A television channel is a terrestrial frequency or virtual number over which a television station or television network is distributed. For example, in North America, "channel 2" refers to the terrestrial or cable band of 54 to 60 MHz, with carrier frequencies of 55.25 MHz for NTSC analog video and 59.75 MHz for analog audio, or 55.31 MHz for digital ATSC. Channels may be shared by many different television stations or cable-distributed channels depending on the location and service provider Depending on the multinational bandplan for a given regional n, analog television channels are 6, 7, or 8 MHz in bandwidth, therefore television channel frequencies vary as well. Channel numbering is different. Digital terrestrial television channels are the same as their analog predecessors for legacy reasons, however through multiplexing, each physical radio frequency channel can carry several digital subchannels. On satellites, each transponder carries one channel, however multiple small, independent channels can be on one transponder, with some loss of bandwidth due to the need for guard bands between unrelated transmissions.
ISDB, used in Japan and Brazil, has a similar segmented mode. Preventing interference between terrestrial channels in the same area is accomplished by skipping at least one channel between two analog stations' frequency allocations. Where channel numbers are sequential, frequencies are not contiguous, such as channel 6 to 7 skip from VHF low to high band, channel 13 to 14 jump to UHF. On cable TV, it is possible to use adjacent channels only because they are all at the same power, something which could only be done terrestrially if the two stations were transmitted at the same power and height from the same location. For DTT, selectivity is inherently better, therefore channels adjacent can be used in the same area; the term "television channel" is used to mean a television station or its pay television counterpart. Sometimes outside the U. S. and in the context of pay television, it is used instead of the term television network, which otherwise describes a group of geographically-distributed television stations that share affiliation/ownership and some or all of their programming with one another.
This terminology may be muddled somewhat in other jurisdictions, for instance Europe, where terrestrial channels are mapped from physical channels to common numerical positions. On digital platforms, such channels are arbitrary and changeable, due to virtual channels. A television station is a type of terrestrial station that broadcasts both audio and video to television receivers in a particular area. Traditionally, TV stations made their broadcasts by sending specially-encoded radio signals over the air, called terrestrial television. Individual television stations are granted licenses by a government agency to use a particular section of the radio spectrum through which they send their signals; some stations use LPTV broadcast translators to retransmit to further areas. Many television stations are now in the process of converting from analogue terrestrial broadcast, to digital terrestrial; because some regions have had difficulty picking up terrestrial television signals, alternative means of distribution such as direct-to-home satellite and cable television have been introduced.
Television channels built to run on cable or satellite blur the line between TV station and TV network. That fact led some early cable channels to call themselves superstations. Satellite and cable have created changes. Local programming TV stations in an area can sign-up or be required to be carried on cable, but content providers like TLC cannot, they are not licensed to run broadcast equipment like a station, they do not provide content to licensed broadcasters either. Furthermore, a distributor like TNT may start producing its own programming, shows presented on pay-TV by one distributor may be syndicated to terrestrial stations; the cost of creating a nationwide channel has been reduced and there has been a huge increase in the number of such channels, with most catering to a small group. See also: viewed. From the definitions above, use of the terms "network" or "station" in reference to nationwide cable or satellite channels is technically inaccurate. However, this is an arbitrary, inconsequential distinction, varies from company to company.
Indeed, the term "cable network" has entered into common usage in the United States in reference to such channels. There is some geographical separation among "national" pay television channels in the U. S. be it programming, or regionalized advertising inserted by the local cable company. Should a legal distinction be necessary between a channel as defined above and a television channel in this sense, the terms "programming service" or "programming undertaking" may be used instead of the latter definition. A person viewing by subscription providers might not know what kind of organization is responsible for a given program if it is syndicated, so what seems to be a station or a network may be neither. Barker channel Lists of television channels Television channel frequencies Media related to Television channels at Wikimedia Commons What happened to Channel 1
Guinobatan the Municipality of Guinobatan, is a 1st class municipality in the province of Albay, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 82,361 people; the town is the birthplace of General Simeón Ola, the last Filipino general to surrender to the Americans after the Philippine-American War. In the research work "Guinobatan Through the Times," the following version of the legend is stated: In a region on Mayon’s slopes lay a village, it was dotted with huts, as well as with a number of stone houses. In the village was a church, inside the belfry was a Golden Bell. So great was the bell thatwhen rung, the sound could be heard from miles away; the sound could reach the land of the Moros. The Moros, made curious by the sound of the bell, sentspies so that they would know what kind of bell was producing so loud and peculiar a sound; the spies were surprised to find out that the townspeople rang was made of pure gold. They went back to the land of the Moros eager to report their findings to their superiors.
Motivated by greed,the Moros assembled a squad to plunder the bell. When they arrived at the village, they torched houses, they attempted to force the people to tell them. Their attempts failed. Many were still ableto flee; the fleeing townsfolk knew where the bell was, they hid the bell underneath the roots of trees. However, an old man was left in the village. Ashe was the only person left in the town, Moros tortured him so that he would tell the raiders where the Golden Bell was; the old man, did not know. Finding no use for the old man, the Moros killed him, they tried to pursue the townspeople. Instead, they went to the woods in search of the Golden Bell, they uprooted every tree underneath. Their efforts proved futile. Hence, with empty hands the Moros went back to their land, while the townspeople went back to the village to rebuild their lives, which had always been under threat from Moro pillagers and natural calamities; the townspeople kept the valued Golden Bell safe from anyone who tried to steal it.
Seeing the uprooted trees, the townsfolk named their area “Guinobatan” meaning “a place where trees were uprooted.” So ends the legend. Some versions state that the town's name is derived from Ginabutan, meaning "a place where trees or plants were uprooted." Luis Nee, a botanist, reached Bikol in January 1792, accompanying the expedition of Capt. Alejandro Malaspina. Nee explored towns near Mayon and including the area now known as Guinobatan, he noted that "trees grew in exuberance making the foothills impenetrable in many parts."Dr. Leonilo Palacio of Guinobatan’s Republic Colleges mentioned in an essay entitled "Guinobatan and its Church" that "in 1672, the Parish of Guinobatan was mentioned in books as a visita of the Municipality of Camalig."In 1890, the title of the gobernadorcillo was changed to Capitan Municipal. The Municipal Law of 1894 guaranteed that the term of the local executive would be extended from two years to four years. Among the salient provisions of the law was the election of 12 vocales, equivalent to today’s councilors.
In 1895, the Colegio de San Buenaventura was built, making Guinobatan the centre for higher education in Albay. Cabezas and principales elected the gobernadorcillo until 1863; until 1847, Guinobatan belonged to Camarines. During the said year,the towns of Quipia and Donsol were ceded to Albay, in exchange for the towns of the Partido de Lagonoy. From 1730-1818, the town transferred from one place to another. In 1730, it was on a site now called Binanuahan. From there, it was the relocated to Bubulusan. During the eruption of 1814, citizens opted to evacuate to higher ground, in Mauraro. During the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine-American War, most of the schoolhouses built by the Spaniards were destroyed by constant artillery fire, most of which came from the Americans; as part of the "pacification" campaign of the Americans and architects were sent to the Philippines to oversee the construction of public works. Engr. Edward K. Bourne and famed urban planner Daniel Burnham, among other American architects and engineers, were instructed to go to Manila.
In response, the Philippine Commission passed Act No. 268 which created the Bureau of Architecture and Construction of Public Buildings. Mr. Bourne was appointed as its head. In 1907, the Philippine Assembly was formed. Angel Roco of Mauraro, Guinobatan represented Albay in the Assembly; the same year, Assemblyman Isauro Gabaldon of Nueva Ecija authored an act which appropriated ₱ 1 million between 1907 and 1915 for "construction of schoolhouses of strong materials in barrios with guaranteed daily attendance of not less than sixty pupils…" Passing into law as Act No. 1801, the act became known as the "Gabaldon Act". Among the salient provisions was that no school could receive more than ₱ 4,000 unless the municipality to which the school belonged contributed at least 50% of the total amount granted to the school by the Gabaldon Act; the Gabaldon Act stipulated that only on land owned by the municipality could schools be constructed. Fifty-one "Gabaldons" were completed by 1911, by 1916, four hundred five more were constructed.
Among those completed between 1911 and 1916 was Guinobatan Central School blg. 1 or the Guinobatan East Central School's Gabaldon Building. Potenciano Gregorio's Bikol language musical composition "Sarung Banggi" premiered at the town fiesta in Guinobatan in August 1910. Guinobatan is located at 13°11′N 123°36′E. According to th
White Oak is a census-designated place in Hamilton County, United States. It is seven miles northwest of Cincinnati; the population was 19,167 at the 2010 census. White Oak was known as Saint Jacobs in the 19th century. White Oak is located at 39°12′50″N 84°35′49″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 6.2 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 13,277 people, 5,263 households, 3,647 families living in the CDP; the population density was 3,242.7 people per square mile. There were 5,464 housing units at an average density of 1,334.5/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 93.88% White, 3.55% African American, 0.17% Native American, 1.09% Asian, 0.41% from other races, 0.91% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.08% of the population. There were 5,263 households out of which 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.0% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.7% were non-families.
26.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.07. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 21.4% from 45 to 64, 14.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.5 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $45,306, the median income for a family was $55,736. Males had a median income of $41,728 versus $28,768 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $23,687. About 3.9% of families and 5.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.2% of those under age 18 and 6.0% of those age 65 or over
The Oxford Bar is a public house situated on Young Street, in the New Town of Edinburgh, Scotland. The pub is chiefly notable for having been featured in Ian Rankin's Inspector Rebus series of novels; the Oxford Bar, or The Ox, is John Rebus's favourite pub in Edinburgh. The Oxford Bar became a public house in 1811, although it was a confectioner's shop in 1843, it was disponed on 30 October 1893 to Andrew Wilson and spirits merchant, thereafter remained a public bar. The Oxford Bar retains its original compartmentalised form. Consisting of a central corridor with rooms to right and left, the corridor has been opened up to the left with an archway into the small stand-up bar but the original form is still clear, it is a Category B listed building. Several Scottish writers and artists are said to have been patrons of the Oxford Bar, including Sydney Goodsir Smith and Willie Ross. In fact, the pub was first immortalised in Smith's Carotid Cornucopius. Ian Rankin is a patron of the Oxford Bar, chose it as Rebus's pub because a lot of police officers drink there.
In Dirty Work: Ian Rankin and John Rebus Book-By-Book, Ray Dexter and Nadine Carr note that the Oxford Bar would be an improbable local for Rebus due to its geographical location. Other visitors to the bar have included author Colin Dexter. Quintin Jardine's 2009 Bob Skinner novel, Fatal Last Words mentions the Oxford Bar again due to the connection with the local police force drinking there. There are a few other nods to Rankin too; the Oxford Bar at Edinburgh Pub Guide
Surallah the Municipality of Surallah, is a 1st class municipality in the province of South Cotabato, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 84,539 people. Located in SOCCSKSARGEN or Region XII of Mindanao Island, the municipality is seated about 20 kilometres south-west of province capital city of Koronadal and about 1,002 kilometres south-south-east of Philippine capital Manila. Based on its urban area, it is 18th biggest municipality of the region and has placed 6th of the biggest towns in South Cotabato; the Municipality of Surallah was created by virtue of Republic Act 3420 on June 18, 1961, as amended by RA 3664 on June 22, 1963. Its history is reckoned with the influx of settlers coming from their abilities under the settlements Programs of NLSA. Surallah started as 6th Class Municipality with 26 barrios and a population of 26,162 settling in a vast land area of 97,000 hectares; the rapid growth of its cluster barrios made the support of the new town. The creation of the Municipality of T’boli in 1964 making six barrios integrated in thus, reducing the total land area to 31,200 hectares.
Subsequently, three Barangays were created from their mother barangay. The booming tourism industry in the south made to be the primary factor of the birth of the new Municipality of Lake Sebu in 1982, causing the reduction of the total land area and population of Surallah from 31,200 to 31,110 hectares and from 52,703 to 42,467 respectively; the separation of Lake Sebu into Municipality made another reduction in the number of barangay from 23 to 17. The influential leadership of the municipality triggered the tremendous growth development from a small span of years from its creation up to 1990. First, the administration of the Jose T. Sison who served the Municipality from 1963 to 1978 until the election for regional representatives caused Mayor Jose T. Sison to become the Assemblyman of Region XI. Former barrio treasurer of Libertad, Federico Magalona, Jr. was appointed to assume the office until the Local Election of January 31, 1980. The concluded poll gave the mayoralty seat to Conrado P. Haguisan to serve from seat Lorenzo Delmo until November 21, 1987, who vacated the post to run in the January 18, 1988 election.
From December 1, 1987, to January 31, 1988, former OIC Councilor Fransisco Sodusta served as OIC Mayor. The election in January 1988 gave back the local leadership to former Assemblyman Jose T. Sison as Municipal Mayor of Surallah who served for three terms until May 1998; the race for Local leadership in May election proved to be competitive among aspirants who had won by Romulo O. Solivio; the new leadership brought necessary changes in the administration more specific on a gradual shift from traditional type to a more conventional way of governance by re-inventing new techniques thru dynamic participative approaches. There is no official source of information regarding the origin of the name of the place, but precolonial settlers had named the place Šukran Allâh, šukran being the Arabic equivalent of “Thanks be to God.” Colonial-era settelrs from Luzón and the Visayas later modified the name into Surallah which loosely means “South of Allah”. The more explanation, however, is that the town takes its name from the Arabic Ṯārʾallâh, which in Persian is romanized as Sārʾallāh, which in turn is pronounced in its Tajik dialect as /sorolˈloh/.
The origin inhabitants of the area are the tagabilis, a mountain tribe people who moved inward after the arrival of the Christian settlers from Luzon and Visayas. The latest census of May 2000 gave Surallah the Officials population count of 66,208. In July 1991, Surallah was reclassified from fifth class to third class Municipality being considered as one of the most progressive municipality in the province of South Cotabato. Subsequently, in 1993, it became a second class municipality and in July 1997 it was reclassified as first class municipality by the Department of Finance. Banking on the Potentials for Agro-industrial and commercials developments, the administration geared its program toward making Surallah as the Agro-industrial and commercial center for Allah Valley Area where vision is addressed to; as economic activities flourished in the area, more people businessmen settled into the place which contributed much to faster pace of development. The Municipality’s vision as an Agro-industrial and Commercial center of the Allah valley Area for the coming years continues as it directs its mission towards providing infrastructure developments, economic supports services and facilities to attract and encourage growth of investments in the municipality.
Aside from these, the improvement of the social services, the conservation of the natural resources and protection of the environment are priority development objectives of this fast growing municipality presently serving as the economic center of the Allah Valley Area. Administratively the Municipality of Surallah is subdivided into 17 barangays. One forms the center of the municipality; some of them are several kilometers away from the town proper. According to the 2010 census, Surallah has a population of 76,035 residents and belongs to the 294 cities and municipalities in the Philippines which have more than 50,000 inhabitants but did not reach 100,000 yet. Based on the number of its inhabitants Surallah is number 255 of the most populous municipalities of the Philippines and at 59 in Mindanao Island and at 5 of the most populous municipalities of the province of South Cotabato; as economic acti
General August Winter was a German officer and General of mountain troops in the German army during World War II. Winter joined the Imperial German Army as an officer cadet in 1916 and was commissioned as a leutnant in 1917, he was awarded the Iron Cross second class in World War I. After 1918, he was retained in the Reichswehr, he was transferred to Munich, where he was promoted to Hauptmann in 1933 and Major in 1936. On 1 April 1939, he was promoted to Oberstleutnant and upon mobilization for World War II in the summer of 1939, he was appointed to the general staff of the army. In 1940, he was a staff officer of the Army Group South. In 1943 he was appointed Generalmajor. In September 1943, he was stationed in Salonika as part of Army Group E. On 1 May 1945 was promoted to General der Gebirgstruppe. In June 1946 Winter was questioned as a witness during the Nuremberg trials and until his retirement was a researcher with the Gehlen Organization and German Federal Intelligence Service. Iron Cross 2nd Class Honour Cross of the World War 1914/1918 Iron Cross 2nd Class 1st Class German Cross in Gold The trial of German major war criminals, sitting at Nuremberg, Germany, 7 June to 19 June 1946: one hundred and fiftieth day: Saturday, 8 June 1946".
Retrieved 30 October 2011. James H. Critchfield.