2-inch quadruplex video tape was the first practical and commercially successful analog recording video tape format. It was developed and released for the broadcast television industry in 1956 by Ampex, an American company based in Redwood City, California; the first videotape recorder using this format was created in the same year. This format revolutionized broadcast television operations and television production, since the only recording medium available to the TV industry before was film used for kinescopes, much more costly to utilize and took time to develop at a film laboratory. In addition, kinescope images were of inferior quality to the live television broadcast images they recorded, whereas quadruplex videotape preserved all the image detail of a live broadcast. Since most United States West Coast network broadcast delays done by the television networks at the time were done with film kinescopes that needed time for developing, the networks wanted a more practical, cost-effective, quicker way to time-shift television programming for airing on the West Coast than the expense and time consumption of the processing and editing of film caused.
Faced with these challenges, broadcasters sought to adapt magnetic tape recording technology for use with television as well. The term "quadruplex" refers to the use of four magnetic record/reproduce heads mounted on a headwheel spinning transversely across the tape at a rate of 14,400 rpm for NTSC 525 lines/30fps-standard quad decks, at 15,000 rpm for those using the PAL 625 lines/25fps video standard; this method is called quadrature scanning, as opposed to the helical scan transport used by videotape formats. The tape ran at a speed of either 7.5 or 15 in per second for NTSC 525/30 video recording, or 15.625 in per second for PAL 625/25 video. The cue track was used either as a second audio track, or for recording cue tones or time code for linear video editing. A typical 4,800 ft reel of 2 in quad tape holds one hour of recorded material at 15 inches per second; the quadruplex format employs segmented recording. This meant that 2-inch quad did not support "trick-play" functions, such as still and reverse or variable-speed playback.
) However, it was capable of producing high-quality images containing about 400 horizontal lines of video resolution, remained the de facto industry standard for television broadcasting from its inception in 1956 to the mid-1980s, when newer and lower-maintenance videotape formats superseded it. There were three different variations of 2-inch quad: Low-band, the first variety of quad introduced by Ampex in 1956, High-band, which used a wider bandwidth for recording video to the tape, resulting in higher-resolution video from the video tape recorder, Super high-band, which used a pilot tone for better timebase stability, higher coercivity tape. Most quad machines made in the 1960s and 1970s by Ampex can play back both low and high-band 2-inch quad tape. Time-shifting of television programming for the West Coast of the United States by the networks in the 1950s using kinescope films was quite a rushed and perilous ordeal; this was because there were only three hours for the West Coast branches of the TV networks to receive video for the programming from the East Coast, to record such to kinescope films, to develop the film to be aired three hours on the West Coast.
This meant the kinescope was aired immediately after it came straight out of the developing equipment, still warm from the film dryer. These were referred to by the networks as "hot kines". By 1954, the networks used more raw film stock for kinescopes than all of the Hollywood film studios combined, spending up to $4,000 per half hour, they were desperate to obtain a quicker, less expensive, more practical solution. In the early 1950s, Ampex and several other companies such as Bing Crosby Enterprises and RCA were competing to release a videotape format. RCA and BCE did release working prototypes of their recorders, but their downfall was that they all used a longitudinal method of recording, much like audio tape recorders; this meant that the tape had to be recorded at an high speed in order to accommodate sufficient bandwidth to reproduce an adequate video image, in turn requiring large amounts of tape on large reels. At the same time, the BBC developed a similar stationary-head video tape recorder system that saw some on-air use, called VERA.
Ampex, seeing the impracticality of the prototype BCE and RCA VTRs, started to develop a more practical videotape format with tape economy in mind, as well as providing a solution to the networks' West Coast delay woes. Starting in 1952, Ampex built the Mark I prototype V
The Air Ministry was a department of the Government of the United Kingdom with the responsibility of managing the affairs of the Royal Air Force, that existed from 1918 to 1964. It was under the political authority of the Secretary of State for Air. On 13 April 1912, less than two weeks after the creation of the Royal Flying Corps, an Air Committee was established to act as an intermediary between the Admiralty and the War Office in matters relating to aviation; the new Air Committee was composed of representatives of the two war ministries, although it could make recommendations, it lacked executive authority. The recommendations of the Air Committee had to be ratified by the Admiralty Board and the Imperial General Staff and, in consequence, the Committee was not effective; the increasing separation of army and naval aviation from 1912 to 1914 only exacerbated the Air Committee's ineffectiveness and the Committee did not meet after the outbreak of the First World War. By 1916 the lack of co-ordination of the Army's Royal Flying Corps and the Navy's Royal Naval Air Service had led to serious problems, not only in the procurement of aircraft engines, but in the air defence of Great Britain.
