Pottery is the process of forming vessels and other objects with clay and other ceramic materials, which are fired to give them a hard, durable form. Major types include earthenware and porcelain; the place where such wares are made by a potter is called a pottery. The definition of pottery used by the American Society for Testing and Materials, is "all fired ceramic wares that contain clay when formed, except technical and refractory products." In archaeology of ancient and prehistoric periods, "pottery" means vessels only, figures etc. of the same material are called "terracottas". Clay as a part of the materials used is required by some definitions of pottery, but this is dubious. Pottery is one of the oldest human inventions, originating before the Neolithic period, with ceramic objects like the Gravettian culture Venus of Dolní Věstonice figurine discovered in the Czech Republic dating back to 29,000–25,000 BC, pottery vessels that were discovered in Jiangxi, which date back to 18,000 BC.
Early Neolithic pottery artefacts have been found in places such as Jōmon Japan, the Russian Far East, Sub-Saharan Africa and South America. Pottery is made by forming a ceramic body into objects of a desired shape and heating them to high temperatures in a kiln and induces reactions that lead to permanent changes including increasing the strength and solidity of the object's shape. Much pottery is purely utilitarian, but much can be regarded as ceramic art. A clay body can be decorated after firing. Clay-based pottery can divided in three main groups: earthenware and porcelain; these require more specific clay material, higher firing temperatures. All three are made for different purposes. All may be decorated by various techniques. In many examples the group a piece belongs to is visually apparent, but this is not always the case; the fritware of the Islamic world does not use clay, so technically falls outside these groups. Historic pottery of all these types is grouped as either "fine" wares expensive and well-made, following the aesthetic taste of the culture concerned, or alternatively "coarse", "popular" "folk" or "village" wares undecorated, or so, less well-made.
All the earliest forms of pottery were made from clays that were fired at low temperatures in pit-fires or in open bonfires. They were hand undecorated. Earthenware can be fired as low as 600°C, is fired below 1200°C; because unglazed biscuit earthenware is porous, it has limited utility for the storage of liquids, eating off. However, earthenware has a continuous history from the Neolithic period to today, it can be made from a wide variety of clays, some of which fire to a buff, brown or black colour, with iron in the constituent minerals resulting in a reddish-brown. Reddish coloured varieties are called terracotta when unglazed or used for sculpture; the development of ceramic glaze which makes it impermeable makes it a popular and practical form of pottery. The addition of decoration has evolved throughout its history. Stoneware is pottery, fired in a kiln at a high temperature, from about 1,100°C to 1,200°C, is stronger and non-porous to liquids; the Chinese, who developed stoneware early on, classify this together with porcelain as high-fired wares.
In contrast, stoneware could only be produced in Europe from the late Middle Ages, as European kilns were less efficient, the right sorts of clay less common. It remained a speciality of Germany until the Renaissance. Stoneware is tough and practical, much of it has always been utilitarian, for the kitchen or storage rather than the table, but "fine" stoneware has been important in China and the West, continues to be made. Many utilitarian types have come to be appreciated as art. Porcelain is made by heating materials including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between 1,200 and 1,400 °C; this is higher than used for the other types, achieving these temperatures was a long struggle, as well as realizing what materials were needed. The toughness and translucence of porcelain, relative to other types of pottery, arises from vitrification and the formation of the mineral mullite within the body at these high temperatures. Although porcelain was first made in China, the Chinese traditionally do not recognise it as a distinct category, grouping it with stoneware as "high-fired" ware, opposed to "low-fired" earthenware.
