David Chiu (politician)
David Chiu is an American politician currently serving in the California State Assembly. He is a Democrat representing the 17th Assembly District, which encompasses the eastern half of San Francisco, Chiu is a member of the California Asian & Pacific Islander Legislative Caucus. The eldest child of Hakka Taiwanese American immigrant parents, Chiu was born in Cleveland and grew up in Boston, where he attended Boston College High School. In the mid-1990s, Chiu served as Democratic Counsel to the U. S. Senate Judiciary Committee’s Constitution Subcommittee and he founded Grassroots Enterprise, an online communications technology company, and served as its chief operating officer. He served on the San Francisco Small Business Commission until he was elected supervisor in 2008, Chiu first ran for elected office in 2008, when he ran for a seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors representing District 3. He was backed by incumbent supervisor Aaron Peskin as well as Kamala Harris, Mark Leno, Leland Yee, on his first day in office on January 8,2009, Chiu was elected to a two-year term as president of the Board of Supervisors.
He was reelected president on January 8,2011, Chiu was reelected to his second and final term as supervisor in 2012, winning over 75% of the vote. He was reelected by his supervisors to serve an unprecedented third term as president of the board on January 8,2013. In addition to serving on the Board of Supervisors, Chiu served as a member of the San Francisco Democratic County Central Committee, on February 28,2011, Chiu announced his mayoral candidacy at a morning rally at San Francisco City Hall. Over the course of the campaign, Chiu raised over $1.24 million from private and public sources and spent roughly the same amount. On Election Day, Chiu placed fourth behind incumbent Ed Lee with 17,921 first-place votes, despite the fourth-place finish, Chiu and third-place candidate Dennis Herrera appeared individually on more ballots overall than John Avalos, who came in second. He ran against fellow Democrat and supervisor David Campos, on January 22,2014, the San Francisco Chronicle column City Insider reported that Chiu reported having raised $450,000 for the Assembly race.
Polls showed him ahead of Campos, Chiu beat Campos in the San Francisco primary on Tuesday, June 3,2014, by approximately five percentage points. Chiu won 48% of the vote, while Campos pulled in 43%, on November 4, Chiu defeated Campos with 51. 9% of the vote, and Campos conceded on November 6. David Chiu was appointed by Speaker Toni Atkins to serve as assistant speaker pro tempore in the 2015–16 session, the assistant speaker pro tempore is the third highest ranking position in the state assembly
Socially, intellectuals constitute the intelligentsia, a status class organised either by ideology, or by nationality. Man of Letters The English term Man of Letters derives from the French term belletrist, the term Man of Letters distinguished the literate man from the illiterate man, in a time when literacy was a rare form of cultural capital. In late 19th century, the term became common usage to denote the defenders of the falsely accused artillery officer Alfred Dreyfus. Likewise, in Tsarist Russia, there arose the intelligentsia, who were the class of white-collar workers. As such, politically radical thinkers already had participated in the French Revolution, Robert Darnton said that they were not societal outsiders, but respectable, moreover, some intellectuals were anti-academic, despite universities being synonymous with intellectualism. Habermas Structural Transformation of Public Sphere made significant contribution to the notion of public intellectual by historically and conceptually delineating the idea of private, such civil servants earned academic degrees by means of imperial examination, and were skilled calligraphers, and knew Confucian philosophy.
Historian Wing-Tsit Chan concludes that, Generally speaking, the record of these scholar-gentlemen has been a worthy one and it was good enough to be praised and imitated in 18th century Europe. Nevertheless, it has given China a tremendous handicap in their transition from government by men to government by law, and personal considerations in Chinese government have been a curse. In Joseon Korea, the intellectuals were the literati, who knew how to read and write, they constituted the petite bourgeoisie, composed of scholar-bureaucrats who administered the dynastic rule of the Joseon dynasty. The Italian Communist theoretician Antonio Gramsci developed Karl Marx’s conception of the intelligentsia to include political leadership in the public sphere and that, because all knowledge is existentially-based, the intellectuals, who create and preserve knowledge, are spokesmen for different social groups, and articulate particular social interests. That intellectuals occur in social class and throughout the right wing, the centre.
