Serge Ivan Chermayeff was a Russian-born British architect, industrial designer, co-founder of several architectural societies, including the American Society of Planners and Architects. He was born into a rich Jewish family in Grozny, Russian Empire, but moved to England at an early age. From 1922 to 1925, he received training at various schools in Germany, Austria and the Netherlands. During this period, he supported himself as a journalist for the Amalgamated Press before becoming chief designer at E. Williams, a decorating firm. In 1928, he became a British citizen; that year he and the French designer Paul Follot were placed in charge of the decorative arts department of Waring & Gillow. After practicing architecture for three years, he and the German architect Erich Mendelsohn partnered in 1933 to form their own architectural firm, they created some important works in the British modernist movement, notably the De La Warr Pavilion in Bexhill, East Sussex, Cohen House and Shrubs Wood in Chalfont St Giles, Buckinghamshire.
He was responsible for Shann House in Rugby and Gilbey House, an office and factory complex in Camden for gin distillers Gilbey's. These are all now Listed Buildings, being designated Grade II * and Grade II respectively, they were members of the MARS Group. He designed Bentley Wood, a Modernist house in a rural location in the Low Weald in Sussex, completed in 1938. During the 1930s, Chermayeff designed a number of bakelite radio cabinets for the British company EKCO. In 1940, Chermayeff emigrated to the United States where he joined Clarence W. W. Mayhew as associate architect, helping Mayhew design his own residence. Chermayeff taught in 1940 and 1941 at the California School of Fine Arts before moving to Brooklyn College, where he served as chair of the department of design until 1946. From 1941 until his death, he maintained his principal residence in Massachusetts. In 1946, he was recommended by Walter Gropius to become the president of the Institute of Design in Chicago. Beginning in 1949, he oversaw the Institute's merger with the Illinois Institute of Technology before stepping down in 1951.
After teaching at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for a year, he served as a professor and chair of the architecture department at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design and the Yale University School of Architecture. Following his retirement, he taught at Harvard again in 1974, he wrote several books, including Community and Privacy with Christopher Alexander in 1964 and The Shape of Community with Alexander Tzonis in 1971. He died in 1996 in Wellfleet. Chermayeff's architectural drawings, project records, correspondence and writing papers, research files are held by the Dept. of Drawings & Archives at Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library at Columbia University. In 1980 he was added to the College of Medallists, his son Ivan Chermayeff was a prominent graphic designer and a founding partner of New York-based design studio Chermayeff & Geismar. Another son Peter Chermayeff is a prominent architect best known for his design of aquariums, with colleagues, while a founding partner at Cambridge Seven Associates, from 1962 to 1998, at Chermayeff and Poole, 1998–2005, at Chermayeff & Poole, 2005–2009 and at Peter Chermayeff LLC.
Cape Cod Modern House Trust Blum, Betty J. Oral history of Serge Chermayeff. Chicago: The Art Institute of Chicago. Retrieved 12 August 2016. Powers, Alan. Serge Chermayeff: Designer, Teacher. London: RIBA Publications. ISBN 1 85946 075 5. Chicago Architects Oral History Project, The Art Institute of Chicago. Serge Chermayeff oral history Serge Chermayeff architectural records and papers, 1909–1980. Held by the Department of Drawings & Archives, Avery Architectural & Fine Arts Library, Columbia University, New York City. Master builders: Serge Chermayeff
San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
The scientific method is an empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century. It involves careful observation, applying rigorous skepticism about what is observed, given that cognitive assumptions can distort how one interprets the observation, it involves formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations. These are principles of the scientific method, as distinguished from a definitive series of steps applicable to all scientific enterprises. Though diverse models for the scientific method are available, there is in general a continuous process that includes observations about the natural world. People are inquisitive, so they come up with questions about things they see or hear, they develop ideas or hypotheses about why things are the way they are; the best hypotheses lead to predictions. The most conclusive testing of hypotheses comes from reasoning based on controlled experimental data. Depending on how well additional tests match the predictions, the original hypothesis may require refinement, expansion or rejection.
