Telepathy is the purported vicarious transmission of information from one person to another without using any known human sensory channels or physical interaction. The term was coined in 1882 by the classical scholar Frederic W. H. Myers, a founder of the Society for Psychical Research, has remained more popular than the earlier expression thought-transference. Telepathy experiments have been criticized for lack of proper controls and repeatability. There is no convincing evidence that telepathy exists, the topic is considered by the scientific community to be pseudoscience. According to historians such as Roger Luckhurst and Janet Oppenheim the origin of the concept of telepathy in Western civilization can be tracked to the late 19th century and the formation of the Society for Psychical Research; as the physical sciences made significant advances, scientific concepts were applied to mental phenomena, with the hope that this would help to understand paranormal phenomena. The modern concept of telepathy emerged in this context.
Psychical researcher Eric Dingwall criticized SPR founding members Frederic W. H. Myers and William F. Barrett for trying to "prove" telepathy rather than objectively analyze whether or not it existed. In the late 19th century, the magician and mentalist, Washington Irving Bishop would perform "thought reading" demonstrations. Bishop ascribed his powers to muscular sensitivity. Bishop was investigated by a group of scientists including the editor of the British Medical Journal and the psychologist Francis Galton. Bishop performed several feats such as identifying a selected spot on a table and locating a hidden object. During the experiment Bishop required physical contact with a subject, he would hold the wrist of the helper. The scientists concluded that Bishop was not a genuine telepath but using a trained skill to detect ideomotor movements. Another famous thought reader was the magician Stuart Cumberland, he was famous for performing blindfolded feats such as identifying a hidden object in a room that a person had picked out or asking someone to imagine a murder scene and attempt to read the subject's thoughts and identify the victim and reenact the crime.
Cumberland claimed to possess no genuine psychic ability and his thought reading performances could only be demonstrated by holding the hand of his subject to read their muscular movements. He came into dispute with psychical researchers associated with the Society for Psychical Research who were searching for genuine cases of telepathy. Cumberland argued that both telepathy and communication with the dead were impossible and that the mind of man cannot be read through telepathy, but only by muscle reading. In the late 19th century the Creery Sisters were tested by the Society for Psychical Research and believed to have genuine psychic ability. However, during a experiment they were caught utilizing signal codes and they confessed to fraud. George Albert Smith and Douglas Blackburn were claimed to be genuine psychics by the Society for Psychical Research but Blackburn confessed to fraud: For nearly thirty years the telepathic experiments conducted by Mr. G. A. Smith and myself have been accepted and cited as the basic evidence of the truth of thought transference......the whole of those alleged experiments were bogus, originated in the honest desire of two youths to show how men of scientific mind and training could be deceived when seeking for evidence in support of a theory they were wishful to establish.
Between 1916 and 1924, Gilbert Murray conducted 236 experiments into telepathy and reported 36% as successful, however, it was suggested that the results could be explained by hyperaesthesia as he could hear what was being said by the sender. Psychologist Leonard T. Troland had carried out experiments in telepathy at Harvard University which were reported in 1917; the subjects produced below chance expectations. Arthur Conan Doyle and W. T. Stead were duped into believing Julius and Agnes Zancig had genuine psychic powers. Both Doyle and Stead wrote. In 1924, Julius and Agnes Zancig confessed that their mind reading act was a trick and published the secret code and all the details of the trick method they had used under the title of Our Secrets!! in a London newspaper. In 1924, Robert H. Gault of Northwestern University with Gardner Murphy conducted the first American radio test for telepathy; the results were negative. One of their experiments involved the attempted thought transmission of a chosen number, out of 2010 replies none were correct.
In February 1927, with the co-operation of the British Broadcasting Corporation, V. J. Woolley, at the time the Research Officer for the SPR, arranged a telepathy experiment in which radio listeners were asked to take part; the experiment involved'agents' thinking about five selected objects in an office at Tavistock Square, whilst listeners on the radio were asked to identify the objects from the BBC studio at Savoy Hill. 24, 659 answers were received. The results revealed no evidence for telepathy. A famous experiment in telepathy was recorded by the American author Upton Sinclair in his book Mental Radio which documents Sinclair's test of psychic abilities of Mary Craig Sinclair, his second wife, she attempted to duplicate 290 pictures. Sinclair claimed Mary duplicated 65 of them, with 155 "partial successes" and 70 failures. However, these experiments were not
Worldwide JAM is an Internet based magazine aimed toward the Parkour community. The magazine itself features a multitude of articles ranging from the appearance of parkour in the media including when members of the street team appeared on an episode of the BBC's motoring programme Top Gear featuring a race between James May in a new Peugeot 207 against two traceurs in the city of Liverpool on 23 July 2006. Or whenever parkour is covered by the local media and readers are encouraged to report & send in any newspaper or television coverage they have received; the magazine features a number of parkour related equipment or clothing evaluations to show how a traceur can increase his efficiency in the discipline by using the reviewed items, while the Worldwide Jam magazine promises to be impartial and balanced some of these "road tests" have been written up by the magazines readers although it can be argued that this kind of reporting helps them achieve their goal. In November 2005, Issue #1 of the magazine was set to have its printing date set and deliveries started, With the first three issues being published bi-monthly and limited to 10,000 copies only the magazine was only going to be sold via specialist retailers or by subscription.