That, as a class, the intellectuals view themselves as autonomous from the ruling class of their society. Therefore, the leadership of intellectuals is required for effecting and realizing social change, because, in the formal codification of Leninism, the Hungarian Marxist philosopher, György Lukács identified the intelligentsia as the privileged social class who provide revolutionary leadership. By means of intelligible and accessible interpretation, the intellectuals explain to the workers, the How. and the Why. of the social and political status quo—the ideological totality of society—and its practical, revolutionary application to the transformation of their society. The term public intellectual describes the intellectual participating in the discourse of society. In Representations of the Intellectual, Edward Saïd said that the … true intellectual is, always an outsider, living in self-imposed exile, and on the margins of society. An intellectual usually is associated with an ideology or with a philosophy and that intellectuals be mindful of the social and cultural ties created with their words and ideas, and should be heard as social critics of politics and power.
In journalism, the term usually connotes a university academic of the humanities—especially a philosopher—who addresses important social and political matters of the day
Point Lobos is just south of Carmel-by-the-Sea, United States, at the north end of the Big Sur coast of the Pacific Ocean. Point Lobos contains a number of hiking trails, many next to the ocean, and it is the site of a historic marine reserve, which was expanded in 2007. It is the home to a museum on whaling, which includes a building once used by area fishermen. The longstanding wildlife protection and scenic seascape have led to Point Lobos reputation as a local recreational scuba diving destination. The parks origins are owed to engineer Alexander Allan, who purchased a parcel of land in 1933 to prevent it from being developed. It was to be subdivided into 1,000 lots under the name of Carmelito, the iconic Point Lobos area is geologically unique and contains a rich and diverse plant and animal life both on shore and in the water. Called the greatest meeting of land and water in the world by landscape artist Francis McComas, the geological history of Point Lobos describes the rocks that create the headlands and inlets that make Point Lobos famous.
Carmel submarine canyon lies just north of Point Lobos, like Monterey Canyon to the north the canyon provides cold, nutrient-rich water to the surface during upwelling events. These nutrient rich waters fuel the high primary productivity seen in Carmel and Monterey Bays, the original Point Lobos Ecological Reserve was created in 1973. As one of Californias oldest and best known no-take reserves, its large, in 2007, the Ecological Reserve was expanded and renamed with the establishment of The Point Lobos SMR and Point Lobos SMCA by the California Department of Fish and Game. Point Lobos SMR covers 5.36 square miles, the SMR protects all marine life within its boundaries. Fishing and take of all living marine resources is prohibited, the marine reserve is bounded by the mean high tide line and straight lines connecting the following points in the order listed, 36°31. 70’ N. lat. 121°55. 55’ W. long. 36°31. 70’ N. lat. 121°58. 25’ W. long, 36°28. 88’ N. lat. 121°58. 25’ W. long. And 36°28. 88’ N. lat. 121°56. 30’ W.
long, Point Lobos SMCA covers 8.83 square miles. Harvest of all living marine resources is prohibited in the area except the recreational and commercial take of salmon, albacore. The area is bounded by lines connecting the following points in the order listed except where noted. 36°31. 70’ N. lat. 122°01. 30’ W. long, thence southward along the three nautical mile offshore boundary to 36°28. 88’ N. lat. 122°00. 55’ W. long. 36°28. 88’ N. lat. 121°58. 25’ W. long, and 36°31. 70’ N. lat. 121°58. 25’ W. long
Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures spanning from the Norte Chico civilization in Caral, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty with its capital in Lima, ideas of political autonomy spread throughout Spanish America and Peru gained its independence, which was formally proclaimed in 1821. After the battle of Ayacucho, three years after proclamation, Peru ensured its independence, the country has undergone changes in government from oligarchic to democratic systems. Peru has gone through periods of political unrest and internal conflict as well as periods of stability, Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions.
It is a country with a high Human Development Index score. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing, the Peruvian population, estimated at 31.2 million in 2015, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages and this mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music. The name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama. When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilasco de la Vega, son of an Inca princess, the Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru.
Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, using such as irrigation and terracing, camelid husbandry. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money, the oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC. These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed mostly around the coastal, the Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Perus Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture. The Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was probably more of a religious than a political phenomenon, on the coast, these included the civilizations of the Paracas, Nazca and the more outstanding Chimu and Mochica.
Their capital was at Chan Chan outside of modern-day Trujillo, in the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America with their capital in Cusco
Embarcadero (San Francisco)
The Embarcadero is the eastern waterfront and roadway of the Port of San Francisco, San Francisco, along San Francisco Bay. It was constructed on reclaimed land along a three mile long engineered seawall, from which extend into the bay. It derives its name from the Spanish verb embarcar, meaning to embark, the Central Embarcadero Piers Historic District was added to the National Register of Historic Places on November 20,2002. The Embarcadero right-of-way begins at the intersection of Second and King Streets near AT&T Park, the Embarcadero continues north past the Ferry Building at Market Street, Pier 39, and Fishermans Wharf, before ending at Pier 45. A section of The Embarcadero which ran between Folsom Street and Drumm Street was formerly known as East Street, for three decades, until it was torn down in 1991, the Embarcadero Freeway dominated the area. As the city grew, the cove was filled, over fifty years a large offshore seawall was built and the mudflats filled, creating what today is San Franciscos Financial District.
The San Francisco Belt Railroad, a short line railroad for freight, the roadway follows the seawall, a boundary first established in the 1860s and not completed until the 1920s. During the early-20th century when the seaport was at its busiest and before the construction of the Bay Bridge, piers 1, 1½,3 and 5 were dedicated chiefly to inland trade and transport. These connections facilitated the growth of communities in the Sacramento- and San Joaquin Valleys, these piers comprise the Central Embarcadero Piers Historic District. The Delta Queen docked at Pier 1½, ferrying people between San Francisco and Sacramento, there was once a pedestrian footbridge that connected Market Street directly with the Ferry building and a subterranean roadway to move cars below the plaza. During World War II, San Franciscos waterfront became a logistics center, equipment. Almost every pier and wharf was involved in activities, with troop ships. However, after the completion of the Bay Bridge and the decline of ferries and the Ferry Building.
The transition to container shipping, which moved most shipping to Oakland, automobile transit efforts led to the Embarcadero Freeway being built in the 1960s. This improved automobile access to the Bay Bridge, but detracted aesthetically from the city, for 30 years, the highway divided the waterfront and the Ferry Building from downtown. It was torn down in 1991, after being damaged in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The sidewalk along the waterfront between China Basin and Fishermans Wharf was named Herb Caen Way, after the death of celebrated local columnist Herb Caen in 1997. The three dots, or ellipsis, deliberately are included in honor of columnist Herb Caens Pulitzer Prize winning writing style, a large public sculpture, Cupids Span by Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen, was installed in 2002 along the Rincon Park area
The West Village is a neighborhood in Manhattan, New York City. The Far West Village extends from the Hudson River to Hudson Street, bordering neighborhoods are Chelsea to the north, Hudson Square – officially designated in 2009 – and the South Village to the south, and the East Village to the east. The neighborhood is residential, with a multitude of small restaurants, shops. Residential property sale prices in the West Village neighborhood are some of the most expensive in the United States, local residents and preservation groups have been concerned about development in the Village and have fought to preserve the architectural and historic integrity of the neighborhood. More than 50 blocks of West Village, bordered on the north by 14th Street, is part of a Historic District established by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. The Districts convoluted borders run no farther south than 4th Street or St. Lukes Place, Redevelopment in this area is severely restricted, and developers must preserve the main facade and aesthetics of the buildings even during renovation.
This district—which was, for four decades, the citys largest—was created in 1969 by the then-four-year-old New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, advocates continued to pursue their goal of additional designation, spurred in particular by the increased pace of development in the 1990s. Those include, Gansevoort Market Historic District was the first new district in Greenwich Village in 34 years. The 112 buildings on 11 blocks protect the citys distinctive Meatpacking District with its cobblestone streets, 11th Street, as well as the Keller Hotel, all in 2007. Washington and Greenwich Street Rezoning, approved in 2010, was passed in time to protect six blocks from out-of-scale hotel development. The West Village historically was known as an important landmark on the map of American bohemian culture in the early, the neighborhood was known for its colorful, artistic residents and the alternative culture they propagated. Due in part to the attitudes of many of its residents. It is the site of new residential towers designed by American architect Richard Meier facing the Hudson River at 173/176 Perry Street.
