Tad Mosel was an American playwright and one of the leading dramatists of hour-long teleplay genre for live television during the 1950s. He received the 1961 Pulitzer Prize for Drama for his play All the Way Home. Mosel was born George Ault Mosel, Jr. in Steubenville, Ohio to George Ault Mosel, Sr. and Margaret Norman. Raised as a Presbyterian, he was eight years old when his father's wholesale grocery business failed following the stock market crash, the family moved to the suburbs of New York City. In 1931, George, Sr. launched a successful New York advertising company. Remembering his youth in Larchmont and New Rochelle, Tad Mosel stated: My brother and I were given a sense of security. My brother is four years older. We had a wonderful home. I had a marvelous mother and father... I adored my father, they were both wonderful parents. Mosel's interest in theater began in 1936 when he saw Katharine Cornell on Broadway in George Bernard Shaw's Saint Joan, he went for one year to the Mount Hermon School in Northfield, graduating from New Rochelle High School.
After the attack on Pearl Harbor, Mosel dropped out of Amherst College to enlist in the Army. During World War II, he was a Sergeant in the U. S. Air Force Weather Service as a weather observer, including one year in the South Pacific. In the post-WWII years he finished at Amherst and did graduate studies at the Yale Drama School, followed by a Master's at Columbia University, he was writing plays while auditioning as an actor, in 1949 he was on Broadway in the scene-stealing, non-speaking role of a confused private in the farce, At War with the Army. His first teleplay was performed on Chevrolet Tele-Theater in 1949. During the early 1950s, he became a leading scripter for live television dramas, contributing six teleplays to Goodyear Television Playhouse, two to Medallion Theatre and four to Playhouse 90, he wrote for The Philco Television Playhouse, Producers' Showcase and Studio One. After Eileen Heckart appeared in his 1953 play about a troubled marriage, The Haven and Heckart became friends, he wrote several scripts for her, including the 1953 Other People's Houses about a housekeeper caring for her senile father.
In 1997, Mosel recalled: Paddy Chayefsky, Horton Foote, Sumner Locke Elliott, JP Miller and all of the group of writers that I knew, we grew up at the same time, our eyes were on the theater. That was the Emerald City; that was the goal. Now, television came on after World War II, television was a pauper, it had no money. No "self-respecting writer" would deign to write for television. Drunken screenwriters wouldn't write for television. So, there left? It was us, it was kids. And so with a patronizing attitude you thought, "Well, if I could make a few bucks doing that, it would give me time to write the great American play." It didn't take too much experience to realize that television was a medium all in itself, that it was a career all in itself, it was a thrilling one. But we stumbled into it by being snobs, they would give anyone a chance. I look back on it, I think, "Weren't we lucky to be there?" Because it was pure luck that we were there... It was the stillness before you went on the air, so dramatic because everybody would be in place in plenty of time, but everybody would be silent.
Nobody talking, nobody moving--the hands on the keys but not moving. The only thing moving was the second hand on the big clock, when it hit the top everybody started to move, it was dramatic, that peace, that calm before you took the dive into it. It was a great thrilling moment and you loved every actor, you just wanted them all to be rich and have children and go to happy graves. Mosel's All the Way Home premiered in New York November 30, 1960, at the Belasco Theater to critical acclaim. In addition to winning a 1961 Pulitzer Prize, the play was nominated for a Tony Award. A stage adaptation of James Agee's novel A Death in the Family, it dramatizes the reactions of a Tennessee family to the father's accidental death in the summer of 1915; the play was performed several times on television—in 1963, 1971 and 1981. In Denmark it was known as I havn and directed for Danish television by Clara Østø in 1959; the movie adaptation of All The Way Home was filmed in the same Knoxville, Tennessee neighborhood where Agee grew up.
Directed by Alex Segal, it starred Jean Simmons and Pat Hingle. Mosel wrote screenplays for the films Dear Heart, starring Glenn Ford and Geraldine Page, with Mosel seen in a cameo appearance as "Man in Lobby", the popular Up the Down Staircase, based on the novel by Bel Kaufman and starring Sandy Dennis, he was nominated for an Emmy Award for Outstanding Writing in a Drama Series for an episode of The Adams Chronicles, a PBS drama series based on the lives of presidents John Adams and John Quincy Adams and their families. Many of Mosel's plays for television are available for viewing at The Paley Center for Media in New York City and Los Angeles. Mosel's death at age 86 of esophageal cancer came after 18 years of residency at Havenwood-Heritage Heights, a Concord, New Hampshire retirement community where he lectured, he was preceded in death in 1995 by his partner of more than 40 years, McCall's magazine graphic designer, Raymond Tatro. Mosel's US$100,000 gift to Havenwood-Heritage Heights will go to finance an auditorium, Tad's Place, for future speakers to the community.
Mosel, Tad. Other People's Houses. New York: Simon and Schuster. OCLC 232773. Mosel, Tad. Leading Lady: The
The Philco Television Playhouse
The Philco Television Playhouse is an American television anthology series, broadcast live on NBC from 1948 to 1955. Produced by Fred Coe, the series was sponsored by Philco, it was one of the most respected dramatic shows of the Golden Age of Television, winning a 1954 Peabody Award and receiving eight Emmy nominations between 1951 and 1956. The first season featured adaptations of popular Broadway musicals. Ronald Wayne Rodman, in his book Tuning in: American Narrative Television Music, noted, "Despite ensuing complications over the legalities of broadcasting copyrighted plays on television and several legal battles that ensued, the show flourished."The first episode was Dinner at Eight by George S. Kaufman and Edna Ferber; the second season consisted of adaptations of popular novels from the Book of the Month Club. During seasons, both original stories and adaptations were used; the title of the show was changed to Repertory Theatre and Arena Theatre during part of the first season, but reverted to The Philco Television Playhouse.
Bert Lytell was the program's host in 1948-1949. The series launched the television writing careers of Robert Alan Aurthur, Paddy Chayefsky, Sumner Locke Elliott, Horton Foote, Tad Mosel, William Templeton, Arnold Schulman, Gore Vidal, its most famous drama was Chayefsky's Marty, which starred Rod Steiger and was made into a movie that won an Academy Award for Ernest Borgnine. Among the many performers on the Philco Television Playhouse were Dennis Cross, Lillian Gish, Janet De Gore, Melvyn Douglas, Grace Kelly, Jack Klugman, Cloris Leachman, Walter Matthau, Steve McQueen, Paul Muni, ZaSu Pitts, Eva Marie Saint, Everett Sloane, Kim Stanley, Eli Wallach and Joanne Woodward. Many of these actors were making their first television appearance. Another was Paul Muni. Beginning in 1951, Philco shared sponsorship of the program with Goodyear, with the title alternating between Philco Television Playhouse and Goodyear Television Playhouse to reflect that week's sponsor. In 1955, the show was retitled The Alcoa Hour.
The three series were the same, with the only real difference being the name of the sponsor. In the sixth season, Cathleen Nesbitt and Maureen Stapleton starred in Chayefsky's The Mother; this is one of the rare teleplays from television's Golden Age to be restaged on TV decades a Great Performances production on October 24, 1994, with Anne Bancroft and Joan Cusack. The seventh season began September 19, 1954, with E. G. Marshall and Eva Marie Saint in Chayefsky's Middle of the Night, a play which moved to Broadway 15 months and was filmed by Columbia Pictures in 1959. On August 7, 1955, John Cassavetes played an American artist expatriate in A Room in Paris; this adaptation of Peggy Mann's novel was published March 3, 1955, by Doubleday, followed by Popular Library's paperback edition. The final Philco production, on October 2, 1955, was Robert Alan Aurthur's A Man Is Ten Feet Tall, co-starring Don Murray and Sidney Poitier, adapted and expanded into the 1957 MGM feature film, Edge of the City, with Poitier recreating his original role and John Cassavetes in Murray's part.
Seasonal rankings of The Philco Television Playhouse on NBC. In 2006, the NBC series Studio 60 on the Sunset Strip referenced The Philco Television Playhouse as The Philco Comedy Hour, a comedy show that aired on the fictional NBS network. Eli Wallach made a guest appearance on Studio 60, playing a former show writer, blacklisted in the 1950s. Museum of Broadcast Communications profile The Philco Television Playhouse on IMDb The Philco Television Playhouse at TV.com The Philco Television Playhouse at CVTA
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
A play is a form of literature written by a playwright consisting of dialogue or singing between characters, intended for theatrical performance rather than just reading. Plays are performed at a variety of levels, from Broadway, Off-Broadway, regional theater, to Community theatre, as well as university or school productions. There are rare dramatists, notably George Bernard Shaw, who have had little preference as to whether their plays were performed or read; the term "play" can refer to both the written texts of playwrights and to their complete theatrical performance. Comedies are plays. Comedies are filled with witty remarks, unusual characters, strange circumstances. Certain comedies are geared toward different age groups. Comedies were one of the two original play types of Ancient Greece, along with tragedies. An example of a comedy would be William Shakespeare's play A Midsummer Night's Dream, or for a more modern example the skits from Saturday Night Live. A nonsensical genre of play, farces are acted and involve humor.
An example of a farce includes William Shakespeare's play The Comedy of Errors, or Mark Twain's play Is He Dead?. A satire play takes a comic look at current events people while at the same time attempting to make a political or social statement, for example pointing out corruption. An example of a satire would be Nikolai Gogol's The Government Inspector and Aristophanes' Lysistrata. Satire plays are one of the most popular forms of comedy, considered to be their own genre entirely. Restoration comedy is a genre that explored relationships between men and women, was considered risqué in its time. Characters featured in restoration comedy included stereotypes of all kinds, these same stereotypes were found in most plays of this genre, so much so that most plays were similar in message and content. However, since restoration comedy dealt with unspoken aspects of relationships, it created a type of connection between audience and performance, more informal and private, it is agreed that restoration comedy has origins in Molière’s theories of comedy, but differs in intention and tone.
The inconsistency between restoration comedy’s morals and the morals of the era is something that arises during the study of this genre. This may give clues as to why, despite its original success, restoration comedy did not last long in the seventeenth century. However, in recent years, it has become a topic of interest for theatre theorists, who have been looking into theatre styles that have their own conventions of performance; these plays contain darker themes such as disaster. The protagonist of the play has a tragic flaw, a trait which leads to their downfall. Tragic plays convey all emotions and have dramatic conflicts. Tragedy was one of the two original play types of Ancient Greece; some examples of tragedies include William Shakespeare's Hamlet, John Webster's play The Duchess of Malfi. These plays focus on actual historical events, they can be tragedies or comedies, but are neither of these. History as a separate genre was popularized by William Shakespeare. Examples of historical plays include Friedrich Schiller's Demetrius and William Shakespeare's King John.
Ballad opera, a popular theatre style at the time, was the first style of musical to be performed in the American colonies. The first musical of American origin was premiered in Philadelphia in 1767, was called “The Disappointment”, this play never made it to production. Around the 1920s, theatre styles were beginning to be defined more clearly. For musical theatre, this meant that composers gained the right to create every song in the play, these new plays were held to more specific conventions, such as thirty-two-bar songs; when the Great Depression came, many people left Broadway for Hollywood, the atmosphere of Broadway musicals changed significantly. A similar situation occurred during the 1960s, when composers were scarce and musicals lacked vibrancy and entertainment value. By the 1990s, there were few original Broadway musicals, as many were recreations of movies or novels. Musical productions have songs to help move the ideas of the play along, they are accompanied by dancing. Musicals can be elaborate in settings and actor performances.
Examples of musical productions include Fiddler on the Roof. This theatre style originated in the 1940s when Antonin Artaud hypothesized about the effects of expressing through the body as opposed to “by conditioned thought.” In 1946, he wrote a preface to his works in which he explained how he came to write what and the way he did. Above all, Artaud did not trust language as a means of communication. Plays within the genre of theatre of cruelty are abstract in content. Artaud wanted his plays to accomplish something, his intention was to symbolise the subconscious through bodily performances, as he did not believe language could be effective. Artaud considered his plays to be an enactment rather than a re-enactment, which meant he believed his actors were in reality, rather than re-enacting reality, his plays dealt with heavy issues such as patients in psych wards, Nazi Germany. Through these performances, he wanted to “make the causes of suffering audible”, audiences reacted poorly, as they were so taken aback by what they saw.
Much of his work was banned in France at the time. Artaud did not believe that conventional theatre of the time would allow the audience to have a cathartic experience and help heal the wounds of World War II. For this reason, he moved towards radio-based theatre, in which the audience could use their imagination to connect the word
Days of Wine and Roses (Playhouse 90)
Days of Wine and Roses was a 1958 American teleplay by JP Miller which dramatized the problems of alcoholism. John Frankenheimer directed the cast headed by Piper Laurie and Charles Bickford; the 90-minute telecast was presented live with tape inserts on October 2, 1958 and was the second episode of the third season of the anthology series Playhouse 90 on CBS. Costume changes were made possible because Frankenheimer taped the Alcoholics Anonymous scenes on the day prior to the live telecast. During a rehearsal, according to Miller, the producer Fred Coe dropped by and watched as Robertson and Laurie "played some of the most realistic drunk scenes seen anywhere. Frankenheimer was ecstatic but was grounded by Coe's drawled comment,'John, you've got the Wine. Now let's see if you can get the Roses.'"The drama depicts the slow deterioration of a marriage due to alcoholism as ambitious ad man Joe Clay gets his wife Kristen to join him in drinking bouts that soon begin to destroy their lives. John J. O'Connor reviewed the 1983 video cassette release in The New York Times: Mr. Miller reveals that the idea for the play came to him one sleepless night when "I got to thinking about an uncle of mine, a drunk."
He settled on two young people who like to drink and "fall in love with the bottle more than each other."... As Mr. Robertson observes with admirable detachment, it is raw and imperfect but "it was honest." Using the framework of an Alcoholics Anonymous meeting, Joe gets up to address the gathering and his story is told in flashbacks that begin 10 years earlier. He meets Kirsten at a business cocktail party, he is a young advertising executive. She is a bright secretary whose self-improvement activities have reached the point of her reading the poetry of Edna St. Vincent Millay; the drinking gets serious early on, their lives dissolve in puddles of cheap liquor. Her father tries to help, but the process has gone too far for mere sympathy to help... Several of the scenes remain searing. JP Miller found his title in the 1896 poem "Vitae Summa Brevis Spem Nos Vetet Incohare Longam" by the English writer Ernest Dowson: The episode received favorable reviews from television critics. Jack Gould, in The New York Times, praised the writing and cast: It was a brilliant and compelling work...
Mr. Miller's dialogue was fine, natural and understated. Miss Laurie's performance was enough to make the flesh crawl, yet it always elicited deep sympathy, her interpretation of the young wife just a shade this side of delirium tremens--the flighty dancing around the room, her weakness of character and moments of anxiety and her charm when she was sober--was a superlative accomplishment. Miss Laurie is moving into the forefront of our most gifted young actresses. Mr. Robertson achieved first-rate contrast between the sober man fighting to hold on and the hopeless drunk whose only courage came from the bottle, his scene in the greenhouse, where he tried to find the bottle that he had hidden in the flower pot, was good... John Frankenheimer's direction was magnificent, his every touch implemented the emotional suspense but he never let the proceedings get out of hand or become sensational. A film of the teleplay was produced in 1962 by Martin Manulis with Blake Edwards directing Jack Lemmon, Lee Remick, Charles Bickford and Jack Klugman.
Bickford was the only member of the TV cast to repeat his role in the movie. When Frankenheimer was not chosen to direct the movie, he was told by his agent, "John, they say you're not a comedy director." Some critics observed. For DVD Journal, D. K. Holm described the numerous changes that altered the original when the material was filmed: Newer does not mean better; when the opportunity arose to make a film version of JP Miller's powerful TV drama Days of Wine and Roses, actor Jack Lemmon suggested that the studio hire Blake Edwards rather than the Playhouse 90 production's original director, John Frankenheimer. On the big screen, Roses began as a Fox project, but ended up at Warner Bros. when the Fox studio started going down the Nile with Cleopatra. With the advent of Lemmon's participation, little remained of the founding teleplay... Lemmon, had been in a long string of comedies, it's easy to assume that both filmmakers were using the opportunity to "stretch." Edwards, kind of a combination of George Stevens and Vincente Minnelli, tilted the original material towards schmaltz, from the comically lush theme-song by Henry Mancini to the exaggerated binge scenes.
According to one Lemmon biography, the actor felt a little bad about the fact that his friend Cliff Robertson, who had appeared in the TV production, wasn't invited to be in the movie, but the studio insisted on a certified star for the film... What's missing is the calm plausibility of the original TV broadcast, revived on cable TV in the 1990s. In 2003, Rachel Wood directed the New York stage premiere of Days of Wine and Roses, an off-Broadway production by the Boomerang Theatre Company. In 2005, the Northern Irish writer Owen McCafferty relocated Days of Wine and Roses to London in the 1960s, reworking it to focus on a young couple just arrived from Belfast; that stage version had a West End premiere at the Donmar Warehouse directed by Peter Gill, who had staged McCafferty's National Theatre hit, Scenes from the Big Picture. The Criterion Collection included the teleplay as part of a special edi
Golden Age of Television
The first Golden Age of Television is the era of live television production in the United States from the late 1940s through the late 1950s. According to The Television Industry: A Historical Dictionary, "the Golden Age opened with Kraft Television Theatre on May 7, 1947, ended with the last live show in the Playhouse 90 series in 1957. Prior to 1948, there had been some attempts at television programming using the mechanical television process. One of the first series made for television to have a sustained run was CBS's 1931–33 murder-mystery series The Television Ghost, which ran for all 19 months that its flagship television station W2XAB, was on the air; the limits of mechanical television inherently meant that these productions were primitive. By the time electronic television was standardized in the late 1930s, some more varied experimental programs, including live sportscasts and some game shows, were appearing; the decade-long period of developing television techniques allowed broadcasting companies to be prepared when the war ended and the ensuing post-war prosperity allowed for increased consumer adoption of television sets.
The early days of television were a time when many hour-long anthology drama series received critical acclaim. Examples include Kraft Television Theatre, The Chevrolet Tele-Theatre, Television Playhouse, The Philco Television Playhouse, Westinghouse Studio One, Your Show Time; as a new medium, television introduced many innovative programming concepts, prime time television drama showcased both original and classic productions, including the first telecasts of Walt Disney's programs, as well as the first telecasts of Mary Martin in Peter Pan, MGM's classic The Wizard of Oz and Rodgers and Hammerstein's Cinderella. The first screen adaptation of a James Bond story was a teleplay that aired in 1954. Critics and viewers looked forward to new teleplays by Paddy Chayefsky, Horton Foote, Tad Mosel, Reginald Rose, Rod Serling, William Templeton, Gore Vidal and others. A few of these teleplays, including Rose's Twelve Angry Men and Chayefsky's Marty, would be adapted for film and other media and go on to great acclaim.
Most of these programs were produced as installments of live dramatic anthologies, such as The Philco Television Playhouse, Kraft Television Theatre and Playhouse 90. Live, abridged versions of plays like Cyrano de Bergerac, with members of the cast of the 1946 Broadway revival recreating their roles, were shown during this period. Playhouse 90 was one of the last shows of its kind. Early television broadcasts were filmed productions. Broadcasting news and other live events was something of a technical challenge in the early days of television and live drama with multiple cameras was challenging. A live, 90-minute drama might require a dozen sets and at least that many cameras. Major set and other changes had to occur during commercials, there were no "second takes." The cast and crew operated with the awareness of as many as 10 million people watching and any mistake went out live. After the adoption of videotape in 1957, many live dramas were shot "live to tape," still retaining a "live" television look and feel but able to both preserve the program for broadcast and allowing the possibility of retakes.
High culture dominated commercial network television programming in the 1950s with the first television appearances of Leonard Bernstein and Arturo Toscanini, the first telecasts from Carnegie Hall took place during this era, the first live American telecasts of plays by Shakespeare, the first telecasts of Tchaikovsky's ballets The Sleeping Beauty and The Nutcracker and the first opera specially composed for television and the Night Visitors. The Bell Telephone Hour, an NBC radio program, began its TV run featuring both classical and Broadway performers. All of these were broadcast on something that would be unheard of today. Commercial networks now concentrate on more popular items; the networks had their own art critics, notably Aline Saarinen and Brian O'Doherty, something, discontinued by the start of the digital television era. This high culture approach to television could be interpreted as a product of its time as networks were concerned with "cultural uplift" and viewed it as a way to cultural legitimacy on the new medium.
Many programs of this era evolved from successful radio shows that brought polished concepts and writing staffs to TV. Radio stars, in turn, had polished their craft on the vaudeville stages, many of them in the Borscht Belt within driving distance of New York City; this is one reason that quality was so high during this period. An original show like I Love Lucy drew he
The Alcoa Hour
The Alcoa Hour is an American anthology television series, aired live on NBC from 1955 to 1957. The series was sponsored by Alcoa. Like the Philco Television Playhouse and Goodyear Television Playhouse that had preceded it, The Alcoa Hour was a one-hour live dramatic anthology series presenting both original stories and adaptations of popular works; the three series were the same, with the only real difference being the name of the sponsor. The series alternated weeks in the same time slot with the Goodyear Television Playhouse until both series ended in 1957. One of the series' memorable episodes was the December 23, 1956, telecast of The Stingiest Man in Town, a musical adaptation of Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol, starring Basil Rathbone as Scrooge and Martyn Green as Bob Cratchit, it was the only Alcoa Hour production to be granted an original cast album recording. The Stingiest Man in Town was remade in 1978 as a Rankin-Bass animated cartoon, featuring the voice of Walter Matthau as Scrooge.
The series' premiere episode, The Black Wings, marked the American TV debut of Ann Todd. The show garnered press in February 1956 for actor Lloyd Bridges' emotional performance in an episode titled "Tragedy in a Temporary Town", directed by Sidney Lumet. During the performance, Bridges inadvertently slipped some profanity in while ad-libbing. Although the slip of the lip generated hundreds of complaints, the episode won a Robert E. Sherwood Television Award, with Bridges' slip being defended by some members of the clergy; the episode, during which an innocent Puerto Rican man is targeted by a mob for a sexual crime, was cited by the Anti-Defamation League as "the best dramatic program of the year dealing with interethnic group relations." *No information found for this episode. Alcoa Premiere Alcoa Theatre The Alcoa Hour at CVTA with episode list The Alcoa Hour on IMDb The Alcoa Hour at TV.com