Saint Helena is a volcanic tropical island in the South Atlantic Ocean, 4,000 kilometres east of Rio de Janeiro and 1,950 kilometres west of the mouth of the Cunene River, which marks the border between Namibia and Angola in southwestern Africa. It is part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha. Saint Helena measures about 16 by 8 kilometres and has a population of 4,534, it was named after Saint Helena of Constantinople. It is one of the most remote islands in the world, was uninhabited when discovered by the Portuguese in 1502, it was an important stopover for ships sailing to Europe from South Africa for centuries. Napoleon was imprisoned there in exile by the British, as was Dinuzulu kaCetshwayo and more than 5,000 Boers taken prisoner during the Second Boer War, including Piet Cronjé. Saint Helena is Britain's second-oldest overseas territory after Bermuda. Most historical accounts state that the island was sighted on 21 May 1502 by Galician navigator João da Nova sailing in the service of Portugal, that he named it Santa Helena after Helena of Constantinople.
A paper published in 2015 observes that 21 May is a Protestant rather than a Catholic or Orthodox feast day, the date was first quoted in 1596 by Jan Huyghen van Linschoten, mistaken because the island was discovered several decades before the Reformation and the start of Protestantism. An alternative discovery date of 3 May is suggested as being more credible. Another theory holds that the island found by da Nova was Tristan da Cunha, 2,430 kilometres to the south, that Saint Helena was discovered by some of the ships attached to the squadron of the Estêvão da Gama expedition on 30 July 1503; the Portuguese found the island uninhabited, with an abundance of fresh water. They imported livestock, fruit trees and vegetables, built a chapel and one or two houses, they formed no permanent settlement, but the island was an important rendezvous point and source of food for ships travelling by Cape Route from Asia to Europe, sick mariners were left on the island to recover before taking passage on the next ship to call at the island.
Englishman Sir Francis Drake located the island on the final leg of his circumnavigation of the world. Further visits by other English explorers followed and, once Saint Helena’s location was more known, English ships of war began to lie in wait in the area to attack Portuguese India carracks on their way home. In developing their Far East trade, the Dutch began to frequent the island; the Portuguese and Spanish soon gave up calling at the island because they used ports along the West African coast, but because of attacks on their shipping, the desecration of their chapel and religious icons, destruction of their livestock, destruction of plantations by Dutch and English sailors. The Dutch Republic formally claimed Saint Helena in 1633, although there is no evidence that they occupied, colonised, or fortified it. By 1651, the Dutch had abandoned the island in favour of their colony at the Cape of Good Hope. In 1657, Oliver Cromwell granted the English East India Company a charter to govern Saint Helena and, the following year, the company decided to fortify the island and colonise it with planters.
The first governor, Captain John Dutton, arrived in 1659, making Saint Helena one of Britain's earliest colonies outside North America and the Caribbean. A fort and houses were built. After the Restoration of the English monarchy in 1660, the East India Company received a royal charter giving it the sole right to fortify and colonise the island; the fort was renamed James Fort and the town Jamestown, in honour of the Duke of York King James II of England. Between January and May 1673, the Dutch East India Company forcibly took the island, before English reinforcements restored English East India Company control; the company experienced difficulty attracting new immigrants, sentiments of unrest and rebellion arose among the inhabitants. Ecological problems of deforestation, soil erosion and drought led Governor Isaac Pyke in 1715 to suggest that the population be moved to Mauritius, but this was not acted upon and the company continued to subsidise the community because of the island's strategic location.
A census in 1723 recorded 1,110 people, including 610 slaves. Eighteenth-century governors tried to tackle the island's problems by planting trees, improving fortifications, eliminating corruption, building a hospital, tackling the neglect of crops and livestock, controlling the consumption of alcohol and introducing legal reforms; the island enjoyed a lengthy period of prosperity from about 1770. Captain James Cook visited the island in 1775 on the final leg of his second circumnavigation of the world. St. James' Church was built in Jamestown in 1774, Plantation House in 1791–1792. Edmond Halley visited Saint Helena on leaving the University of Oxford in 1676 and set up an astronomical observatory with a 7.3-metre-long aerial telescope, with the intention of studying stars from the Southern Hemisphere. The site of this telescope is near Saint Mathew's Church in Hutt's Gate in the Longwood district; the 680-metre high hill there is called Halley's Mount. Throughout this period, Saint Helena was an important port of call of the East India Company.