This confuses the issue of. A degree of translucency and whiteness was achieved by the Tang Dynasty, considerable quantities were being exported; the modern level of whiteness was not reached until much in the 14th century. Porcelain was made in Korea and in Japan from the end of the 16th century, after suitable kaolin was located in those countries, it was not made outside East Asia until the 18th century. Before being shaped, clay must be prepared. Kneading helps to ensure an moisture content throughout the body. Air trapped within the clay body needs to be removed; this is called de-airing and can be accomplished either by a machine called a vacuum pug or manually by wedging. Wedging can help produce an moisture content. Once a clay body has been kneaded and de-aired or wedged, it is shaped by a variety of techniques. After it has been shaped, it is dried and fired. Greenware refers to unfired objects. At sufficient moisture content, bodies at this stage are in their most plastic form (as they are soft and mal
As general terms, Indian Territory, the Indian Territories, or Indian country describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land. In general, the tribes ceded land they occupied in exchange for land grants in 1803; the concept of an Indian Territory was an outcome of the 18th- and 19th-century policy of Indian removal. After the Civil War, the policy of the government was one of assimilation; the term Indian Reserve describes lands the British government set aside for indigenous tribes between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River in the time before the American Revolutionary War. Indian Territory came to refer to an unorganized territory whose general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834, was the successor to the remainder of the Missouri Territory after Missouri received statehood; the borders of Indian Territory were reduced in size as various Organic Acts were passed by Congress to create incorporated territories of the United States.
The 1907 Oklahoma Enabling Act created the single state of Oklahoma by combining Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory, ending the existence of an Indian Territory. Indian Territory known as the Indian Territories and the Indian Country, was land within the United States of America reserved for the forced re-settlement of Native Americans. Therefore, it was not a traditional territory for the tribes settled upon it; the general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834. The territory was located in the Central United States. While Congress passed several Organic Acts that provided a path for statehood for much of the original Indian Country, Congress never passed an Organic Act for the Indian Territory. Indian Territory was never an organized incorporated territory of the United States. In general, tribes could not sell land to non-Indians. Treaties with the tribes restricted entry of non-Indians into tribal areas; the region never had a formal government until after the American Civil War.
After the Civil War, the Southern Treaty Commission re-wrote treaties with tribes that sided with the Confederacy, reducing the territory of the Five Civilized Tribes and providing land to resettle Plains Indians and tribes of the Midwestern United States. These re-written treaties included provisions for a territorial legislature with proportional representation from various tribes. In time, the Indian Territory was reduced to; the Organic Act of 1890 reduced Indian Territory to the lands occupied by the Five Civilized Tribes and the Tribes of the Quapaw Indian Agency. The remaining western portion of the former Indian Territory became the Oklahoma Territory; the Oklahoma organic act applied the laws of Nebraska to the incorporated territory of Oklahoma Territory, the laws of Arkansas to the still unincorporated Indian Territory. The concept of an Indian territory is the successor to the British Indian Reserve, a British North American territory established by the Royal Proclamation of 1763 that set aside land for use by the Native American people.
The proclamation limited the settlement of Europeans to Crown-claimed lands east of the Appalachian Mountains. The territory remained active until the Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolutionary War, land was ceded to the United States; the British administration reduced the land area of the Indian Reserve – the United States further reduced it after the American Revolutionary War – until it included only lands west of the Mississippi River. At the time of the American Revolution, many Native American tribes had long-standing relationships with British who were loyal to the British Empire, but they had a less-developed relationship with the Empire's colonists-turned-rebels. After the defeat of the British, the Americans twice invaded the Ohio Country and were twice defeated, they defeated the Indian Western Confederacy at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794 and imposed the Treaty of Greenville, which ceded most of what is now Ohio, part of present-day Indiana, the lands that include present-day Chicago and Detroit, to the United States federal government.
The period after the American Revolutionary War was one of rapid western expansion. The areas occupied by Native Americans in the United States were called Indian country, not an unorganized territory, as the areas were established by treaty. In 1803 the United States of America agreed to purchase France's claim to French Louisiana for a total of $15 million. President Thomas Jefferson doubted the legality of the purchase. However, the chief negotiator, Robert R. Livingston believed that the 3rd article of the treaty providing for the Louisiana Purchase would be acceptable to Congress; the 3rd article stated, in part: the inhabitants of the ceded territory shall be incorporated in the Union of the United States, admitted as soon as possible, according to the principles of the Federal Constitution, to the enjoyment of all the rights and immunities of citizens of the United States. Which committed the US government to "the ultimate, but not to the immediate, admission" of the territory as multiple states, "postponed its incorporation into the Union t
Fernbank Museum of Natural History
Fernbank Museum of Natural History, in Atlanta, is a museum that presents exhibitions and programming about natural history. Fernbank Museum has a number of permanent exhibitions and hosts temporary exhibitions in its expansive facility, designed by Graham Gund Architects. Giants of the Mesozoic, on display in the atrium of Fernbank Museum, features a 123-foot long Argentinosaurus, the largest dinosaur classified; the permanent exhibition, A Walk Through Time in Georgia, tells the twofold story of Georgia's natural history and the development of the planet. Fernbank Museum has won several national and international awards for one of its newest permanent exhibitions, Fernbank NatureQuest, an immersive, interactive exhibition for children, designed and produced by Thinkwell Group; the awards NatureQuest has won include the 2012 Thea Award for Outstanding Achievement for a Museum Exhibit and the 2011 Bronze Award for Best Museum Environment from Event Design. The nearby Fernbank Science Center is a separate organization operated by the DeKalb County Board of Education and is not affiliated with Fernbank Museum of Natural History.
In the late 1800s, a nature-lover named Emily Harrison grew up in an area east of Atlanta which she called "Fernbank". Along with others, Harrison created a charter for Fernbank in 1938 and purchased the 70 acres of woodland on which Fernbank Museum now stands. In 1964, the Fernbank trustees and the DeKalb County School System created Fernbank Science Center, which led to a desire to share Fernbank's resources with the general public. Following master planning and designs by the Cambridge, Massachusetts-based architectural firm, Graham Gund Architects, ground was broken in 1989, on October 5, 1992, Fernbank Museum of Natural History opened to the public; the new building is located behind a row of historic houses, features a glass-enclosed atrium overlooking Fernbank Forest. Fernbank Museum now stands on 65 acres of the largest old-growth urban Piedmont forest in the country. Fernbank Museum offers a variety of exhibits exploring many different natural history topics. Exhibits include: Fernbank NatureQuest Dinosaur Plaza Giants of the Mesozoic A Walk Through Time in Georgia Reflections of Culture Conveyed in Clay: Stories from St. Catherines Island Sensing Nature Curator's Corner World of ShellsThe museum has an area where special exhibitions are cycled through.
These exhibits tend to stay open to the public for 2-4 months each. In 2016 the museum opened WildWoods, an accessible 10-acre area located directly behind the museum with trails and interactive exhibits. In 2016 Fernbank opened access to the newly restored, 65-acre Fernbank Forest. Fernbank is home to Sr.. Giant Screen Theater. An IMAX theater, upgrades were completed in February 2017 including a digital 4K 3D laser-illuminated projection system. Fernbank puts on special activities for adults and children including summer camps, workshops, interactive conversations, family activity days, storytelling. One of Fernbank’s most popular events, Fernbank After Dark runs the second Friday of each month, January through November, features movies in the giant screen theater, drinks and live music. Fernbank Museum of Natural History offers a year-round volunteer program for children aged 13-17. F. U. N. Volunteers interact with museum guests while working on educational carts throughout the museum, exploring a wide range of natural history topics, including Archaeology, Paleontology and more.