Problems arose however in getting the magazine into an actual physical format when JedRed Media lost its clientele with UK parkour team Urban Freeflow. Many members of the parkour community are still awaiting copies of the magazine or refunds after purchasing advanced subscriptions of the magazine, some dubbing the magazine "Worldwide Scam"; the WWJ website is displaying the following message when you click on its Magazine tab:23/02/07DETAILS COMING SHORTLYas of July 18, the page remains and no information has been released. In November 2008 most of the'Street team' walked out, refused to work for Andrew Smith or Worldwide Jam as they were owed considerable sums of money from WWJ. To date no magazine has emerged, no Street team remains - although Andrew Smith of Worldwide Jam refuses to remove images and bios from his'Team' page. Worldwide Jam is in debt to members of the Parkour community to the sum of thousands of pounds, has no means of repaying, it has been recommended that the community boycott the WWJ website, no not pay for any clothing or services from Worldwide jam.
Planet Parkour is a program on the worldwide jam website, developed by Chris Phillips and is an adaptation of the Hotspot Map found on the South Coast Parkour community website. The program itself is based on a Google maps API and displays on the map a parkour "hotspot" location it is possible for any traceur using the service to set their own personal location showing where they themselves are. Global Connect or the International Crew Directory is another service offered by the magazine that enables internet communities or groups of traceurs "teams" to have a link to their own websites by sending in their "crew banner" which comprises a 185x60 pixel jpeg or gif image which depicts the teams logo. Along with the banner the team must include the crew's website URL which after admin approval gets added to the main directory on WWJ's website. All WWJ require for this service is to have the crew wishing to be added to the directory place WWJ's own banner on the crew's website; the current street team members for 2007 are: Philli - quit as was owed money by Andrew Smith of Worldwide Jam Andi - quit as was owed money by Andrew Smith of Worldwide Jam Daniel Ilabaca - quit as was owed money by Andrew Smith of Worldwide Jam Chris Harbour Drunkmonk Curtis Smalls Brad Wendes - quit as was owed money by Andrew Smith of Worldwide Jam Luke Markey - quit as was owed money by Andrew Smith of Worldwide Jam Bradley Moss - quit as was owed money by Andrew Smith of Worldwide Jam Ashley Holland - quit as was owed money by Andrew Smith of Worldwide Jam Stuart Palmer Rich Jones - quit as was owed money by Andrew Smith of Worldwide Jam Boki Worldwide JAM Website - [http://www.worldwidejam.tv/index.html Global Connect - [http://www.worldwidejam.tv/linkspage.jam.parkour.html Planet Parkour - [http://www.worldwidejam.tv/PlanetParkour.1b.html
Year 1443 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. July 22 – Battle of St. Jakob an der Sihl: The forces of the city of Zürich are defeated, but the Swiss Confederacy have insufficient strength to besiege and take the city. April 15 – Queens' College, Cambridge is first founded by Margaret of Anjou. November 8 – Battle of Niš: John Hunyadi and the army of the Crusade of Varna defeat three armies of the Ottoman Empire, capture the city of Niš in modern-day Serbia. November 28 – Skanderbeg and his forces, rebelling against the Ottoman Empire, liberate Krujë, in Middle Albania, raise the Albanian flag. In Moldavia, the conflict between brothers and co-rulers Iliaș and Stephen II reignites, Stephen captures Iliaș and blinds him, thus remaining sole ruler of the country. Portuguese explorer Nuno Tristão penetrates the Arguin Gulf, off the west coast of Africa. King Sejong the Great establishes Hangul, as the native alphabet of the Korean language. Vlad II Dracul begins his second term as ruler of Wallachia, succeeding Basarab II.
The Buddhist Zhihua Temple is built in Beijing, at the order of Wang Zhen, chief eunuch at the court of the Zhengtong Emperor of Ming Dynasty China. A powerful earthquake destroys the Timișoara Fortress in Kingdom of Hungary January 27 – Albert III, Duke of Saxony February 2 – Elisabeth of Bavaria, Electress of Saxony February 12 – Giovanni II Bentivoglio, Italian noble February 23 – Matthias Corvinus, of Hungary February – Anne de Beauchamp, 15th Countess of Warwick May 17 – Edmund, Earl of Rutland, brother of Kings Edward IV of England and Richard III of England May 29 – Victor, Duke of Münsterberg, Duke of Münsterberg and Opava, Count of Glatz May 31 or 1441 – Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and Derby, English noble, mother of King Henry VII, grandmother of King Henry VIII of England June 29 – Anthony Browne, English knight September 9 – Muhammad Jaunpuri November 10 – Adolf III of Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein, Germany noble December 1 – Magdalena of France, French princess and regent of Navarre December 5 – Pope Julius II probable Piero del Pollaiolo, Italian painter Ygo Gales Galama, Frisian warlord and freedom fighting rebel January 16 – Erasmo of Narni, Italian mercenary January 28 – Robert le Maçon, Chancellor of France February – Guidantonio da Montefeltro, count of Urbino March 24 – James Douglas, 7th Earl of Douglas April 12 – Henry Chichele, Archbishop of Canterbury May 9 – Niccolò Albergati, Italian cardinal and diplomat June 5 – Ferdinand the Holy Prince of Portugal August 16 – Ashikaga Yoshikatsu, Japanese shōgun September 18 – Lewis of Luxembourg, Archbishop of Rouen date unknown – Infante Diogo, Constable of Portugal Jelena Balšić, Serbian duchess probable – Zeami Motokiyo, Japanese actor and playwright