Telephone numbers in Ghana
The Ghana telephone numbering plan is the system used for assigning telephone numbers in Ghana. It is regulated by the National Communications Authority, which holds responsibility for telecommunications. Since 1 May 2010, all fixed-line numbers and mobile numbers have 9 national numbers after the'0' trunk code. Due to the unreliability of fixed-line infrastructure in Ghana, mobile phones are more used. Competition among the various mobile carriers has spurred growth with a subscriber penetration rate of 98% in 2010; the poor call quality of mobile phones, means that more people hold more than one mobile phone with two or more different carriers. The various mobile carriers in Ghana have each been assigned a network code. Ghana city calling codes. - accessed 26 April 2010
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha is a British Overseas Territory located in the South Atlantic and consisting of the island of Saint Helena, Ascension Island and the archipelago of Tristan da Cunha. Its name was Saint Helena and Dependencies until 1 September 2009, when a new constitution came into force giving the three islands equal status within the territory. Despite this change, the whole territory is still referred to as Saint Helena after its main island; the demonym Saint Helenians and the derived name for the local nationality is understood to include Ascension Islanders and Tristanians, as well. Of volcanic origin, the islands of Saint Helena, Ascension Island, Tristan da Cunha were all separate colonies of the English crown, though separately discovered by several Portuguese explorers between 1502 and 1504; the Portuguese found. They imported livestock, fruit trees and vegetables, built a chapel and one or two houses. Though they formed no permanent settlement, the island became crucially important for the collection of food and as a rendezvous point for homebound voyages from Asia.
English privateer Francis Drake probably located the island on the final lap of his circumnavigation of the world. Further visits by other English explorers followed, once St Helena's location was more known, English warships began to lie in wait in the area to attack Portuguese carracks on their way home from India. In developing their Far East trade, the Dutch began to frequent the island and made a formal claim to it in 1633, but did not settle the isle and by 1651 abandoned it in favour of their colony at the Cape of Good Hope. In 1657, the English East India Company was granted a charter to govern Saint Helena by Oliver Cromwell, the following year the Company decided to fortify and colonise the island with planters; the first governor, Captain John Dutton, arrived in 1659, it is from this date that St Helena claims to be Britain’s second oldest remaining colony, after Bermuda. A fort was completed and a number of houses were built. After the Restoration of the British monarchy in 1660, the East India Company received a Royal Charter giving it the sole right to fortify and colonise the island.
The fort was renamed James Fort and the town Jamestown, in honour of the Duke of York and heir apparent King James II of England and VII of Scotland. The Kingdom of England became part of the new Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707 and the United Kingdom in 1801; the most important and first settled, the island of Saint Helena, had been governed by the East India Company since 1659. It became internationally known as the British government's chosen place of exile of Napoleon Bonaparte, detained on the island from October 1815 until his death on 5 May 1821, it was made a British crown colony in 1834 by the Government of India Act 1833. Unoccupied Ascension Island was garrisoned by the Royal Navy on 22 October 1815, shortly after which the end of the Age of Sail made its difficult location in the equatorial doldrums less important relative to its strategic importance as a centrally positioned naval coaling station. For similar reasons Tristan da Cunha was annexed as a dependency of the Cape Colony on 14 August 1816, at the settlement of the Napoleonic wars.
For a short period just Tristan da Cunha had been inhabited by a private American expedition who named the territory the Islands of Refreshment. The political union between these colonies began to take shape on 12 September 1922, when by letters patent Ascension Island became a dependency of Saint Helena. Populated Tristan da Cunha today little more than an outpost with a population of less than three hundred, followed suit on 12 January 1938; the three island groups shared this constitutional relationship until 1 September 2009, when the dependencies were raised to equal status with St. Helena and the territory changed its name from "Saint Helena and Dependencies" to "Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha". During the Battle of the Atlantic of World War II and the following several years of U-boat warfare in the Atlantic, both Saint Helena and Ascension Island were used by the Allies to base patrolling anti-surface-commerce-raider and anti-submarine warfare forces against the Axis powers' naval units.
Long range naval patrol flying boats were used in the effort, in the war during the struggle to improve air coverage over the commercially important sea lanes, air strips were built to support land based aircraft which supplied and complemented the PBY Catalina patrol planes in the vitally important ASW mission. The United Kingdom and the United States still jointly operate the airfield on Ascension, which serves as a space-based communications, signals intelligence, navigation nexus and hub. One of only four GPS satellite ground antennas is located there; the territory stretches across a huge distance of the South Atlantic Ocean with the northern-most island, having a latitude of 7° 56′ S of the equator and the southern-most island, Gough Island, at 40° 19′ S. Between Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha is the Tropic of Capricorn; the distance between the northern tip of Ascension Island and the southern tip of Gough Island is 2,263 miles. The whole territory has the same time zone: Greenwich Mean Time.