The Tenth Street Studio Building was situated at 51 West 10th Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues, the building was commissioned by James Boorman Johnston and designed by Richard Morris Hunt. Its innovative design soon represented a national architectural prototype, and featured a central gallery. Hunts studio within the building housed the first architectural school in the United States. Soon after its completion in 1857, the building helped to make Greenwich Village central to the arts in New York City, drawing artists from all over the country to work and sell their art. In its initial years Winslow Homer took a studio there, as did Edward Lamson Henry, from the late 19th century through the 21st century, the Hotel Albert has served as a cultural icon of Greenwich Village
Coit Tower, known as the Lillian Coit Memorial Tower, is a 210-foot tower in the Telegraph Hill neighborhood of San Francisco, California. The tower was proposed in 1931 as a use of Coits gift. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on January 29,2008, although an apocryphal story claims that the tower was designed to resemble a fire hose nozzle due to Coits affinity with the San Francisco firefighters of the day, the resemblance is coincidental. Coit Tower was paid for with money left by Lillie Hitchcock Coit, before December 1866, there was no city fire department, and fires in the city, which broke out regularly in the wooden buildings, were extinguished by several volunteer fire companies. Lillie Coit was one of the eccentric characters in the history of North Beach and Telegraph Hill, smoking cigars. She was a gambler and often dressed like a man in order to gamble in the males-only establishments that dotted North Beach. Lillies fortune funded the monument four years following her death in 1929 and she had a special relationship with the citys firefighters.
At the age of fifteen she witnessed the Knickerbocker Engine Co, after that Lillie became the Engine Co. mascot and could barely be constrained by her parents from jumping into action at the sound of every fire bell. After this she was riding with the Knickerbocker Engine Co. 5, especially so in street parades and celebrations in which the Engine Co. participated, through her youth and adulthood Lillie was recognized as an honorary firefighter. Two memorials were built in her name, one was Coit Tower, and the other was a sculpture depicting three firemen, one of them carrying a woman in his arms. Lillie is today the saint of San Francisco firefighters. The San Francisco County Board of Supervisors proposed that Coits bequest be used for a road at Lake Merced, Art Commission President Herbert Fleishhacker suggested a memorial on Telegraph Hill, which was approved by the estate executors. An additional $7,000 in city funds were appropriated, the winner was architect Arthur Brown, Jr, whose design was completed and dedicated on October 8,1933.
Coit Tower was listed as a San Francisco Designated Landmark in 1984, browns competition design envisioned a restaurant in the tower, which was changed to an exhibition area in the final version. The design uses three nesting concrete cylinders, the outermost a tapering fluted 180-foot shaft that supports the viewing platform, an intermediate shaft contains a stairway, and an inner shaft houses the elevator. The observation deck is 32 feet below the top, with an arcade, a rotunda at the base houses display space and a gift shop. The Coit Tower murals were done under the auspices of the Public Works of Art Project, olmsted Jr. Jose Moya del Pino and Frede Vidar
California's 12th congressional district
Californias 12th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of California. House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, a Democrat, has represented the district since January 2013, the 12th district is entirely within the city of San Francisco. Prior to redistricting by the California Citizens Redistricting Commission of 2011, when the 12th Congressional District was created after the 1930 Census, it was located in Los Angeles County. As Californias population grew, the district generally shrank in area and progressed northward, richard Nixon, the 37th President of the United States, represented this district from 1947-1951. Nancy Pelosi, the 60th Speaker of the House, is the current representative of this district, as of April 2015, there are five living former members of the House of Representatives from this district. The most recent representative to die was Tom Lantos, who died in office on February 11,2008, list of United States congressional districts GovTrack. us, Californias 12th congressional district RAND California Election Returns, District Definitions California Voter Foundation map - CD12
Bohemianism is the practice of an unconventional lifestyle, often in the company of like-minded people, with few permanent ties, involving musical, literary or spiritual pursuits. In this context, Bohemians may or may not be wanderers, Bohemians were associated with unorthodox or anti-establishment political or social viewpoints, which often were expressed through free love, and—in some cases—voluntary poverty. A more economically privileged, wealthy, or even aristocratic bohemian circle is sometimes referred to as haute bohème, the term Bohemianism emerged in France in the early nineteenth century when artists and creators began to concentrate in the lower-rent, lower class, Romani neighborhoods. Literary Bohemians were associated in the French imagination with roving Romani people, outsiders apart from conventional society, the term carries a connotation of arcane enlightenment, and carries a less frequently intended, pejorative connotation of carelessness about personal hygiene and marital fidelity.
