The London Studios
The London Studios in Waterloo, Central London was a television studio complex owned by ITV plc and built for London Weekend Television. The studios were located in Central London, on the South Bank next to the IBM Building and the Royal National Theatre; the building was 24 floors high. The London Studios closed on 30 April 2018; the facilities were the main studios for ITV, along with a number of production companies including ITV Studios and Shiver based in Kent House tower, while the studios were home to many entertainment and daytime shows. These included Good Morning Britain, The Graham Norton Show, Ant & Dec's Saturday Night Takeaway and The Jonathan Ross Show; the studios were used for other programmes from various other channels including BBC Television and Channel 4. ITV Creative, which promotes programmes on the ITV network, was based at the London Studios; the site closed in April 2018 for demolition. ITV intended to redevelop the site with three smaller studios, but in October 2018 it announced it would not be returning to the South Bank, the whole site would be redeveloped into premium housing.
Many ITV programmes now come from BBC Studioworks' facility at the former BBC Television Centre, White City, London. When LWT succeeded ATV as the London weekend ITV franchisee in 1968, it rented Associated-Rediffusion's old studios at Wembley while plans for a new studio complex in central London were drawn up; the chosen site stood beside the new Royal National Theatre on the South Bank of the River Thames. It was bought in 1969, construction work, awarded to Higgs and Hill, began in 1970; the centre opened for transmission in 1972, though it was not operational until 1974. The complex was leased by the station, it was called The South Bank Television Centre and at the time was the most advanced television centre in Europe. On 28 January 2013 ITV plc bought the freehold of the now renamed London Television Centre for £56 million from what had become Coal Pension Properties. On social media, the building is named'ITV Towers' since the purchase in January 2013; the official name of the building is The London Television Centre, that being the logo in reception and around the building.
Kent House is a 24-story tower block, was home to ITV plc and many production offices including ITV Studios and Shiver Productions. During the 1990s the block was home to Carlton Television and GMTV, it was seen in Dec's Saturday Night Takeaway. The tower housed programme production offices, edit suites, dubbing suites, VTR studio booths and graphic booths. Sandwiched between Kent House Tower and the River Thames is the main studio block, housing studios 1, 2, 3, 5 & 7, the restaurant, the takeaway bar, management offices, edit facilities, make-up and wardrobe, it was designed by London-based architecture practice Elsom Roberts. On the east side of the site, there is a neighbouring building called Gabriel's Wharf. Belonging to Younger's Brewery, this three-storey building was added to the site as a scenery store; when This Morning moved from Liverpool, the 3,000 square feet studio 8 was converted from the riverside end of the first storey. This area was on lease from Coin Street Community Builders to ITV until 2018, when they left the premises.
Audiences were used in many productions at The London Studios. The audience were instructed to queue to the left hand side of the studios near to the reception entrance and under a cover where they were escorted into one of the studios once security checked. There were two waterproof TV screens with live ITV programmes shown on them. There were several hand-prints displayed in the audience waiting area with hand-prints of presenters including Vernon Kay, Al Murray, Melvyn Bragg, Lorraine Kelly, Paul O'Grady, Graham Norton, Stephen Fry, Fern Britton, Phillip Schofield, Davina McCall, Des Lynam, Fiona Phillips, Eamonn Holmes, Gabby Logan, Anthony McPartlin and Declan Donnelly, Ben Elton and Ian McKellen. There were a total of nine different studios during the complex's lifespan. By the time of closure there were six, it should be noted that there were weather studios producing the ITV national, some of the network's regional forecasts at ITN's headquarters in Gray's Inn Road. Studio 1 – 8,350 sq ft – The largest studio on the complex.
This studio was home to programmes such as All Star Family Fortunes, All Star Mr & Mrs, The Graham Norton Show, Ant & Dec's Saturday Night Takeaway and Text Santa. The studio had a permanent fixed balcony seating area which, along with movable seating, could accommodate audiences of up to 638; this made the studio popular for large audience based shows. Studio 1 was upgraded to HD in December 2009. Studio 2 – 7,271 sq ft – The second largest on the complex housed shows such as Piers Morgan's Life Stories, The Alan Titchmarsh Show, Let's Do Lunch with Gino & Mel, Have I Got News for You and It'll Be Alright on the Night; the studio could accommodate large audiences of up to 462. The studio could be used as a bare shell as the audience seating structure could be moved out. Studio 2 was upgraded to HD in the summer of 2009. Studio 3 – 3,136 sq ft – This studio housed daily chatshow Loose Women, political chat show Peston on Sunday and ITV Breakfast programme Lorraine; the studio could accommodate audiences of up to 150.