If a particular hypothesis becomes well supported, a general theory may be developed. Although procedures vary from one field of inquiry to another, they are the same from one to another; the process of the scientific method involves making conjectures, deriving predictions from them as logical consequences, carrying out experiments or empirical observations based on those predictions. A hypothesis is a conjecture, based on knowledge obtained while seeking answers to the question; the hypothesis might be specific, or it might be broad. Scientists test hypotheses by conducting experiments or studies. A scientific hypothesis must be falsifiable, implying that it is possible to identify a possible outcome of an experiment or observation that conflicts with predictions deduced from the hypothesis; the purpose of an experiment is to determine whether observations agree with or conflict with the predictions derived from a hypothesis. Experiments can take place anywhere from a garage to CERN's Large Hadron Collider.
There are difficulties in a formulaic statement of method, however. Though the scientific method is presented as a fixed sequence of steps, it represents rather a set of general principles. Not all steps take place in every scientific inquiry, they are not always in the same order; some philosophers and scientists have argued. Robert Nola and Howard Sankey remark that "For some, the whole idea of a theory of scientific method is yester-year's debate, the continuation of which can be summed up as yet more of the proverbial deceased equine castigation. We beg to differ." Important debates in the history of science concern rationalism as advocated by René Descartes. The term "scientific method" emerged in the 19th century, when a significant institutional development of science was taking place and terminologies establishing clear boundaries between science and non-science, such as "scientist" and "pseudoscience", appeared. Throughout the 1830s and 1850s, by which time Baconianism was popular, naturalists like William Whewell, John Herschel, John Stuart Mill engaged in debates over "induction" and "facts" and were focused on how to generate knowledge.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a debate over realism vs. antirealism was conducted as powerful scientific theories extended beyond the realm of the observable. The term "scientific method" came into popular use in the twentieth century, popping up in dictionaries and science textbooks, although there was little scientific consensus over its meaning. Although there was a growth through the middle of the twentieth century, by the end of that century numerous influential philosophers of science like Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend had questioned the universality of the "scientific method" and in doing so replaced the notion of science as a homogeneous and universal method with that of it being a heterogeneous and local practice. In particular, Paul Feyerabend argued against there being any universal rules of science. Historian of science Daniel Thurs maintains that the scientific method is a myth or, at best, an idealization; the scientific method is the process. As in other areas of inquiry, science can build on previous knowledge and develop a more sophisticated understanding of its topics of study over time.
This model can be seen to underlie the scientific revolution. The ubiquitous element in the model of the scientific method is empiricism, or more epistemologic sensualism; this is in opposition to stringent forms of rationalism: the scientific method embodies that reason alone cannot solve a particular scientific problem. A strong formulation of the scientific method is not always aligned with a form of empiricism in which the empirical data is put forward in the form of experience or other abstracted forms of knowledge; the scientific method is of necessity als
Allied Telesis is a network infrastructure/telecommunications company Allied Telesyn. Headquartered in Japan, their North American headquarters are in California. Founded in 1987, the company is a global provider of secure Ethernet & IP access solutions and an industry leader in the deployment of IP triple play networks over copper and fiber access infrastructure. According to a Dell Oro Group report, Allied Telesis ranked 4th in the world for shipments of fast Ethernet ports in Q4 2005. Mar. 1987 System Plus Co. is established with 1 million Yen capital stock. Sep. 1987 The company is renamed Allied Telesis K. K. Apr. 1990 Capital stock is increased to 99 million Yen. Feb. 1991 Allied Telesyn Intl. Pte. Ltd. is established in Singapore. Jun. 1995 Allied Telesyn Intl. Pty Ltd. is established in Australia. Nov. 1995 Malaysia Sales Office opens. Jun. 1997 Capital stock is increased to 734 million Yen. Jul. 1997 Taiwan Representative Office is launched. May 1999 Acquires a networking division from Teltrend Ltd.
US. May 1999 Centrecom Systems Ltd. is established in UK. Jun. 2000 Allied Telesyn Europe Service S.r.l. is established in Italy. Jun. 2000 Allied Telesyn Korea Co. Ltd. is established in the Republic of Korea. Jul. 2000 Allied Telesis K. K. is listed on the Second Section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Oct. 2000 Allied Telesyn Labs New Zealand Ltd. an R&D center, is established in Christchurch, New Zealand Mar. 2001 Allied Telesyn Philippines Inc. is established in the Philippines as a software development base. Mar. 2001 Allied Telesyn International m.b. H is established in Austria. Sep. 2001 Allied Telesis Co. Ltd. is established in China. Oct. 2001 Allied Telesyn Networks Inc. an R&D center, is established in North Carolina, U. S. A. Jan. 2002 Allied Telesis International SA is established in Switzerland. Feb. 2002 Allied Telesyn International S. L. U. is established in Spain. Jul. 2004 Allied Telesis K. K. is renamed Allied Telesis Holdings K. K. Mar. 2005 Allied Telesis K. K. acquires a wireless networking company.