The title character in Carmen, a French opera set in the Spanish city of Seville, is referred to as a bohémienne in Meilhac and her signature aria declares love itself to be a gypsy child, going where it pleases and obeying no laws. Henri Murgers collection of short stories Scènes de la Vie de Bohème, published in 1845, was written to glorify, Murgers collection formed the basis of Giacomo Puccinis opera La bohème. In England, Bohemian in this sense initially was popularised in William Makepeace Thackerays novel, Vanity Fair, public perceptions of the alternative lifestyles supposedly led by artists were further molded by George du Mauriers highly romanticized best-selling novel of Bohemian culture Trilby. The novel outlines the fortunes of three expatriate English artists, their Irish model, and two very colorful Central European musicians, in the artist quarter of Paris. In Spanish literature, the Bohemian impulse can be seen in Ramón del Valle-Incláns play Luces de Bohemia, in his song La Bohème, Charles Aznavour described the Bohemian lifestyle in Montmartre.
Also reflects the Bohemian lifestyle in Montmartre at the turn of the 20th century, in the 1850s, aesthetic bohemians began to arrive in the United States. In New York City in 1857, a group of some 15–20 young and this group gathered at a German bar on Broadway called Pffaffs beer cellar. Members included their leader Henry Clapp, Jr, walt Whitman, Fitz Hugh Ludlow, and actress Adah Isaacs Menken. Similar groups in cities were broken up as well by the Civil War. During the war, correspondents began to assume the title bohemian, Bohemian became synonymous with newspaper writer. Mark Twain included himself and Charles Warren Stoddard in the category in 1867. Club member and poet George Sterling responded to this redefinition, Any good mixer of convivial habits considers he has a right to be called a bohemian, but that is not a valid claim. There are two elements, at least, that are essential to Bohemianism, the first is devotion or addiction to one or more of the Seven Arts, the other is poverty.
Despite his views, Sterling associated very closely with the Bohemian Club, canadian composer Oscar Ferdinand Telgmann and poet George Frederick Cameron wrote the song The Bohemian in the 1889 opera Leo, the Royal Cadet
Nancy Patricia DAlesandro Pelosi is an American politician who is the Minority Leader of the House of Representatives, representing Californias 12th congressional district. A member of the Democratic Party, Pelosi represents Californias 12th congressional district, the district was numbered as the 5th during Pelosis first three terms in the House, and as the 8th from 1993 to 2013. She served as the House Minority Whip from 2002 to 2003, Pelosi is the first woman, the first Californian and first Italian-American to lead a major party in Congress. On November 17,2010, Pelosi was elected as the Democratic Leader by House Democrats, Pelosi is Italian-American and was born Nancy Patricia DAlesandro in Baltimore, Maryland. She is the youngest of six children of Annunciata M. Nancy, who was born in Campobasso, South Italy, on 25 March 1909, Congressman from Maryland and a Mayor of Baltimore. Pelosis brother, Thomas DAlesandro III, a Democrat, was mayor of Baltimore from 1967 to 1971, Pelosi was involved with politics from an early age.