Daylight saving time is not observed. Although all three parts of the territory were formed by volcanic activity, only the Tristan da Cunh
Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha, colloquially Tristan, is both a remote group of volcanic islands in the south Atlantic Ocean and the main island of that group. It is the most remote inhabited archipelago in the world, lying 1,511 miles off the coast of Cape Town in South Africa, 1,343 miles from Saint Helena and 2,166 miles off the coast from the Falkland Islands; the territory consists of the main island, Tristan da Cunha, which has a diameter of 11 kilometres and an area of 98 square kilometres, the smaller, uninhabited Nightingale Islands, the wildlife reserves of Inaccessible Island and Gough Island. As of October 2018, the main island has 250 permanent inhabitants who all carry British Overseas Territories citizenship; the other islands are uninhabited, except for the personnel of a weather station on Gough Island. Tristan da Cunha is part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha; this includes Saint Helena and near-equatorial Ascension Island, which lies some 1,741 miles to the north of Tristan.
There is no airstrip of any kind on the main island, meaning that the only way of travelling in and out of Tristan is by boat, a six-day trip from South Africa. The islands were first recorded as sighted in 1506 by Portuguese explorer Tristão da Cunha, though rough seas prevented a landing, he named the main island after Ilha de Tristão da Cunha. It was anglicised from its earliest mention on British Admiralty charts to Tristan da Cunha Island; some sources state that the Portuguese made the first landing in 1520, when the Lás Rafael captained by Ruy Vaz Pereira called at Tristan for water. The first undisputed landing was made on 7 February 1643 by the crew of the Dutch East India Company ship Heemstede, captained by Claes Gerritsz Bierenbroodspot; the Dutch stopped at the island four more times in the next 25 years, in 1656 created the first rough charts of the archipelago. The first full survey of the archipelago was made by crew of the French corvette Heure du Berger in 1767; the first scientific exploration was conducted by French naturalist Louis-Marie Aubert du Petit-Thouars, who stayed on the island for three days in January 1793, during a French mercantile expedition from Brest, France to Mauritius.
Thouars made botanical collections and reported traces of human habitation, including fireplaces and overgrown gardens left by Dutch explorers in the 17th century. The first permanent settler was Jonathan Lambert of Salem, United States, who moved to the island in December 1810 with two other men, a third. Lambert publicly named them the Islands of Refreshment. Three of the four men died in 1812. In 1816, the United Kingdom annexed the islands, making them a dependency of the Cape Colony in South Africa; this was explained as a measure to prevent the islands' use as a base for any attempt to free Napoleon Bonaparte from his prison on Saint Helena. The occupation prevented the United States from using Tristan da Cunha as a base for naval cruisers, as it had during the War of 1812; the islands were occupied by a garrison of British Marines, a civilian population grew. Berwick stopped there on 25 March 1824 and reported that it had a population of twenty-two men and three women. Whalers set up bases on the islands for operations in the Southern Atlantic.
However, the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, together with the gradual transition from sailing ships to coal-fired steam ships, increased the isolation of the islands, which were no longer needed as a stopping port for lengthy sail voyages, or for shelter for journeys from Europe to East Asia. In 1867, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and second son of Queen Victoria, visited the islands; the main settlement, Edinburgh of the Seven Seas, was named in honour of his visit. On 15 October 1873, the Royal Navy scientific survey vessel HMS Challenger docked at Tristan to conduct geographic and zoological surveys on Tristan, Inaccessible Island and the Nightingale Islands. In his log, Captain George Nares recorded a total of fifteen families and eighty-six individuals living on the island. After years of hardship since the 1880s and an difficult winter in 1906, the British government offered to evacuate the island in 1907; the Tristanians held a meeting and decided to refuse, despite the crown's warning that it could not promise further help in the future.
No ships called at the islands from 1909 until 1919, when HMS Yarmouth stopped to inform the islanders of the outcome of World War I. The Shackleton–Rowett Expedition stopped in Tristan for five days in May 1922, collecting geological and botanical samples before returning to Cape Town. Of the few ships that visited in the coming years were the RMS Asturias, a Royal Mail Steam Packet Company passenger liner, in 1927, the ocean liners RMS Empress of France in 1928, RMS Duchess of Atholl in 1929, RMS Empress of Australia in 1935. In 1936, The Daily Telegraph of London reported the population of the island was 167 people, with 185 cattle and 42 horses. From December 1937 to March 1938, a Norwegian party made a dedicated scientific expedition to Tristan da Cunha, sociologist Peter A. Munch extensively documented island culture—he would revisit the island in 1964–65; the island was visited in 1938 by W. Robert Foran, reporting for the National Geographic Society. On 12 January 1938 by letters patent, Britain declared the islands a dependency of Saint Helena, creating the British Crown Colony of Saint Helena and
Foreign and Commonwealth Office
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom. It is responsible for promoting British interests worldwide, it was created in 1968 by merging the Commonwealth Office. The head of the FCO is the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs abbreviated to "Foreign Secretary"; this is regarded as one of the four most prestigious positions in the Cabinet – the Great Offices of State – alongside those of Prime Minister, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Home Secretary. The FCO is managed from day to day by a civil servant, the Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, who acts as the Head of Her Majesty's Diplomatic Service; this position is held by Sir Simon McDonald, who took office on 1 September 2015. Safeguarding the UK's national security by countering terrorism and weapons proliferation, working to reduce conflict. Building the UK's prosperity by increasing exports and investment, opening markets, ensuring access to resources, promoting sustainable global growth.