It was the supply problems. The War Committee meeting on 15 February 1916 decided to establish a standing joint naval and military committee to co-ordinate both the design and the supply of materiel for the two air services; this committee was titled the Joint War Air Committee, its chairman was Lord Derby. It was at the meeting on 15 February that Curzon proposed the creation of an Air Ministry; as with the pre-war Air Committee, the Joint War Air Committee lacked any executive powers and therefore was not effective. After only eight sittings, Lord Derby resigned from the Committee, stating that "It appears to me quite impossible to bring the two wings closer together... unless and until the whole system of the Air Service is changed and they are amalgamated into one service." The Joint War Air Committee was composed as follows: Chairman – Lord Derby Director of Air Services – Rear Admiral C L Vaughn Lee Superintendent of Aircraft Design – Commodore M F Sueter Squadron Commander W Briggs Director of Military Aeronautics – Major-General Sir David Henderson Lieutenant-Colonel E L EllingtonAdvisory Members were appointed as required.
The next attempt to establish effective co-ordination between the two air services was the creation of an Air Board. The first Air Board came into being on 15 May 1916 with Lord Curzon as its chairman; the inclusion of Curzon, a Cabinet Minister, other political figures was intended to give the Air Board greater status than the Joint War Air Committee. In October 1916 the Air Board published its first report, critical of the arrangements within the British air services; the report noted that although the Army authorities were ready and willing to provide information and take part in meetings, the Navy were absent from Board meetings and refused to provide information on naval aviation. In January 1917 the Prime Minister David Lloyd George replaced the chairman Lord Curzon with Lord Cowdray. Godfrey Paine, who served in the newly created post of Fifth Sea Lord and Director of Naval Aviation, sat on the board and this high level representation from the Navy helped to improve matters. Additionally, as responsibility for the design of aircraft had been moved out of single service hands and given to the Ministry of Munitions, some of the problems of inter-service competition were avoided.
Despite attempts at reorganization of the Air Board, the earlier problems failed to be resolved. In addition, the growing number of German air raids against Great Britain led to public disquiet and increasing demands for something to be done; as a result, Lloyd George, the British Prime Minister, established a committee composed of himself and General Jan Smuts, tasked with investigating the problems with the British air defences and organizational difficulties which had beset the Air Board. Towards the end of the First World War, on 17 August 1917, General Smuts presented a report to the War Council on the future of air power; because of its potential for the'devastation of enemy lands and the destruction of industrial and populous centres on a vast scale', he recommended a new air service be formed that would be on a level with the Army and Royal Navy. The new air service was to receive direction from a new ministry and on 29 November 1917 the Air Force Bill received Royal Assent and the Air Ministry was formed just over a month on 2 January 1918.
