The Telescope (Magritte)
The Telescope is a 1963 oil on canvas painting by René Magritte. The painting depicts a window through which a clouded blue sky can be seen. However, the right side of the window is open, revealing a black background where the viewer would expect to see a continuation of the clouds and sky
In cognitive psychology, the telescoping effect refers to the temporal displacement of an event whereby people perceive recent events as being more remote than they are and distant events as being more recent than they are. The former is known as backward telescoping or time expansion, the latter as is known as forward telescoping. Three years is the time frame in which events switch from being displaced backward in time to forward in time, with events occurring three years in the past being likely to be reported with forward telescoping bias as with backward telescoping bias. Although telescoping occurs in both the forward and backward directions, in general the effect is to increase the number of events reported too recently; this net effect in the forward direction is because of forces that impair memory, such as lack of salience impair time perception. Telescoping leads to an over reporting of the frequency of events; this over reporting is because participants include events beyond the period, either events that are too recent for the target time period or events that are too old for the target time period.
The original work on telescoping is attributed to a 1964 article by Neter and Waksberg in the Journal of the American Statistical Association. The term telescoping comes from the idea that time seems to shrink toward the present in the way that the distance to objects seems to shrink when they are viewed through a telescope. A real-world example of the telescoping effect is the case of Ferdi Elsas, an infamous kidnapper and murderer in the Netherlands; when he was let out of prison, most of the general population did not believe he had been in prison long enough. Due to forward telescoping, people thought Ferdi Elsas' sentence started more than it did. Telescoping has important real world applications in survey research. Marketing firms use surveys to ask when consumers last bought a product, government agencies use surveys to discover information about drug abuse or about victimology. Telescoping may bias answers to these questions. Telescoping is studied in psychology by asking participants to recall dates or to estimate the recency of a personal event.
Another procedure, used is called the diary procedure, in which participants record personal events in a diary each day for several months. After the diary is completed, participants are asked to date events and assess how well they remember those events, their recollections are compared to the actual dates and details of the events in order to determine if telescoping has occurred. Researchers have examined possible reasons, they have proposed the following models. The two models that are favored are the associative and boundary models. Brown and Shevell created the accessibility hypothesis; this hypothesis states that dates are estimated, not recalled, these estimates are based on what is remembered about the event. People use. Therefore, memorable events should be recalled as occurring recently. Since these memorable events are recalled as occurring more in general people overestimate the recency of events and forward telescoping occurs. For example, when people are asked to estimate the dates of the shooting of Ronald Reagan and Pope John Paul II, which occurred in the same year, they estimate that Ronald Reagan's shooting occurred more recently.
Ronald Reagan's shooting is a more memorable event and was more publicized, so the memory of this event was more accessible to participants, indicating that accessibility plays a role in the dating of events. However, these results are not always replicated, sometimes the reverse is found. For this reason, other explanations have been presented to explain telescoping. Thompson et al. used the conveyor belt model of memory to explain forward telescoping. It assumes; when individuals try to remember the date of an event, they scan serially backward through memory. Since events are only remembered by order or time between events in this model, if an event is forgotten, previous events are recalled as if they occurred more and forward telescoping occurs. Another way of interpreting this theory is that people estimate the dates of events based on the number of personal events that have occurred since the target event. Since people underestimate memory loss over long periods of time, target events are moved closer to the present.
Although this model explains forward telescoping, it does not explain backward telescoping. Some psychologists have suggested that telescoping occurs because people are guessing the date of an event. According to this theory, if a person is unsure of a date, they minimize their chance of erring by placing events toward the middle of the period. However, telescoping occurs at the same frequency if events are remembered well or if events are not remembered well. Therefore, guessing is not a complete explanation for telescoping, another one of these models is responsible. Rubin and Baddley created the boundary model to explain telescoping; when people date events, they get information from a bounded period, such as a year or a vacation. This model assumes events are not assigned outside of the boundaries of this period, so dating errors can only move toward the middle of a boundary and that since recent events are dated more forward telescoping has a stronger effect, it postulates. There is some evidence against the boundary model.