May. 2005 Allied Telesis Capital Corp is established in Washington state, USA. Dec. 2006 Allied Telesis Capital Corp opens branch on Yokota Air Base, Japan Jun. 2007 Allied Telesis launches Switchblade x908 Advanced Layer 3 High-capacity stackable chassis switch. Jul. 2007 Allied Telesis Yokota AFB Branch rolls out IPTV as part of its IVVD contract with AAFES to the Yokota Community. Summer 2008 Allied Telesis Yokota AFB Branch adds 23 channels to its video lineup Sep 2008 Allied Telesis Yokota AFB Branch upgrades to a tier one voice carrier for telephony calls to the states Nov. 2008 Allied Telesis launches "Green" Eco-friendly networking products to the market. Oct. 2012 Allied Telesis launches SwitchBlade x8112 Advanced Layer 3 twelve-slot chassis switch Apr. 2014 Allied Telesis launches SBx81CFC960 controller card with terabit fabric for the SwitchBlade x8112 Jul. 2014 Allied Telesis launches x310 series stackable edge switches May 2015 Allied Telesis launches x930 series high-performance distribution switch May 2015 Allied Telesis launches AR3050S and AR4050S Next-Generation Firewall appliances Aug 2015 Sri Lanka’s Expressway Traffic Management System Adopts Allied Telesis Solutions Allied Telesis is a provider of equipment for enterprise customers, along with educational and government segments.
They serve moderate and small businesses. Their POTS-to-10G iMAP and iMG, in conjunction with advanced switching, secure VPN routing solutions, enable public and private network operators and service providers of all sizes to deploy scalable, carrier-grade networks for the cost-effective delivery of packet-based voice and data services; the current product range includes: AlliedWare Plus switches: x210 Series Layer 2 Gigabit edge switches x310 Series Layer 2 stackable Fast Ethernet edge switch x510 Series Layer 2/3 stackable Gigabit edge switch x610 Series Layer 3 stackable Gigabit edge/distribution switch x930 Series Layer 3 stackable Gigabit core switch SwitchBlade x908 Layer 3 stackable eight-slot chassis switch SwitchBlade x3112 Layer 2+ twelve-slot chassis OLT switch SwitchBlade x8112 Layer 3 twelve-slot chassis switch integrated Multiservice Access Platforms available as multi-slot chassis or a 1RU "miniMAP", provide FTTx or xDSL "last mile" access to end-customers intelligent Multiservice Gateways deliver voice and data over the "last mile" Switches range from the SBx908 advanced layer 3 gigabit switches to the AT-8000S layer 2 managed fast Ethernet stackable switches.
Smart switches and Unmanaged switches are available in the portfolio. Many of the switches are designed for low power Eco-friendly operation reducing customer OPEX, the impact on the environment. Routers range from the AR700 series of central site routers for terminating multiple VPNs with system redundancy, to the AR200 series of home office routers with ADSL broadband connections and WLAN options Media Converters, the range includes the Converteon - an 18-slot managed media conversion system, a multi-channel media converter, a range of stand-alone media converters Wireless LAN products cover a range of access points and wireless coverage for "last mile" solutions Network Adapter Cards, a comprehensive range of fiber and copper 10/100/1000 plug'n'play NICs Internet Service Provider, Contracted by AAFES to provide Triple Play Services Corega: Originally, Corega Inc. was established in 1996 for offering networking hardware products, network router, network switch and wireless router for consumer market and small business.
In 2009, Allied Telesis K. K. acquired Corega Inc it started as one brand. AlliedWare Plus Sw
Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne
The Congrès internationaux d'architecture moderne, or International Congresses of Modern Architecture, was an organization founded in 1928 and disbanded in 1959, responsible for a series of events and congresses arranged across Europe by the most prominent architects of the time, with the objective of spreading the principles of the Modern Movement focusing in all the main domains of architecture. The International Congresses of Modern Architecture was founded in June 1928, at the Chateau de la Sarraz in Switzerland, by a group of 28 European architects organized by Le Corbusier, Hélène de Mandrot, Sigfried Giedion. CIAM was one of many 20th century manifestos meant to advance the cause of "architecture as a social art". Other founder members included Karl Moser, Hendrik Berlage, Victor Bourgeois, Pierre Chareau, Sven Markelius, Josef Frank, Gabriel Guevrekian, Max Ernst Haefeli, Hugo Häring, Arnold Höchel, Huib Hoste, Pierre Jeanneret, André Lurçat, Ernst May, Max Cetto, Fernando García Mercadal, Hannes Meyer, Werner M. Moser, Carlo Enrico Rava, Gerrit Rietveld, Alberto Sartoris, Hans Schmidt, Mart Stam, Rudolf Steiger, Szymon Syrkus, Henri-Robert Von der Mühll, Juan de Zavala.
The Soviet delegates were to be El Lissitzky, Nikolai Kolli and Moisei Ginzburg, although at the Sarraz conference they were unable to obtain visas. Other members included Minnette de Silva, Walter Gropius, Alvar Aalto, Uno Åhrén, Louis Herman De Koninck and Fred Forbát. In 1941, Harwell Hamilton Harris was chosen as secretary of the American branch of CIAM, the Chapter for Relief and Post War Planning, founded in New York City. Josep Lluís Sert, co-founder of GATEPAC and GATCPAC in 1930, as well as ADLAN in Barcelona in 1932, participated in the congresses as of 1929, served as CIAM president from 1947 to 1956; the organization was hugely influential. It was not only engaged in formalizing the architectural principles of the Modern Movement, but saw architecture as an economic and political tool that could be used to improve the world through the design of buildings and through urban planning; the fourth CIAM meeting in 1933 was to have been held in Moscow. The rejection of Le Corbusier's competition entry for the Palace of the Soviets, a watershed moment and an indication that the Soviets had abandoned CIAM's principles, changed those plans.
Instead it was held the SS Patris II, which sailed from Marseille to Athens. Here the group discussed the principles of "The Functional City", which broadened CIAM's scope from architecture into urban planning. Based on an analysis of thirty-three cities, CIAM proposed that the social problems faced by cities could be resolved by strict functional segregation, the distribution of the population into tall apartment blocks at spaced intervals; these proceedings went unpublished from 1933 until 1943, when Le Corbusier, acting alone, published them in edited form as the "Athens Charter." As CIAM members traveled worldwide after the war, many of its ideas spread outside Europe, notably to the USA. The city planning ideas were adopted in the rebuilding of Europe following World War II, although by some CIAM members had their doubts. Alison and Peter Smithson were chief among the dissenters; when implemented in the postwar period, many of these ideas were compromised by tight financial constraints, poor understanding of the concepts, or popular resistance.
Mart Stam's replanning of postwar Dresden in the CIAM formula was rejected by its citizens as an "all-out attack on the city." The CIAM organization disbanded in 1959 as the views of the members diverged. Le Corbusier had left in 1955. For a reform of CIAM, the group Team 10 was active from 1953 onwards, two different movements emerged from it: the New Brutalism of the English members and the Structuralism of the Dutch members; the elected executive body of CIAM was CIRPAC, the Comité international pour la résolution des problèmes de l’architecture contemporaine. CIAM's conferences consisted of: 1928, CIAM I, La Sarraz, Foundation of CIAM 1929, CIAM II, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, on The Minimum Dwelling 1930, CIAM III, Belgium, on Rational Land Development 1933, CIAM IV, Greece, on The Functional City 1937, CIAM V, France, on Dwelling and Recovery 1947, CIAM VI, England, Reaffirmation of the aims of CIAM 1949, CIAM VII, Italy, on The Athens Charter in Practice 1951, CIAM VIII, England, on The Heart of the City 1953, CIAM IX, Aix-en-Provence, France, on Habitat 1956, CIAM X, Yugoslavia, on Habitat 1959, CIAM XI, the Netherlands, organized dissolution of CIAM by Team 10 Eric Mumford, The CIAM Discourse on Urbanism - 1928-1960, Cambridge Mass. and London 2000..
Sigfried Giedion, Space and Architecture - The Growth of a New Tradition, Cambridge Mass. 2009, 5th edition.. Max Risselada and Dirk van den Heuvel, TEAM 10 - In Search of a Utopia of the Present - 1953-1981, Rotterdam 2005.. Modern architecture Modernist architecture topics
Concepts are mental representations, abstract objects or abilities that make up the fundamental building blocks of thoughts and beliefs. They play an important role in all aspects of cognition. In contemporary philosophy, there are at least three prevailing ways to understand what a concept is: Concepts as mental representations, where concepts are entities that exist in the mind Concepts as abilities, where concepts are abilities peculiar to cognitive agents Concepts as Fregean senses, where concepts are abstract objects, as opposed to mental objects and mental statesConcepts can be organized into a hierarchy, higher levels of which are termed "superordinate" and lower levels termed "subordinate". Additionally, there is the "basic" or "middle" level at which people will most categorize a concept. For example, a basic-level concept would be "chair", with its superordinate, "furniture", its subordinate, "easy chair". A concept is instantiated by all of its actual or potential instances, whether these are things in the real world or other ideas.
Concepts are studied as components of human cognition in the cognitive science disciplines of linguistics and philosophy, where an ongoing debate asks whether all cognition must occur through concepts. Concepts are used as formal tools or models in mathematics, computer science and artificial intelligence where they are sometimes called classes, schema or categories. In informal use the word concept just means any idea. Within the framework of the representational theory of mind, the structural position of concepts can be understood as follows: Concepts serve as the building blocks of what are called mental representations. Mental representations, in turn, are the building blocks of, and these propositional attitudes, in turn, are the building blocks of our understanding of thoughts that populate everyday life, as well as folk psychology. In this way, we have an analysis that ties our common everyday understanding of thoughts down to the scientific and philosophical understanding of concepts.
A central question in the study of concepts is the question of. Philosophers construe this question as one about the ontology of concepts – what they are like; the ontology of concepts determines the answer to other questions, such as how to integrate concepts into a wider theory of the mind, what functions are allowed or disallowed by a concept's ontology, etc. There are two main views of the ontology of concepts: Concepts are abstract objects, concepts are mental representations. Platonist views of the mind construe concepts as abstract objects,There is debate as to the relationship between concepts and natural language. However, it is necessary at least to begin by understanding that the concept "dog" is philosophically distinct from the things in the world grouped by this concept – or the reference class or extension. Concepts that can be equated to a single word are called "lexical concepts". Study of concepts and conceptual structure falls into the disciplines of linguistics, philosophy and cognitive science.
In the simplest terms, a concept is a name or label that regards or treats an abstraction as if it had concrete or material existence, such as a person, a place, or a thing. It may represent a natural object that exists in the real world like a tree, an animal, a stone, etc, it may name an artificial object like a chair, house, etc. Abstract ideas and knowledge domains such as freedom, science, etc. are symbolized by concepts. It is important to realize that a concept is a symbol, a representation of the abstraction; the word is not to be mistaken for the thing. For example, the word "moon" is not the large, shape-changing object up in the sky, but only represents that celestial object. Concepts are created to describe and capture reality as it is known and understood. Kant maintained the view. Instead of being abstracted from individual perceptions, like empirical concepts, they originate in the mind itself, he called these concepts categories, in the sense of the word that means predicate, characteristic, or quality.
But these pure categories are predicates of things in general, not of a particular thing. According to Kant, there are twelve categories that constitute the understanding of phenomenal objects; each category is that one predicate, common to multiple empirical concepts. In order to explain how an a priori concept can relate to individual phenomena, in a manner analogous to an a posteriori concept, Kant employed the technical concept of the schema, he held that the account of the concept as an abstraction of experience is only correct. He called those concepts that result from abstraction "a posteriori concepts". An empirical or an a posteriori concept is a general representation or non-specific thought of that, common to several specific perceived objects A concept is a common feature or characteristic. Kant investigated the way; the logical acts of the understanding by which concepts are generated as to their form are: comparison, i.e. the likening of mental images to one another in relation to the unity of consciousness.
William Wilson Wurster was an American architect and architectural teacher at the University of California, at MIT, best known for his residential designs in California. Wurster was born on 20 October 1895 in California, his family encouraged him to observe and draw but Wurster admitted in life, to holding more of an intellectual gift, rather than a drawing gift. As a child, he held a close relationship with his father, a banker who, on bank holidays and weekends, would take Wurster to observe the life of the town to show him how it functioned. This, Wurster reflected, was to show him the workings, rather than the structures of the city. During his years at Stockton Public High School, Wurster worked in the office of Edgar B. Brown, an Englishman known for designing the Stockton Hotel and the Children's Home of Stockton, regarded as one of Stockton's most influential architects. While there, he acted as an office boy, drawing plans, making measured drawings and doing the blueprinting, allowing his early interests in architecture.
Once graduating from high school in 1912, Wurster's parents believed he should acquire a university education and encouraged him to attend the architecture school at the University of California, headed, at the time, by founding director and renowned architect John Galen Howard. Wurster enrolled at the university in 1913, receiving a classical Beaux Arts education from notable Berkeley teachers such as Warren Perry and William Hays. While there, Wurster joined the Sigma Chi fraternity, where he was taught both to get on with people and express himself; when a physical ailment kept Wurster from voluntary military service in World War I, he studied marine engineering at the University of California and joined the merchant marine in 1918. In 1919, once he had completed a year's tour of duty in the South Pacific, he returned to the University to graduate with honors in architecture. Following his graduation, Wurster apprenticed in the office of John W. Reid, Jr. a San Francisco architect who worked on schools, before Wurster became the architectural designer for Charles Dean in 1920.
For the next two years, he worked designing the city of Sacramento's water filtration plant. During this time, he worked independently, designing several small residences. In April 1922, he became a registered architect within California. Following this, Wurster embarked on a tour of Europe, where he encountered art and design he had only known through books, before returning to the United States in 1923 and heading to New York where he joined the office of Delano and Aldrich, who were known for their work on the John D. Rockefeller Estate at Pocantico Hills and Otto Kahn's château at Cold Spring Harbor. In 1924 William Adams Delano lent Wurster money to open his own office and he returned to the Bay Area to open it in the Hotel Whitecotton in Berkeley. Wurster remained associated, throughout his forty-five year career, with the Bay Area and its regional style, along with Wurster's mentor Bernard Maybeck, the landscape architect Thomas Church, fellow architect Joseph Esherick. Wurster designed hundreds of California houses in the 1920s through the 1940s using indigenous materials and a direct, simple style suited to the climate.
His 1928 Gregory Farmhouse in Scotts Valley, California is regarded as the prototypical ranch-style house, a direct influence on the subsequent development of the Northwest Regional style of John Yeon and Pietro Belluschi. In 1930, Wurster hired his first long-term employee, Floyd Comstock, setting the trend of the Wurster office serving as the training ground of many generations of architects who worked within the firm during its life. In 1940, Wurster married Catherine Bauer, an influential figure in her own right in the field of public housing, he met Bauer while both were attending the Harvard Graduate School of Design, where they took classes from the German Socialist city planner Martin Wagner. Wurster's graduate studies at Harvard were interrupted when he was appointed dean of the architectural and planning school at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1945, a position he held for five years. During 1949 and 1950, he held the chair of the National Park and Planning Commission. Both Bauer and Wurster withstood accusations of disloyalty from the California Tenney Committee during the Red Scare of the late 1940s.
In 1945, Wurster co-founded the firm Wurster, Bernardi & Emmons with Theodore Bernardi and Donn Emmons. In 1950, he was named dean of the UC Berkeley Architecture school. In 1959, he orchestrated the creation of the UC Berkeley College of Environmental Design, which brought the three schools of architecture, landscape architecture and urban planning into one organization, he served as its dean until his retirement in 1963 for health reasons. Wurster Hall, in which the college is housed, is named in his wife's honor. Wurster died on September 1973 from complications of Parkinson's disease. Architectural photographer Morley Baer was one of Wurster's many colleagues during his long career, he and Baer had personal friendship. Wurster sold his first house in Berkeley's Greenwood Common to Baer, he designed a house/studio for Baer on the cliffs of Garrapata south of Carmel. Among Wurster's students was the award-winning architect John Desmond in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Jim Webb, who taught at the University of North Carolina and was an influential architect in Chapel Hill, worked with Wurster for a while.
Wurster was elected a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects in 1954. WBE received the AIA's third Architecture Firm Award in 1965, he was awarded the AIA Gold Medal for Life