The studio had an "in-the-round" seating feature with up to 108
Norwich is a historic city in Norfolk, England. Situated on the River Wensum in East Anglia, it lies 100 miles north-east of London, it is the county town of Norfolk and is considered the capital of East Anglia, with a population of 141,300. From the Middle Ages until the Industrial Revolution, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, one of the most important; the city is the most complete medieval city in the UK, including cobbled streets such as Elm Hill, Timber Hill and Tombland, ancient buildings such as St Andrew's Hall, half-timbered houses such as Dragon Hall, The Guildhall and Strangers' Hall, the Art Nouveau of the 1899 Royal Arcade, many medieval lanes and the winding River Wensum that flows through the city centre towards Norwich Castle. The city has two universities, the University of East Anglia and the Norwich University of the Arts, two cathedrals, Norwich Cathedral and St John the Baptist Cathedral. Norwich is the only city containing part of a National Park, the Norfolk Broads, it holds the largest permanent undercover market in Europe.
The urban area of Norwich had a population of 213,166 according to the 2011 Census. The parliamentary seats cross over into adjacent local-government districts. A total of 132,512 people live in the City of Norwich and the population of the Norwich Travel to Work Area is 282,000. Norwich is the fourth most densely populated local-government district in the East of England, with 3,480 people per square kilometre. In May 2012, Norwich was designated England's first UNESCO City of Literature. One of the UK's most popular tourist destinations, it was voted by The Guardian in 2016 as the "happiest city to work in the UK" and in 2013 as one of the best small cities in the world by The Times Good University Guide. In 2018, Norwich was voted one of the "Best Places To Live" in the UK by The Sunday Times; the capital of the Iceni tribe was a settlement located near to the village of Caistor St. Edmund on the River Tas 8 kilometres to the south of modern-day Norwich. Following an uprising led by Boudica around AD 60 the Caistor area became the Roman capital of East Anglia named Venta Icenorum "the marketplace of the Iceni".
The Roman settlement fell into disuse around 450 and the Anglo-Saxons settled on the site of the modern city between the 5th and 7th centuries, founding the towns of Northwic and the secondary settlement at Thorpe. According to a local rhyme, the demise of Venta Icenorum led to the development of Norwich: "Caistor was a city when Norwich was none, Norwich was built of Caistor stone." There are two suggested models of development for Norwich. It is possible that three separate early Anglo-Saxon settlements, one on the north of the river and two either side on the south, joined together as they grew or that one Anglo-Saxon settlement, on the north of the river, emerged in the mid-7th century after the abandonment of the previous three; the ancient city was a thriving centre for trade and commerce in East Anglia in 1004 when it was raided and burnt by Swein Forkbeard the Viking king of Denmark. Mercian coins and shards of pottery from the Rhineland dating from the 8th century suggest that long-distance trade was happening long before this.
Between 924 and 939, Norwich became established as a town, with its own mint. The word Norvic appears on coins across Europe minted during this period, in the reign of King Athelstan; the Vikings were a strong cultural influence in Norwich for 40 to 50 years at the end of the 9th century, setting up an Anglo-Scandinavian district near the north end of present day King Street. At the time of the Norman Conquest the city was one of the largest in England; the Domesday Book states that it had 25 churches and a population of between 5,000 and 10,000. It records the site of an Anglo-Saxon church in Tombland, the site of the Saxon market place and the Norman cathedral. Norwich continued to be a major centre for trade, the River Wensum being a convenient export route to the River Yare and Great Yarmouth, which served as the port for Norwich. Quern stones and other artefacts from Scandinavia and the Rhineland have been found during excavations in Norwich city centre; these date from the 11th century onwards.
Norwich Castle was founded soon after the Norman Conquest. The Domesday Book records; the Normans established a new focus of settlement around the Castle and the area to the west of it: this became known as the "New" or "French" borough, centred on the Normans' own market place which survives to the present day as Norwich Market. In 1096, Herbert de Losinga, Bishop of Thetford, began construction of Norwich Cathedral; the chief building material for the Cathedral was limestone. To transport the building stone to the site, a canal was cut from the river, all the way up to the east wall. Herbert de Losinga moved his See there to what became the cathedral church for the Diocese of Norwich; the Bishop of Norwich still signs himself Norvic. Norwich received a royal charter from Henry II in 1158, another one from Richard the Lionheart in 1194. Following a riot in the city in 1274, Norwich has the distinction of being the only complete English city to be excommunicated by the Pope; the first recorded presence of Jews in Norwich is 1134.
In 1144, the Jews of Norwich were accused of ritual murder after a boy was found dead with stab wounds. William acquired the status of martyr
Granada Studios were television studios on Quay Street in Manchester with the facility to broadcast live and recorded programmes. They were the headquarters of Granada Television and ITV Granada between 1956 and 2013. At the time of their closure, the studios were the oldest operating purpose-built television studios in the United Kingdom; the studios were home to the world's longest-running serial drama, Coronation Street, other long-running shows such as the quiz show University Challenge and the current affairs documentary series World in Action. Firsts at the studios include The Beatles' first television performance in 1962 and the first general election debate in 2010; until 2010, the main building, Granada House, had a red neon "Granada TV" sign on the roof, a landmark for rail passengers travelling from the west into Manchester city centre. A decorative broadcasting tower was erected at the behest of Sidney Bernstein to give the studios an embellished and professional appearance. At its top, this tower had an enclosed, microwave dish which, pre-satellite, provided line of sight outside broadcast links to the company's'Eagle Tower' vehicles.
There were each covering over 4,500 square feet. The studios were owned by ITV Studios and BBC Resources through a joint venture company, 3SixtyMedia. After a dip in production during the early 2000s, the studios underwent a revival from 2009 until their closure. Countdown moved to Manchester from the Leeds Studios in 2009. Programmes such as John Bishop's Britain, The Chase, Take Me Out and High Stakes were recorded here and the studios hosted the first General Election debate in April 2010; the studios closed in June 2013, ITV Granada and ITV Studios moved to dock10, MediaCityUK in Salford Quays and Trafford Quays. Granada House is not a listed building but will nonetheless be retained as part of new proposals by Allied London; this will consist of exhibition space and a new bespoke hotel. Although there have been calls to maintain the set for Coronation Street, little appetite exists with local authorities keen to free up new prime city centre land for further commercial development opportunities such as the continuing Spinningfields development.
In 2013 the site was sold for £26 million. Much of the site will be demolished, with the exception of Granada House which will be sympathetically retained, reflecting the area's past heritage in television broadcasting, converted into hotel and office space by 2018. Work started on removing the old equipment from the galleries in February 2018. After Granada secured the contract for broadcasting to the North of England on weekdays, the company built a television studio complex while the BBC Manchester and ABC converted a former church/film studio and cinema in the city for television use; the transition for the other broadcasters was that new areas were required for transmission facilities. Granada bypassed these problems by creating new studios. Sidney Bernstein chose its base for northern operations from Leeds and Manchester. Granada executive, Victor Peers, believed Manchester was the preferred choice before Granada executives, Denis Forman, Reg Hammans and Sidney Bernstein, toured possible locations.
One site was identified by Hammans in Leeds and three were found in Manchester which convinced Bernstein to explore further. Two sites were deemed expensive, another in Salford Quays was rejected by Bernstein as inadequate. A site on Quay Street in Manchester city centre owned by Manchester City Council was bought for £82,000; the land hosted a cemetery containing pauper's graves, where 22,000 people were buried. Part of the Manchester and Salford Junction Canal, which linked the River Irwell to the Rochdale Canal from 1839 to 1922, ran in tunnel underneath the site; the studios were designed by Ralph Tubbs, but Sidney Bernstein was instrumental in influencing designs and giving regular plan briefings. Bernstein was believed to have some architectural knowledge despite no experience or formal training, was referred to as a "genial tyrant" by Granada producer Jeremy Isaacs for his influence in many decisions at Granada. In his memoirs, Forman wrote: "Anyone who witnessed Sidney at work in one of these sessions had to acknowledge his practical genius as an architect" as Bernstein lectured and demonstrated his plans for the studios to colleagues.
Forman wrote that Tubbs looked "sometimes enthusiastic, sometimes disconsolate" during Bernstein's lecture briefings. The logo which adorned the building was in a period font and remained in position from 1961 until 2010. Bernstein, keen to save money, had the studios built in a modular, sequential cycle – so new facilities were not built unless there was demand; this led to a jumbled appearance as the company expanded and renovated the site which encompassed a bonded warehouse built in the Victorian era. The original studios were in a two-story building on Quay Street. Bernstein stipulated in 1956 the company needed the bare minimum of studio space and was unwilling to invest in facilities that would be used; this was the reason construction took from 1954 to 1962 and the "save money at all costs" mantra was reflective of Sidney Bernstein's business plan. Facilities expanded and a tower block was built next and studios expanded over time. From time to time, as extra production, rehearsal or office space was temporarily required, various adjacent buildings were annexed.
These included warehouses on the opposite side of Water Street, the buildings between Quay Street and New Quay Street and the old school premises directly opposite the tower block. In 2000, the Granada Studios were taken over by 3Six
The Sunday Telegraph
The Sunday Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper, founded in February 1961, is published by the Telegraph Media Group, a division of Press Holdings. It is the sister paper of The Daily Telegraph published by the Telegraph Media Group. A separate operation with a different editorial staff, since 2013 the Telegraph has been a seven-day operation. Official website
Channel 4 is a British public-service free-to-air television network that began transmission on 2 November 1982. Although commercially-self-funded, it is publicly-owned. With the conversion of the Wenvoe transmitter group in Wales to digital terrestrial broadcasting on 31 March 2010, Channel 4 became a UK-wide TV channel for the first time; the channel was established to provide a fourth television service to the United Kingdom in addition to the licence-funded BBC One and BBC Two, the single commercial broadcasting network ITV. Before Channel 4 and S4C, Britain had three terrestrial television services: BBC1, BBC2, ITV; the Broadcasting Act 1980 began the process of adding a fourth, Channel 4, along with its Welsh counterpart, was formally created by an Act of Parliament in 1982. After some months of test broadcasts, it began scheduled transmissions on 2 November 1982; the notion of a second commercial broadcaster in the United Kingdom had been around since the inception of ITV in 1954 and its subsequent launch in 1955.
Indeed, television sets sold throughout the 1970s and early 1980s had a spare tuning button labelled "ITV/IBA 2". Throughout ITV's history and until Channel 4 became a reality, a perennial dialogue existed between the GPO, the government, the ITV companies and other interested parties, concerning the form such an expansion of commercial broadcasting would take, it was most politics which had the biggest impact in leading to a delay of three decades before the second commercial channel became a reality. One clear benefit of the "late arrival" of the channel was that its frequency allocations at each transmitter had been arranged in the early 1960s, when the launch of an ITV2 was anticipated; this led to good coverage across most of the country and few problems of interference with other UK-based transmissions. At the time the fourth service was being considered, a movement in Wales lobbied for the creation of dedicated service that would air Welsh-language programmes only catered for at "off peak" times on BBC Wales and HTV.
The campaign was taken so by Gwynfor Evans, former president of Plaid Cymru, that he threatened the government with a hunger strike were it not to honour the plans. The result was that Channel 4 as seen by the rest of the United Kingdom would be replaced in Wales by Sianel Pedwar Cymru. Operated by a specially created authority, S4C would air programmes in Welsh made by HTV, the BBC and independent companies. Limited frequency space meant that Channel 4 could not be broadcast alongside S4C, though some Channel 4 programmes would be aired at less popular times on the Welsh variant, a practice that carried on up until the closure of S4C's analogue transmissions in 2010 when S4C became a Welsh channel. Since carriage on digital cable and digital terrestrial has introduced Channel 4 to Welsh homes where it is now universally available; the first voice heard on Channel 4's opening day of Tuesday 2 November 1982 was that of continuity announcer Paul Coia who said: Good afternoon. It's a pleasure to be able to say to you, welcome to Channel Four.
Following the announcement, the channel headed into a montage of clips from its programmes set to the station's signature tune, "Fourscore", written by David Dundas, which would form the basis of the station's jingles for its first decade. The first programme to air on the channel was the teatime game show Countdown, at 16:45 produced by Yorkshire Television; the first person to be seen on Channel 4 was Richard Whiteley with Ted Moult being the second. The first woman on the channel, contrary to popular belief, was not Whiteley's Countdown co-host Carol Vorderman but a lexicographer only identified as Mary. Whiteley opened the show with the words: As the countdown to a brand new channel ends, a brand new countdown begins. On its first day, Channel 4 broadcast controversial soap opera Brookside, which ran until 2003. On its launch, Channel 4 committed itself to providing an alternative to the existing channels, an agenda in part set out by its remit which required the provision of programming to minority groups.
In step with its remit, the channel became well received both by minority groups and the arts and cultural worlds during this period under founding chief executive Jeremy Isaacs, where the channel gained a reputation for programmes on the contemporary arts. Channel 4 co-commissioned Robert Ashley's ground-breaking television opera Perfect Lives, which it premiered over several episodes in 1984; the channel did not receive mass audiences for much of this period, however, as might be expected for a station focusing on minority interest. Channel 4 began the funding of independent films, such as the Merchant-Ivory docudrama The Courtesans of Bombay, during this time. In 1992, Channel 4 faced its first libel case by Jani Allan, a South African journalist, who objected to her representation in Nick Broomfield's documentary The Leader, His Driver and the Driver's Wife. In September 1993, the channel broadcast the direct-to-TV documentary film Beyond Citizen Kane, in which it displayed the dominant position of the Rede Globo television network, discussed its influence and political connections in Brazil.
After control of the station passed from the Channel Four Television Co