In her outgoing remarks as the 60th Speaker of the House and she graduated from the Institute of Notre Dame, a Catholic all-girls high school in Baltimore, and from Trinity College in Washington, D. C. in 1962 with a B. A. in political science. Pelosi interned for Senator Daniel Brewster alongside future House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer and she met Paul Frank Pelosi while she was attending Trinity College. They married in Baltimore at the Cathedral of Mary Our Queen on September 7,1963, after moving to San Francisco, Pelosi worked her way up in Democratic politics. She became a friend of one of the leaders of the California Democratic Party, in 1976, Pelosi was elected as a Democratic National Committee member from California, a position she would hold until 1996. She was elected as party chair for Northern California on January 30,1977, and for the California Democratic Party, Pelosi was appointed Finance Chair of the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee, the campaign arm of the U. S.
Senate Democrats, in 1985. That same year, she ran to succeed Chuck Manatt as chair of the Democratic National Committee, Pelosi left her post as DSCC finance chair in 1986. Phillip Burton died in 1983 and was succeeded by his wife, in late 1986, Sala became ill with cancer and decided not to run for reelection in 1988. She picked Pelosi as her successor, guaranteeing her the support of the Burtons contacts. Sala died on February 1,1987, just a month after being sworn in for a full term. Pelosi represents one of the safest Democratic districts in the country, Democrats have held the seat since 1949 and Republicans, who currently make up only 13 percent of registered voters in the district, have not made a serious bid for the seat since the early 1960s. She won the seat in her own right in 1988 and has been reelected 10 more times with no substantive opposition and she has not participated in candidates debates since her 1987 race against Harriet Ross. The strongest challenge Pelosi has faced was in 2008 when anti-war activist Cindy Sheehan polled 16%, in the House, she served on the Appropriations and Intelligence Committees, and was the ranking Democrat on the Intelligence Committee until her election as Minority Leader
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
The Irish people are a nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry and culture. Ireland has been inhabited for about 9,000 years according to archaeological studies, for most of Irelands recorded history, the Irish have been primarily a Gaelic people. Today, Ireland is made up of the Republic of Ireland, the people of Northern Ireland hold various national identities, including Irish, Northern Irish, British, or some combination thereof. The Irish have their own customs, music, sports, although Irish was their main language in the past, today the huge majority of Irish people speak English as their first language. Historically, the Irish nation was made up of kin groups or clans, there have been many notable Irish people throughout history. After Irelands conversion to Christianity, Irish missionaries and scholars exerted great influence on Western Europe, the 6th-century Irish monk and missionary Columbanus is regarded as one of the fathers of Europe, followed by saints Cillian and Fergal.
The scientist Robert Boyle is considered the father of chemistry, famous Irish writers include Oscar Wilde, W. B. Yeats, George Bernard Shaw, Bram Stoker and James Joyce, notable Irish explorers include Brendan the Navigator, Robert McClure, Ernest Shackleton and Tom Crean. By some accounts, the first European child born in North America had Irish descent on both sides, many presidents of the United States have had some Irish ancestry. The population of Ireland is about 6.3 million, but it is estimated that 50 to 80 million people around the world have Irish forebears, emigration from Ireland has been the result of conflict and economic issues. People of Irish descent are mainly in English-speaking countries, especially the United Kingdom. There are significant numbers in Argentina and New Zealand, the United States has the most people of Irish descent, while in Australia those of Irish descent are a higher percentage of the population than in any other country. Many Icelanders have Irish and Scottish Gaelic forebears, in its summary of their article Who were the Celts.
The National Museum Wales notes It is possible that genetic studies of ancient. However, early studies have, so far, tended to produce implausible conclusions from very small numbers of people and using outdated assumptions about linguistics, nineteenth century anthropology studied the physical characteristics of Irish people in minute detail. During the past 10,000 years of inhabitation, Ireland has witnessed some different peoples arrive on its shores, the ancient peoples of Ireland—such as the creators of the Céide Fields and Newgrange—are almost unknown. Neither their languages nor terms they used to describe themselves have survived, as late as the middle centuries of the 1st millennium the inhabitants of Ireland did not appear to have a collective name for themselves. Ireland itself was known by a number of different names, including Banba, Fódla, Ériu by the islanders and Hiverne to the Greeks, other Latin names for people from Ireland in Classic and Mediaeval sources include Attacotti and Gael