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Telescoping (rail cars)
In a railway accident, telescoping occurs when the underframe of one vehicle overrides that of another, smashes through the second vehicle's body. The term is derived from the resulting appearance of the two vehicle bodies: the body of one vehicle may appear to be slid inside the other like the tubes of a collapsible telescope – the body sides and underframe of the latter vehicle being forced apart from each other. Telescoping results in heavy fatalities if the cars telescoped are occupied; the car riding on top will be destroyed by the structure of the car below, leaving little survivable space. The chances of telescoping can be reduced by use of anticlimbers and crash energy management structural systems. Accidents where telescoping occurred are numerous and include: 1864 Shohola train wreck 1888 Mud Run disaster 1947 Camp Mountain rail accident 1952 Harrow and Wealdstone rail crash 1957 Lewisham rail crash 1962 Rail accidents in Winsford 1972 Chicago commuter rail crash 1975 Moorgate tube crash 1981 Seer Green rail crash 1988 Chūō Main Line train collision 1990 Ursus rail crash 2004 Washington Metro train collision at Woodley Park station.
2008 Chatsworth train collision 2008 Massachusetts train collision June 2009 Washington Metro train collision 2010 Hakodate Main Line crash 2012 Buenos Aires rail disaster 2013 Keikyū Main Line crash 2014 Tōkyū Tōyoko Line train collisionTo reduce the chance of telescoping and tramway vehicles are provided with an anticlimber: a horizontally ridged plate at the end of the chassis, which in a collision will engage with the anticlimber on the next car. EN 15227 anti-climbing
"Telescope" is a song recorded by American actress Hayden Panettiere. The song was written by Cary Barlowe, it was released to country radio in October 2012 by Big Machine Records. It was the first official single from the album The Music of Nashville: Season 1 Volume 1; the album features a version of the song recorded by sisters Lennon and Maisy Stella. The UK compilation The Music of Nashville, Season 1: The Complete Collection includes a version recorded live in Nashville by Panettiere. Panettiere and Lennon Stella recorded a version for the season four episode "Stop the World," released as a digital single. Billy Dukes of Taste of Country gave the song three stars out of five. Dukes wrote that "Panettiere proves she can sing with the big girls, no shortcut is taken in production" but called the song "made-for-television," stating that "lyrically, ‘Telescope’ isn’t sharp enough for a more established country star to sing." Ashley Cooke of Roughstock gave the song three stars out of five. Cooke called it "a sassy upbeat song about girl done wrong, with a cute concept and catchy lyrics that stick in your head" but felt that Panettiere's voice was "a bit forced" and that the song wasn't "enough to move beyond the TV screen."
Ben Foster of Country Universe gave the song a B+, calling it "cool" and "nearly irresistible." Foster wrote that the song "tackles the tried-and-true country music theme of cheating with a clever concept and a great hook" and Panettiere "rides the catchy beat with an assured performance – subtle when necessary, forceful when appropriate," but felt that "the production and background vocals are laid on a bit too thick in some places toward the end the song." The music video was directed by TK McKamy and premiered in November 2012. "Telescope" debuted at number 51 on the U. S. Billboard Country Airplay chart for the week of November 10, 2012, it debuted at number 47 on the U. S. Billboard Hot Country Songs chart for the week of November 10, 2012
The Telescopes are an English noise, space rock, dream pop and psychedelic band, formed in 1987 by Stephen Lawrie, drawing influence from artists such as Suicide, The Velvet Underground and The 13th Floor Elevators. They have a total of ten released albums including their debut, released in 1989, their debut release was a split flexi disc with Loop on the Cheree label in 1988, given away with the Sowing Seeds fanzine. There followed their debut single, "Kick the Wall", "7th# Disaster" on Cheree Records, they moved to the American What Goes On Records and released their debut album Taste and "The Perfect Needle" single, their most famous song. A live album appeared on Fierce Records and following What Goes On’s bankruptcy they signed to Creation Records. In contrast to Taste's noise-rock, a more laid back sound followed, described by journalist Alexis Petridis as having "an fragile sense of elegance and melody", the band scraped the lower reaches of the UK Singles Chart with the single "Flying", released The Telescopes, their second album, in 1992.