Supporting British nationals around the world through modern and efficient consular services. The FCO Ministers are as follows: Eighteenth centuryThe Foreign Office was formed in March 1782 by combining the Southern and Northern Departments of the Secretary of State, each of which covered both foreign and domestic affairs in their parts of the Kingdom; the two departments' foreign affairs responsibilities became the Foreign Office, whilst their domestic affairs responsibilities were assigned to the Home Office. The Home Office is technically the senior. Nineteenth centuryDuring the 19th century, it was not infrequent for the Foreign Office to approach The Times newspaper and ask for continental intelligence, superior to that conveyed by official sources. Examples of journalists who specialized in foreign affairs and were well connected to politicians included: Henry Southern, Valentine Chirol, Harold Nicolson, Robert Bruce Lockhart. Twentieth centuryDuring the First World War, the Arab Bureau was set up within the British Foreign Office as a section of the Cairo Intelligence Department.
During the early cold war an important department was the Information Research Department, set up to counter Soviet propaganda and infiltration. The Foreign Office hired its first woman diplomat, Monica Milne, in 1946; the FCO was formed on 17 October 1968, from the merger of the short-lived Commonwealth Office and the Foreign Office. The Commonwealth Office had been created only in 1966, by the merger of the Commonwealth Relations Office and the Colonial Office, the Commonwealth Relations Office having been formed by the merger of the Dominions Office and the India Office in 1947—with the Dominions Office having been split from the Colonial Office in 1925; the Foreign and Commonwealth Office held responsibility for international development issues between 1970 and 1974, again between 1979 and 1997. From 1997, this became the responsibility of the separate Department for International Development; the National Archives website contains a Government timeline to show the departments responsible for Foreign Affairs from 1945.
When David Miliband took over as Foreign Secretary in June 2007, he set in hand a review of the FCO's strategic priorities. One of the key messages of these discussions was the conclusion that the existing framework of ten international strategic priorities, dating from 2003, was no longer appropriate. Although the framework had been useful in helping the FCO plan its work and allocate its resources, there was agreement that it needed a new framework to drive its work forward; the new strategic framework consists of three core elements: A flexible global network of staff and offices, serving the whole of the UK Government. Three essential services that support the British economy, British nationals abroad and managed migration for Britain; these services are delivered through UK Trade & Investment, consular teams in Britain and overseas, UK Visas and Immigration. Four policy goals: countering terrorism and weapons proliferation and their causes preventing and resolving conflict promoting a low-carbon, high-growth, global economy developing effective international institutions, in particular the United Nations and the European Union.
In August 2005, a report by management consultant group Collinson Grant was made public by Andrew Mackinlay. The report criticised the FCO's management structure, noting: The Foreign Office could be "slow to act". Delegation is lacking within the management structure. Accountability was poor; the FCO could feasibly cut 1200 jobs. At least £48 million could be saved annually; the Foreign Office commissioned the report to highlight areas which would help it achieve its pledge to reduce spending by £87 million over three years. In response to the report being made public, the Foreign Office stated it had implemented the report's recommendations. In 2009, Gordon Brown created the position of Chief Scientific Adviser to the FCO; the first science adviser was David C. Clary. On 25 April 2010, the department apologised after The Sunday Telegraph obtained a "foolish" document calling for the upcoming September visit of Pope Benedict XVI to be marked by the launch of "Benedict-branded" condoms, the opening of an abortion clinic and the blessing of a same-sex marriage.
In 2012, the Foreign Office was criticised by Gerald Steinberg, of the Jerusalem-based research institute NGO Monitor, saying that the Foreign Office and the Department for International Development provided more than £500,000 in funding to Palestinian NGOs which he said "promote political attacks on Israel." In response, a spokesman for the Foreign Office said "we are careful about who and what we fund. The obje
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion