satmex 6. The Secretariat of Communications and Transportation is in the process of deploying the Mexican Satellite System, but a launch failure has postponed the project. Transportation in Mexico Economy of Mexico
The Americas comprise the totality of the continents of North and South America. Together, they comprise the New World. Along with their associated islands, they cover 8% of Earth's total surface area and 28.4% of its land area. The topography is dominated by the American Cordillera, a long chain of mountains that runs the length of the west coast; the flatter eastern side of the Americas is dominated by large river basins, such as the Amazon, St. Lawrence River / Great Lakes basin, La Plata. Since the Americas extend 14,000 km from north to south, the climate and ecology vary from the arctic tundra of Northern Canada and Alaska, to the tropical rain forests in Central America and South America. Humans first settled the Americas from Asia between 17,000 years ago. A second migration of Na-Dene speakers followed from Asia; the subsequent migration of the Inuit into the neoarctic around 3500 BCE completed what is regarded as the settlement by the indigenous peoples of the Americas. The first known European settlement in the Americas was by the Norse explorer Leif Erikson.
However, the colonization never became permanent and was abandoned. The Spanish voyages of Christopher Columbus from 1492 to 1502 resulted in permanent contact with European powers, which led to the Columbian exchange and inaugurated a period of exploration and colonization whose effects and consequences persist to the present. Diseases introduced from Europe and West Africa devastated the indigenous peoples, the European powers colonized the Americas. Mass emigration from Europe, including large numbers of indentured servants, importation of African slaves replaced the indigenous peoples. Decolonization of the Americas began with the American Revolution in the 1770s and ended with the Spanish–American War in the late 1890s. All of the population of the Americas resides in independent countries; the Americas are home to over a billion inhabitants, two-thirds of which reside in the United States, Brazil, or Mexico. It is home to eight megacities: New York City, Mexico City, São Paulo, Los Angeles, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Bogotá, Lima.
The name America was first recorded in 1507. Christie's auction house says a two-dimensional globe created by Martin Waldseemüller was the earliest recorded use of the term; the name was used in the Cosmographiae Introductio written by Matthias Ringmann, in reference to South America. It was applied to both North and South America by Gerardus Mercator in 1538. America derives from the Latin version of Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci's first name; the feminine form America accorded with the feminine names of Asia and Europa. In modern English and South America are considered separate continents, taken together are called America or the Americas in the plural; when conceived as a unitary continent, the form is the continent of America in the singular. However, without a clarifying context, singular America in English refers to the United States of America. In the English-speaking world, the term America used to refer to a single continent until the 1950s: According to historians Kären Wigen and Martin W. Lewis, While it might seem surprising to find North and South America still joined into a single continent in a book published in the United States in 1937, such a notion remained common until World War II.
By the 1950s, however all American geographers had come to insist that the visually distinct landmasses of North and South America deserved separate designations. This shift did not seem to happen in Romance-speaking countries, where America is still considered a continent encompassing the North America and South America subcontinents, as well as Central America; the first inhabitants migrated into the Americas from Asia. Habitation sites are known in Alaska and the Yukon from at least 20,000 years ago, with suggested ages of up to 40,000 years. Beyond that, the specifics of the Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the dates and routes traveled, are subject to ongoing research and discussion. Widespread habitation of the Americas occurred during the late glacial maximum, from 16,000 to 13,000 years ago; the traditional theory has been that these early migrants moved into the Beringia land bridge between eastern Siberia and present-day Alaska around 40,000–17,000 years ago, when sea levels were lowered during the Quaternary glaciation.
These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. Another route proposed is that, either on foot or using primitive boats, they migrated down the Pacific coast to South America. Evidence of the latter would since have been covered by a sea level rise of hundreds of meters following the last ice age. Both routes may have
Telecommunications in Barbados
Communications in Barbados refers to the telephony, postal and television systems of Barbados. Barbados has long been an informational and communications centre in the Caribbean region. Electricity coverage throughout Barbados is reliable. Usage is high and provided by a service monopoly, Barbados Light & Power Company Ltd.. The International Telecommunication Union call sign prefix allocated for all radio and television broadcasts in Barbados is 8P, this replaced the former ZN as a British territory. Barbados has had various forms of Communications as early as the 1840s; some of the earliest expressions of inter-island communication includes a number of signal stations built along the high points of the island to relay acts of transgression towards the island to the Saint Ann's Garrison on the south-west coast. The first telephone network in the country was developed in 1884; as the former British Empire's All Red Line came into existence during the early 1900s, Barbados played an important role as a crucial link in the trans-Atlantic communications network.
By 1935 a hard wired cable-based radio network was deployed throughout the country to broadcast the Rediffusion service directly from London to homes and business across Barbados. In 2001 the Government of Barbados and the local Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier provider, Cable & Wireless signed a MOU beginning a phased process of liberalisation of the international segment of Barbados' telecommunications sector; the process was aimed at bringing Barbados' sector into compliance with the World Trade Organization. The plan outlined the first phase commencing on 1 December 2001 and the entire process ending with full liberalisation being achieved on 1 August 2003; as these target dates were missed, the Phase I process was commenced on 1 November 2002, with Phase II and III beginning on 16 November 2003 and 21 February 2004 respectively. Full liberalisation was attained in February, 2005, for the international telecommunications services market. Country Code: +1246International Call Prefix: 011 Calls from Barbados to the US, other NANP Caribbean nations, are dialed as 1 + NANP area code + 7-digit number.
Calls from Barbados to non-NANP countries are dialed as 011 + country code + phone number with local area code. Number Format: nxx-xxxx The rate of telecommunications penetration in Barbados ranks among the highest in the world. According to the International Telecommunication Union, telephone service for the period 2000-2004, stated Barbados had 124 telephones in usage for every 100 people. Telecommunications are universally accessible to all. Telephones - main lines in use 134,900 county comparison to the world: 133 Telephones - mobile cellular 237,100 county comparison to the world: 165 Telephone system general assessment: fixed-line teledensity of 50 per 100 persons. BB Internet hosts 104 county comparison to the world: 178 Internet users 160,000 county comparison to the world: 131 Globally, the country of Barbados was ranked by the International Telecommunications Union and UNICEF to be one of the most wired countries in the world on a per capita basis; the report entitled "State Of The World's Children 2007" stated Barbados had rate of Internet usage, 55 users for every 100 people.
This ranking meant that only 13 nations: Australia, Finland, South Korea, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, San Marino, Sweden and the United States had a higher ratios per head of population. In so scoring this placed Barbados in the lead for the Latin America regions. Telephone services in Barbados are provided by: LIME, Sunbeach, WIISCOM, Internet services in the country are provided by: CariAccess, CaribSurf, Sunbeach Communications, TeleBarbados/Freemotion.bb, WI-NET INC. ADSL services are available, as are Frame Relay and other more advanced services..bb Call signs in North America List of countries by number of Internet users List of television stations in the Caribbean#Barbados List of radio stations in Barbados Cable & Wireless in Barbados, Posted on 19th September 2016 by Burt's, BajanThings.com International Communication in Barbados 50 years ago, Posted on 15th March 2017 by Burt's Jnr, BajanThings.com This article incorporates public domain material from