Lawrie explained the change in direction: "Your idea of perfection changes as you move on. I think we still hold the same approach to our music now, we still try just as many mad ideas, it's just a lot more subtle and works to a different end". In 2002 they made a surprise return with Third Wave on Double Agent Records. In 2005 they released their fourth album #4 on their own Antenna Records. By this time they were a core of just Stephen Lawrie and Jo Doran, with additional member Lorin Halsall, were a much more experimental band specialising in electronic soundscapes. In 2006 The Telescopes line up again changed to Bridget Hayden. In July 2011, the band were invited by Portishead to perform at the ATP I'll Be Your Mirror at Alexandra Palace in London, where they performed songs from their debut album. An event repeated at Austin Psych Fest 2012 curated by The Reverberation Appreciation Society; the Telescopes live experience is Stephen Lawrie and members of One Unique Signal. The live album Live.
Aftertaste was released in 2010 on the Static Charge label. It has been described by Antenna Records as'... a livid document, recorded in past/present/future tense. The second, a new composition entitled "We See Magic and We Are Neutral, Unnecessary". A flexi-postcard release on The Dream Machine label. An album of new songs is underway, following sessions at the Brian Jonestown Massacre studios in Berlin and Spectrum co founder Richard Formby's studio in Leeds. In 2015, the Hidden Fields album was released by German label Tapete Records, it was described by AllMusic as noise pop, but more song-based than recent releases. Exploding Head Syndrome was released in 2019 on Tapete Records. Dagger says "if you find beauty in churning guitars, a groggy organ and Lawrie's half-mumbled lyrics you’ll find Exploding Head Syndrome to be the Raquel Welch of the year." Stephen Lawrie - Vocals and acoustic guitars Joanna Doran - Backing vocals and rhythm guitars David Fitzgerald - Lead guitars Robert Brooks - Bass guitars Dominic Dillon - Drums and percussion Taste The Telescopes Third Wave #4 Hungry Audio Tapes Infinite Suns HARM Hidden Fields As Light Return Exploding Head Syndrome Trade Mark Of Quality Live.
Aftertaste As Approved by the Committee Premonitions 1989-1991 Altered Perception Singles Compilation 1989-1991 Singles No. 2 Splashdown - The Complete Creation Recordings 1990-1992 Antennarecords.com thetelescopes.com
R. C. Sherriff
Robert Cedric Sherriff, FSA, FRSL was an English writer best known for his play Journey's End, based on his experiences as an army officer in the First World War. He wrote several plays and screenplays, was nominated for an Academy Award and two BAFTA awards. Sherriff was born in Hampton Wick, Middlesex, to insurance clerk Herbert Hankin Sherriff and Constance Winder, he was educated at Kingston Grammar School in Kingston upon Thames from 1905-1913. After he left school, Sherriff worked in an insurance office as a clerk and as an insurance adjuster at Sun Insurance Company, London. Sherriff served as an officer in the 9th battalion of the East Surrey Regiment in the First World War, taking part in the fighting at Vimy Ridge and Loos, he was wounded at Passchendaele near Ypres in 1917. Sherriff studied at New College, Oxford from 1931 to 1934, he was a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London. He first wrote a play to help Kingston Rowing Club raise money to buy a new boat, his seventh play, Journey's End, was written in 1928 and published in 1929 and was based on his experiences in the war.