Lord Rothermere was appointed the first Air Minister. On 3 January, the Air Council was constituted as follows: Lord Rothermere, Air Minister and President Lieutenant-General Sir David Henderson, Additional Member and Vice-President Major-General Sir Hugh Trenchard, Chief of the Air Staff Major-General Mark Kerr, Deputy Chief of the Air Staff Major-General Godfrey Paine, Master General of Personnel Major-General Sefton Brancker, Controller-General of Equipment Sir William Weir, Director-General of Aircraft Production in the Ministry of Munitions Sir John Hunter, Administrator of Works and Buildings Major J L Baird Permanent Under-SecretaryThe Air Ministry met in the Hotel Cecil on the Strand. In 1919, it moved to Adastral House on Kingsway; the creation of the Air Ministry resulted in the disestablishment of the Army Council's post of Director-General of Military Aeronautics. In 1919 the RAF and the Air Ministry came under immense political and inter service pressure for their existence in a c
Kingsway is a major road in central London, designated as part of the A4200. It runs from High Holborn, at its north end in the London Borough of Camden, meets Aldwych in the south in the City of Westminster at Bush House, it was opened by King Edward VII in 1905. Together Kingsway and Aldwych form one of the major north-south routes through central London linking the ancient east-west routes of High Holborn and Strand; the road was purpose-built as part of a major redevelopment of the area in the 1900s. Its route cleared away the maze of small streets in Holborn such as Little Queen Street and the surrounding slum dwellings; however Holy Trinity Church, built in Little Queen Street was spared, whereas the Sardinian Embassy Chapel, an important Roman Catholic church attached to the Embassy of the Kingdom of Sardinia, was demolished to make way for the new street. Plans were published by London County Council in 1898 and the road was formally opened in 1905, it is one of the broadest streets in central London at 100 feet wide.
There were several proposed names for the new street, including King Edward VII Street, Empire Avenue, Imperial Avenue and Connecticut Avenue. The name "Kingsway" was in honour of King Edward VII, it was unique in containing below it a tunnel for a tramway, which started just north of Southampton Row, passed beneath Aldwych and continued to the Thames Embankment: this Kingsway tramway subway joined the North and South London tram systems. In 1958 the disused tunnel was reopened at the southern end to make a new connection, the Strand Underpass, for light traffic between Waterloo Bridge and Kingsway in order to reduce congestion. Beneath Kingsway was a branch of the Piccadilly tube line from Holborn to the Strand, it was closed in 1994. The branch platform at Holborn station is still used for television and film sets that require underground scenes. During the Second World War the branch was used to store art treasures from the British Museum, including the Elgin Marbles. On 1 April 2015, electrical cables under the pavement in Kingsway caught fire, leading to serious disruption in central London.
The fire continued for the next two days, with flames shooting out of a manhole cover from a burst gas main, before being extinguished. Several thousand people were evacuated from nearby offices, several theatres cancelled performances. There was substantial disruption to telecoms infrastructure. On 8 April, press reports emerged stating that the fire may have been started as part of the 2015 Hatton Garden burglary; the original buildings were built between 1903 and 1905. They were mid-rises in stone, in various styles including neoclassical and neo-Baroque. Many survive. Notable buildings include: 61 Aldwych Television House, the headquarters of Associated-Rediffusion Television Africa House Alexandra House Aviation House the Church of the Holy Trinity, in an Edwardian Baroque style. Bush House Civil Aviation Authority House Kingsway Hall, Methodist mission hall opened in 1912 and from 1926 the church allowed HMV, EMI from 1931, to use it as a recording studio. In 1944 EMI were joined by Decca Records Victory House York House Various buildings of the London School of Economics The closest tube stations are Holborn, Temple.
As part of the redevelopment a tram tunnel was built underneath the road. The trams ceased to run in the mid 20th century and since 1961 the southern end of the tunnel has been used by cars under the name of the Strand Underpass; the northern entrance to the tunnel still exists and can be found at the junction of Southampton Row and Vernon Place. Kingsway telephone exchange, an underground telephone exchange in Chancery Lane; the King's Way, a song by the English composer Edward Elgar to a poem written by his wife, celebrates the opening of Kingsway. Simon Bradley and Nikolaus Pevsner, The Buildings of England, London 6: Westminster, 2003. ISBN 0-300-09595-3. Media related to Kingsway, London WC2 at Wikimedia Commons
Merseyside is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 1.38 million. It encompasses the metropolitan area centred on both banks of the lower reaches of the Mersey Estuary and comprises five metropolitan boroughs: Knowsley, St Helens, Sefton and the city of Liverpool. Merseyside, created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972, takes its name from the River Mersey. Merseyside spans 249 square miles of land which border Lancashire, Greater Manchester and the Irish Sea to the west. North Wales is across the Dee Estuary. There is a mix of high density urban areas, semi-rural and rural locations in Merseyside, but overwhelmingly the land use is urban, it has a focused central business district, formed by Liverpool City Centre, but Merseyside is a polycentric county with five metropolitan districts, each of which has at least one major town centre and outlying suburbs. The Liverpool Urban Area is the fifth most populous conurbation in England, dominates the geographic centre of the county, while the smaller Birkenhead Urban Area dominates the Wirral Peninsula in the south.
For the 12 years following 1974 the county had a two-tier system of local government. The county council was abolished in 1986, so its districts are now unitary authority areas. However, the metropolitan county continues to exist in law and as a geographic frame of reference, several county-wide services are co-ordinated by authorities and joint-boards, such as Merseytravel, Merseyside Fire and Rescue Service and the Merseyside Police; the boroughs of Merseyside are joined by the neighbouring borough of Halton in Cheshire to form the Liverpool City Region, a local enterprise partnership and combined authority area. Merseyside is an amalgamation of 22 former local government districts from the former administrative counties of Lancashire and six autonomous county boroughs centred on Birkenhead, Liverpool, Southport, St Helens, Wallasey. Merseyside was designated as a "Special Review" area in the Local Government Act 1958, the Local Government Commission for England started a review of this area in 1962, based around the core county boroughs of Liverpool/Bootle/Birkenhead/Wallasey.
Further areas, including Widnes and Runcorn, were added to the Special Review Area by Order in 1965. Draft proposals were published in 1965, but the commission never completed its final proposals as it was abolished in 1966. Instead, a Royal Commission was set up to review English local government and its report proposed a much wider Merseyside metropolitan area covering southwest Lancashire and northwest Cheshire, extending as far south as Chester and as far north as the River Ribble; this would have included four districts: Southport/Crosby, Liverpool/Bootle, St Helens/Widnes and Wirral/Chester. In 1970 the Merseyside Passenger Transport Executive was set up, covering Liverpool, Sefton and Knowsley, but excluding Southport and St Helens; the Redcliffe-Maud Report was rejected by the incoming Conservative Party government, but the concept of a two-tier metropolitan area based on the Mersey area was retained. A White Paper was published in 1971; the Local Government Bill presented to Parliament involved a substantial trimming from the White Paper, excluding the northern and southern fringes of the area, excluding Chester, Ellesmere Port.
Further alterations took place in Parliament, with Skelmersdale being removed from the area, a proposed district including St Helens and Huyton being subdivided into what are now the metropolitan boroughs of St Helens and Knowsley. Merseyside was created on 1 April 1974 from areas parts of the administrative counties of Lancashire and Cheshire, along with the county boroughs of Birkenhead, Liverpool, St Helens. Following the creation of Merseyside, Merseytravel expanded to take in St Southport. Between 1974 and 1986 the county had a two-tier system of local government with the five boroughs sharing power with the Merseyside County Council. However, in 1986 the government of Margaret Thatcher abolished the county council along with all other metropolitan county councils, so its boroughs are now unitary authorities. Merseyside is divided into two parts by the Mersey Estuary, the Wirral is located on the west side of the estuary, upon the Wirral Peninsula and the rest of the county is located on the east side of the estuary.
The eastern part of Merseyside borders onto Lancashire to the north, Greater Manchester to the east, with both parts of the county bordering Cheshire to the south. The territory comprising the county of Merseyside formed part of the administrative counties of Lancashire and Cheshire; the two parts are linked by the two Mersey Tunnels, the Wirral Line of Merseyrail, the Mersey Ferry. Merseyside contains green belt interspersed throughout the county, surrounding the Liverpool urban area, as well as across the Mersey in the Wirral area, with further pockets extending towards and surrounding Southport, as part of the western edge of the North West Green Belt, it was first drawn up from the 1950s. All the county's districts contain some portion of belt. Raby on the Wirral is Merseyside's green belt. Ipsos MORI polls in the boroughs of Sefton
The Met Office is the United Kingdom's national weather service. It is an executive agency and trading fund of the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy led by CEO, Penelope Endersby, who took on the role as Chief Executive in December 2018, the first woman to do so; the Met Office makes meteorological predictions across all timescales from weather forecasts to climate change. The Met Office was established in 1854 as a small department within the Board of Trade under Vice Admiral Robert FitzRoy as a service to mariners; the loss of the passenger vessel, the Royal Charter, 459 lives off the coast of Anglesey in a violent storm in October 1859 led to the first gale warning service. FitzRoy established a network of 15 coastal stations from which visual gale warnings could be provided for ships at sea; the new electric telegraph enabled rapid dissemination of warnings and led to the development of an observational network which could be used to provide synoptic analysis. The Met Office started in 1861 to provide weather forecasts to newspapers.
FitzRoy requested the daily traces of the photo-barograph at Kew Observatory to assist in this task and similar barographs and as well as instruments to continuously record other meteorological parameters were provided to stations across the observing network. Publication of forecasts ceased in May 1866 after FitzRoy's death but recommenced in April 1879. Following the First World War, the Met Office became part of the Air Ministry in 1919, the weather observed from the top of Adastral House giving rise to the phrase "The weather on the Air Ministry roof"; as a result of the need for weather information for aviation, the Met Office located many of its observation and data collection points on RAF airfields, this accounts for the large number of military airfields mentioned in weather reports today. In 1936 the Met Office split with services to the Royal Navy being provided by its own forecasting services, it became an executive agency of the Ministry of Defence in April 1990, a quasi-governmental role, being required to act commercially.
Following a machinery of government change, the Met Office became part of the Department for Business and Skills on 18 July 2011, subsequently part of the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy following the merger of BIS and the Department of Energy and Climate Change on 14 July 2016. Although no longer part of the MOD, the Met Office maintains strong links with the military through its front line offices at RAF and Army bases both in the UK and overseas and its involvement in the Joint Operations Meteorology and Oceanography Centre with the Royal Navy; the Mobile Met Unit are a unit consisting of Met Office staff who are RAF reservists who accompany forward units in times of conflict advising the armed forces of the conditions for battle the RAF. In September 2003 the Met Office moved its headquarters from Bracknell in Berkshire to a purpose-built £80m structure at Exeter Business Park, near junction 29 of the M5 motorway; the new building was opened on 21 June 2004 – a few weeks short of the Met Office's 150th anniversary – by Robert May, Baron May of Oxford.
It has a worldwide presence – including a forecasting centre in Aberdeen, offices in Gibraltar and on the Falklands. Other outposts lodge in establishments such as the Joint Centre for Mesoscale Meteorology at University of Reading in Berkshire, the Joint Centre for Hydro-Meteorological Research site at Wallingford in Oxfordshire, there is a Met Office presence at Army and Air Force bases within the UK and abroad. Royal Navy weather forecasts are provided by naval officers, not Met Office personnel; the Shipping Forecast is produced by the Met Office and broadcast on BBC Radio 4, for those traversing the seas around the British Isles. The Met Office issues Severe Weather Warnings for the United Kingdom through the National Severe Weather Warning Service; these warn of weather events that may endanger people's lives. In March 2008, the system was improved and a new stage of warning was introduced, the'Advisory'. In September 2015 the Met Office established a "name our storms" project, the aim is to provide a single authoritative naming system for the storms that affect the UK and Ireland by asking the public to suggest names.
On 10 November, the first named. The main role of the Met Office is to produce forecast models by gathering information from weather satellites in space and observations on earth processing it with a variety of models, based on a software package known as the unified model; the principal weather products for UK customers are 36-hour forecasts from the operational 1.5 km resolution UKV model covering the UK and surroundings, 48-hour forecasts from the 12 km resolution NAE model covering Europe and the North Atlantic, 144-hour forecasts from the 25 km resolution global model. The Met Office's Global Model forecast has been in the top 3 for global weather forecast performance in independent verification to WMO standards. Products for other regions of the globe are sold to customers abroad, provided for MOD operations abroad or provided free to developing countries in Africa. If necessary, forecasters may make adjustments to the computer forecasts. Data is stored in the Met Office's own PP-format.
Formed in 2009, the Flood Forecasting Centre is a joint venture between the Environment Agency and the Met Office to provide flood risk guidance for Engl
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion