SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Television network

A television network or broadcaster is a telecommunications network for distribution of television program content, whereby a central operation provides programming to many television stations or pay television providers. Until the mid-1980s, television programming in most countries of the world was dominated by a small number of terrestrial networks. Many early television networks evolved from earlier radio networks. In countries where most networks broadcast identical, centrally originated content to all of their stations and where most individual television transmitters therefore operate only as large "repeater stations", the terms "television network", "television channel" and "television station" have become interchangeable in everyday language, with professionals in television-related occupations continuing to make a differentiation between them. Within the industry, a tiering is sometimes created among groups of networks based on whether their programming is originated from a central point, whether the network master control has the technical and administrative capability to take over the programming of their affiliates in real-time when it deems this necessary – the most common example being during national breaking news events.

In North America in particular, many television networks available via cable and satellite television are branded as "channels" because they are somewhat different from traditional networks in the sense defined above, as they are singular operations – they have no affiliates or component stations, but instead are distributed to the public via cable or direct-broadcast satellite providers. Such networks are referred to by terms such as "specialty channels" in Canada or "cable networks" in the U. S. A network may not produce all of its own programming. If not, production companies can distribute their content to the various networks, it is common that a certain production firm may have programs that air on two or more rival networks; some networks may import television programs from other countries, or use archived programming to help complement their schedules. Some stations have the capability to interrupt the network through the local insertion of television commercials, station identifications and emergency alerts.

Others break away from the network for their own programming, a method known as regional variation. This is common; the majority of commercial television stations are self-owned though a variety of these instances are the property of an owned-and-operated television network. The commercial television stations can be linked with a noncommercial educational broadcasting agency, it is important to note that some countries have launched national television networks, so that individual television stations can act as common repeaters of nationwide programs. On the other hand, television networks undergo the impending experience of major changes related to cultural varieties; the emergence of cable television has made available in major media markets, programs such as those aimed at American bi-cultural Latinos. Such a diverse captive audience presents an occasion for the networks and affiliates to advertise the best programming that needs to be aired; this is explained by author Tim P. Vos in his abstract A Cultural Explanation of Early Broadcast, where he determines targeted group/non-targeted group representations as well as the cultural specificity employed in the television network entity.

Vos notes that policymakers did not expressly intend to create a broadcast order dominated by commercial networks. In fact, legislative attempts were made to limit the network's preferred position; as to individual stations, modern network operations centers use broadcast automation to handle most tasks. These systems are not only used for programming and for video server playout, but use exact atomic time from Global Positioning Systems or other sources to maintain perfect synchronization with upstream and downstream systems, so that programming appears seamless to viewers. A major international television network is the British Broadcasting Corporation, most well known for its news agency BBC News. Owned by the Crown, the BBC operates in the United Kingdom, it is funded by the television licence paid by British residents that watch terrestrial television and as a result, no commercial advertising appears on its networks. Outside the UK, advertising is broadcast because the licence fee only applies to the BBC's British operations.

23,000 people worldwide are employed by its subsidiary, BBC Studios. Television in the United States had long been dominated by the Big Three television networks, the American Broadcasting Company, CBS and the National Broadcasting Company; the Big Three provide a significant number of programs to each of their affiliates, including newscasts, prime time and sports programming, but still reserve periods during each day where their affiliate can air local programming, such as local news or syndicated programs. Since the creation of Fox, the number of American television networks has increased, though the amount of programming they provide is much less: for example, The CW Television Network only provides twelve hours of primetime programming each week, leaving its affiliates to fill

Alonzo Cushing

Alonzo Hereford Cushing was an artillery officer in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He was killed in action during Battle of Gettysburg while defending the Union position on Cemetery Ridge against Pickett's Charge. In 2013, 150 years after Cushing's death, he was nominated for the Medal of Honor; the nomination was approved by the United States Congress, was sent for review by the Defense Department and the President. On August 26, 2014, the White House announced he would be posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor, with President Obama presiding over the official ceremony on November 6, 2014. Helen Bird Loring Ensign, a second cousin twice removed, accepted the medal on Cushing's behalf, as Cushing left no direct descendants. Cushing was born in what is now the city of Delafield and raised in Fredonia, New York, his younger brother was future Union Navy officer Cdr. William B. Cushing, they were the youngest of four brothers who served in the Union forces. Their brother Howard was killed during the Indian Wars campaign in 1871.

Cushing graduated from the United States Military Academy in the class of June 1861, received commissions as second and first lieutenant on the same day. He was brevetted major following the Battle of Chancellorsville. Cushing commanded Battery A, 4th U. S. Artillery at Gettysburg, was hailed by contemporaries as heroic in his actions on the third day of the battle, he was wounded three times. First, a shell fragment went straight through his shoulder, he was grievously wounded by a second shell fragment, which tore into his abdomen and groin. This wound exposed his intestines, which he held in place with his hand as he continued to command his battery. After these injuries, a higher-ranking officer said, "Cushing, go to the rear." Cushing, due to the limited number of men left, refused to fall back. The severity of his wounds left him unable to yell his orders above the sounds of battle. Thus, he was held aloft by his 1st Sergeant Frederick Füger, who faithfully passed on Cushing's commands. Cushing was exited through the back of his skull.

He died on the field at the height of the assault. He was 22 years old, his body was returned to his family and interred in the West Point Cemetery in Section 26, Row A, Grave 7. His headstone bears, at the behest of his mother, the inscription "Faithful unto Death." His grave is next to that of Major General John Buford, another hero of Gettysburg, who had chosen the battlefield that Cushing had died defending. Cushing was posthumously cited for gallantry with a brevet promotion to lieutenant colonel. Cushing was nominated for a belated award of the Medal of Honor, beginning with a letter campaign in the late 1980s by a constituent of Senator William Proxmire of Wisconsin. Margaret Zerwekh began her campaign to honor Cushing in 1987 with a letter to Senator Proxmire, she lived on property once owned by Cushing's father in Delafield and spent years researching his background. For years, she received form letters in return to her letters advocating for Cushing until the early 2000s; the measure was advocated by Congressman Ron Kind of Wisconsin's 3rd congressional district.

In 2002, Senator Russ Feingold nominated Cushing for the Medal of Honor and, following a lengthy investigation, the U. S. Army approved the nomination in February 2010. In order for the medal to be awarded, it had to be approved by the United States Congress, it was announced on May 20, 2010 that Cushing would receive the Medal of Honor, 147 years after his death. However, the provision granting Cushing the Medal of Honor was removed from a defense spending bill by Senator Jim Webb in December 2012. In December 2013, the Senate passed a defense bill that included a provision granting Cushing the Medal of Honor; the nomination was sent to the Defense Department for review, before being approved by President Barack Obama. On August 26, 2014, the White House announced Cushing would be posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor. On November 6, 2014, 151 years after Alonzo Cushing's death, President Obama presented the award at a ceremony at the White House, attended by two dozen relatives of the Cushing family.

Cushing was awarded the Medal of Honor by Department of the Army General Order 2014-76 dated December 19, 2014. The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, March 3rd, 1863, has awarded in the name of Congress the Medal of Honor to First Lieutenant Alonzo H. Cushing, United States Army. First Lieutenant Alonzo H. Cushing distinguished himself by acts of bravery above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an artillery commander in Battery A, 4th U. S. Artillery, Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania on July 3rd, 1863 during the American Civil War; that morning, Confederate forces led by General Robert E. Lee began cannonading First Lieutenant Cushing's position on Cemetery Ridge. Using field glasses, First Lieutenant Cushing directed fire for his own artillery battery, he refused to leave the battlefield after being struck in the shoulder by a shell fragment. As he continued to direct fire, he was struck again – this time suffering grievous damage to his abdomen.

Still refusing to abandon his command, he boldly stood tall in the face of Major General George E. Pickett's charge and continued to direct devastating fire into oncoming forces; as the Confederate forces closed in, First Lieutenant Cushing was struck in the mouth by an enemy bullet and fell dead beside his gun. His gallant stand and fearless leadership inflicted severe casualties upon Confederate forces and opened wide gaps in their lines, directly impacting the Union force's ability to repel Pickett's charge. First Lieutenant Cushing's extraordinary heroism and selflessness

Fever (Bullet for My Valentine album)

Fever is the third studio album by Welsh heavy metal band, Bullet for My Valentine. Containing eleven tracks, the album was released on 26 and 27 April 2010 in the UK and in the US, respectively; the album sold 71,000 copies in the US and 21,965 in the UK in its first week of release to debut at position No. 3 on The Billboard 200 and No. 1 on Billboard's Rock and Alternative charts, making it the band's most successfully-charting record to date. Since its release, Fever has sold over 600,000 copies worldwide, it went gold in the UK in late 2013. In early 2009, about a year after Bullet for My Valentine released their second studio album, Scream Aim Fire, the band started writing new material. In a March 2009 interview with Metal Hammer, Matthew Tuck stated that on previous albums he had written lyrics for the songs after the band had completed writing instrumental parts. Bullet for My Valentine entered the studio in April 2009 with producer Don Gilmore at Monmouth and cancelled tour dates in South Africa to continue recording.

The band took time off from recording in mid-2009 to perform on various tours including the 2009 Mayhem Festival. During the Mayhem Festival, Bullet for My Valentine included a new song to their live setlist. Following their tours, the band returned to studio to finish Fever. Recording was completed in December 2009, Gilmore began tracking the album shortly thereafter in Malibu, California. In a 12 March 2010 interview with UK's Metal Hammer magazine, Matthew Tuck, known for his lead vocals, guitar work, song writing abilities, stated about the writing and recording process for the new album: Guitar Edge had an interview with some members of the band where Matthew Tuck talked about Fever: Although the band moved to more of a thrash metal sound with Scream Aim Fire, the album had abandoned the thrash metal sound from Scream Aim Fire to a more heavy metal sound although it did lack screams like Scream Aim Fire. However, the song "Bittersweet Memories" and its lyrics has been described as more emo than metal.

On 14 February 2010, the band offered a new track, "Begging for Mercy", for free download from their official website for a limited time. The first and lead single for the US, "Your Betrayal", was set for release on 8 March 2010 to the radio; the second and lead single for the UK, "The Last Fight", was released on 19 April 2010 to the radio and a limited edition 7" single on 17 April 2010 with "Begging for Mercy" as a B-side. On 24 February 2010, Bullet for My Valentine were on a trip to Los Angeles to shoot a pair of videos: One clip is for the US lead single "Your Betrayal", while the other is for the UK lead single "The Last Fight". Director Paul R. Brown handled both shoots. In September 2010 on Australian radio, Tuck announced that videos would be in production for the title track and "Bittersweet Memories" The music video for "Bittersweet Memories" was released on 25 November 2010. In a phone interview with drummer, Thomas during February 2011, he stated that the original music videos for "Bittersweet Memories" and Fever were scrapped and that Matt Tuck and Himself wrote the screenplay for what is now "Bittersweet Memories" and that the "Fever" video will not be released because the band felt that it was not suitable enough in quality for the song.

Upon its release, Fever received positive reviews from critics, as reflected from the achieved score of 63/100 based on 12 critic reviews Metacritic. Allmusic states that on this third disc, the band "consolidate their style and split the difference between their two previous discs" and describes the album as "a solid disc by a group that knows its own strengths". Fever received positive reviews from Rock Sound and Kerrang! which gave it a 5/5 K-rating. "It's true that Fever combines the tunefulness of first album The Poison with the velocity of Scream Aim Fire, but it goes much further than that. Its inspired songwriting, impeccable musicianship and unbridled confidence propel Bullet to a level that they could only point towards previously; as their new day dawns, so their finest hour begins," enthused reviewer Steve Beebee. Conversely, The New Review gave the album 2.5 out of 5. PopMatters classifies it as a decent album, as it " maintains the level of quality that Scream Aim Fire had, but doesn't advance back to their prior level of excellence.

There are more good songs than bad, but the bad songs are seriously flawed, will stand out more than the positive aspects of the good songs". Guitar Edge, on their June 2010 magazine, described Fever as one of Bullet for My Valentine's hardest hitting albums to date. " It combines the infectious melodies and brute force that listeners expect, but with a new, albeit classic, feel. The album is a sonic masterpiece that showcases the band's phenomenal range of talent". Noisecreep did a brief review talking about Fever's favorable side: One of the tracks to receive standout praise, despite not being released as a single, was "Alone". BBC describes it as " the brightest standout, which rocks to a rampaging riff that courses all the way to its core – it's sure to give any listener shivers, such is its magnitude". Billboard enjoyed it, saying that "[