It was given a single Sunday performance, on 9 December 1928, by the Incorporated Stage Society at the Apollo Theatre, directed by James Whale and with the 21-year-old Laurence Olivier in the lead role. In the audience was Maurice Browne who produced it at the Savoy Theatre where it was performed for two years from 1929. Sherriff wrote prose. A novelised version of Journey's End, co-written with Vernon Bartlett, was published in 1930, his 1939 novel, The Hopkins Manuscript is an H. G. Wells-influenced post-apocalyptic story about an earth devastated because of a collision with the Moon, its sober language and realistic depiction of an average man coming to terms with a ruined England is said to have been an influence on science fiction authors such as John Wyndham and Brian Aldiss. The Fortnight in September, an earlier novel, published in 1931, is a rather more plausible story about a Bognor holiday enjoyed by a lower-middle-class family from Dulwich, his 1936 novel Green Gates is a realistic novel about a middle-aged couple and Edith Baldwin, moving from an established London suburb into the then-new suburbs of Metro-land.
Sherriff was nominated along with Eric Maschwitz and Claudine West for an Academy award for writing an adapted screenplay for Goodbye, Mr. Chips, released in 1939, his 1955 screenplays, The Dam Busters and The Night My Number Came Up were nominated for best British screenplay BAFTA awards. 1921: A Hitch in the Proceedings 1922: The Woods of Meadowside 1923: Profit and Loss 1924: Cornlow-in-the-Downs 1925: The Feudal System 1926: Mr. Bridie's Finger 1928: Journey's End - the 2007 Broadway revival won the Tony Award for Best Revival of a Play and the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Revival of a Play 1930: Badger's Green 1933: Windfall 1934: Two Hearts Doubled 1936: St Helena 1948: Miss Mabel 1950: Home at Seven 1953: The White Carnation 1955: The Long Sunset 1957: The Telescope 1960: A Shred of Evidence 1961: Casbar 1919: The Toilers 1933: The Invisible Man 1934: One More River 1937: The Road Back 1939: Goodbye, Mr. Chips -, nominated for the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay along with his co-writers Claudine West, Eric Maschwitz.
1939: The Four Feathers 1941: Lady Hamilton 1942: This Above All 1945: Odd Man Out 1948: Quartet 1950: No Highway 1955: The Dam Busters -, nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best British Screenplay. 1955: The Night My Number Came Up -, nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best British Screenplay. 1955: Cards with Uncle Tom 1963: The Ogburn Story Journey's End: A Novel. London: Gollancz. 1930. OCLC 4072239; the Fortnight in September. 1931. OCLC 246884057. Greengates. Victor Gollancz. 1936. OCLC 2228475; the Hopkins Manuscript. Victor Gollancz. 1939. OCLC 2212270. Chedworth: A Novel. 1944. OCLC 761913. Another Year: A Novel. 1948. OCLC 1455916. King John's Treasure. 1954. OCLC 31122994; the Wells of St. Mary's. 1962. OCLC 7185868; the Siege of Swayne Castle. 1973. ISBN 0-575-01722-8. No Leading Lady: An Autobiography. London: Victor Gollancz Ltd. 1968. ISBN 0-575-00155-0. Sherriff's literary agents R. C. Sherriff at the Internet Broadway Database R. C. Sherriff on IMDb The Man from Esher and his Theatre of War
Telescopes is an EP by Waking Ashland, released on February 8, 2006 in Japan through the band's Japanese record label Fabtone Records. The U. S. version, featuring different artwork, was released on June 2006 through Immortal Records. The EP contains seven new songs and an enhanced CD portion with video footage of two songs performed live in Japan. In addition to being released four months earlier, the Japanese version carries two acoustic versions of songs from Waking Ashland's 2005 album Composure as bonus tracks; as Telescopes was recorded in-between line-up changes, singer/pianist Jonathan Jones and guitarist Ryan Lallier were accompanied for the recording session by Kelpie's Nathan Harold on bass and Sherwood's Joe Greenetz on drums. "Julian" – 3:39 "Telescopes" – 4:05 "Tortoise and the Hare" – 3:39 "Open Doors" – 3:43 "Flowers on a Wall" – 4:05 "Under the Gun" – 4:20 "Reseda" – 4:32Japanese bonus tracks: "October Skies" – 3:01 "I Am for You" – 3:20 Joe Greenetz – drums Nathan Edward Harold – bass Jonathan Jones – piano, vocals Ryan Lallier – guitar, backing vocals