Fernbank Forest Fernbank Science Center List of natural history museums Fernbank Museum of Natural History
The Spanish Empire known as the Hispanic Monarchy and as the Catholic Monarchy, was one of the largest empires in history. From the late 15th century to the early 19th, Spain controlled a huge overseas territory in the New World and the Asian archipelago of the Philippines, what they called "The Indies", it included territories in Europe and Oceania. The Spanish Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description given to the Portuguese Empire, it was the world's most powerful empire during the 16th and first half of the 17th centuries, reaching its maximum extension in the 18th century. The Spanish Empire was the first empire to be called "the empire on which the sun never sets". Castile became the dominant kingdom in Iberia because of its jurisdiction over the overseas empire in the Americas and the Philippines; the structure of empire was established under the Spanish Hapsburgs and under the Spanish Bourbon monarchs, the empire was brought under greater crown control and increased its revenues from the Indies.
The crown's authority in The Indies was enlarged by the papal grant of powers of patronage, giving it power in the religious sphere. An important element in the formation of Spain's empire was the dynastic union between Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, known as the Catholic Monarchs, which initiated political and social cohesion but not political unification. Iberian kingdoms retained their political identities, with particular administration and juridical configurations. Although the power of the Spanish sovereign as monarch varied from one territory to another, the monarch acted as such in a unitary manner over all the ruler's territories through a system of councils: the unity did not mean uniformity. In 1580, when Philip II of Spain succeeded to the throne of Portugal, he established the Council of Portugal, which oversaw Portugal and its empire and "preserv its own laws and monetary system, united only in sharing a common sovereign." The Iberian Union remained in place until in 1640, when Portugal overthrew Hapsburg rule and reestablished independence under the House of Braganza.
Under Philip II, rather than the Hapsburg empire, was identified as the most powerful nation in the world eclipsing France and England. Furthermore, despite attacks from other European states, Spain retained its position of dominance with apparent ease; the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis confirmed the inheritance of Philip II in Italy. Spain's claims to Naples and Sicily in southern Italy dated back to the Aragonese presence in the 15th century. Following the peace reached in 1559, there would be no Neapolitan revolts against Spanish rule until 1647; the Duchy of Milan formally remained part of the Holy Roman Empire but the title of Duke of Milan was given to the King of Spain. The death of the Ottoman emperor Suleiman the Magnificent in 1566 and the naval victory over the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 gave Spain a claim to be the greatest power not just in Europe but in the world; the Spanish Empire in the Americas was formed after conquering large stretches of land, beginning with Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean Islands.
In the early 16th century, it conquered and incorporated the Aztec and Inca Empires, retaining indigenous elites loyal to the Spanish crown and converts to Christianity as intermediaries between their communities and royal government. After a short period of delegation of authority by the crown in the Americas, the crown asserted control over those territories and established the Council of the Indies to oversee rule there; some scholars consider the initial period of the Spanish conquest as marking the most egregious case of genocide in the history of mankind. The death toll may have reached some 70 million indigenous people in this period. However, other scholars believe the vast majority of indigenous deaths were due to the low immunological capacity of native populations to resist exogenous diseases. Many native tribes and their cultures were wiped out by the Spanish conquest and disease epidemics; the structure of governance of its overseas empire was reformed in the late 18th century by the Bourbon monarchs.
Although the crown attempted to keep its empire a closed economic system under Hapsburg rule, Spain was unable to supply the Indies with sufficient consumer goods to meet demand, so that foreign merchants from Genoa, England and The Netherlands dominated the trade, with silver from the mines of Peru and Mexico flowing to other parts of Europe. The merchant guild of Seville served as middlemen in the trade; the crown's trade monopoly was broken early in the seventeenth century, with the crown colluding with the merchant guild for fiscal reasons in circumventing the closed system. Spain was unable to defend the territories it claimed in the Americas, with the Dutch, the English, the French taking Caribbean islands, using them to engage in contraband trade with the Spanish populace in the Indies. In the seventeenth century, the diversion of silver revenue to pay for European consumer goods and the rising costs of defense of its empire meant that "tangible benefits of America to Spain were dwindling...at a moment when the costs of empire were climbing sharply."The Bourbon monarchy attempted to expand the possibilities for trade within the empire, by allowing commerce between all ports in the empire, took other measures to revive economic activity to the benefit of Spain.
The Bourbons had inherited "an empire invaded by
Georgia's 8th congressional district
Georgia's 8th congressional district is a congressional district in the U. S. state of Georgia. The district is represented by Republican Austin Scott, though the district's boundaries have been redrawn following the 2010 census, which granted an additional congressional seat to Georgia; the first election using the new district boundaries were the 2012 congressional elections. The district is located in central and south-central Georgia, stretches from the geographical center of the state to the Florida border; the district includes the cities of Warner Robins, Thomasville and portions of Macon and Valdosta. Atkinson Ben Hill Berrien Bibb Bleckley Brooks Colquitt Cook Dodge Houston Irwin Jones Lanier Lowndes Monroe Pulaski Telfair Thomas Tift Turner Twiggs Wilcox Wilkinson Worth A Republican mid-decade redistricting made this Macon-based district more compact and somewhat more Republican. Incumbent Marshall faced a tough challenge by former U. S. Representative Mac Collins, who represented an adjoining district from 1993 to 2005.
Less than 60 percent of the population in Marshall’s present 3rd District was retained in the new 8th District. The reconfigured 8th includes Butts County, the political base of Collins, who once served as chair of the county commission. On the other hand, the 8th includes all of the city of Macon where Marshall served as mayor from 1995 until 1999; the race featured heavy spending, not only by the candidates themselves but from independent groups. During the campaign, President George W. Bush attended a rally on Collins' behalf; as of November 2018, there are six former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Georgia's 8th congressional district who are living at this time. Georgia's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present PDF map of Georgia's 8th district at nationalatlas.gov Georgia's 8th district at GovTrack.us
Tallahassee is the capital city of the U. S. state of Florida. It only incorporated municipality in Leon County. Tallahassee became the capital of Florida the Florida Territory, in 1824. In 2017, the population was 191,049, making it the 7th-largest city in the U. S state of Florida, the 126th-largest city in the United States; the population of the Tallahassee metropolitan area was 382,627 as of 2017. Tallahassee is the largest city in the Florida Panhandle region, the main center for trade and agriculture in the Florida Big Bend and Southwest Georgia regions. Tallahassee is home to Florida State University, ranked the nation's twenty-sixth best public university by U. S. News & World Report, it is home to Florida A&M University, the fifth-largest black university by total enrollment. Tallahassee Community College is a large state college that serves as a feeder school to Florida State and Florida A&M. Tallahassee qualifies as a significant college town, with a student population exceeding 70,000.
As the capital, Tallahassee is the site of the Florida State Capitol, Supreme Court of Florida, Florida Governor's Mansion, nearly 30 state agency headquarters. The city is known for its large number of law firms, lobbying organizations, trade associations and professional associations, including the Florida Bar and the Florida Chamber of Commerce, it is a recognized regional center for scientific research, home to the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. In 2015, Tallahassee was awarded the All-American City Award by the National Civic League for the second time. Indigenous peoples occupied this area for thousands of years before European encounter. Around AD 1200, the large and complex Mississippian culture had built earthwork mounds near Lake Jackson which survive today; the Spanish Empire established their first colonial settlement at St. Augustine. During the 17th century they established several missions in Apalachee territory in order to procure food and labor to support their settlement, as well as to convert the natives to Roman Catholicism.
The largest, Mission San Luis de Apalachee in Tallahassee, has been reconstructed by the state of Florida. The expedition of Pánfilo de Narváez encountered the Apalachee people, although it did not reach the site of Tallahassee. Hernando de Soto and his mid-16th century expedition occupied the Apalachee town of Anhaica in the winter of 1538–1539. Based on archaeological excavations, this Anhaica site is now known to have been located about 0.5 miles east of the present Florida State Capitol. The De Soto encampment is believed to be the first place that Christmas was celebrated in the continental United States although there is no historical documentation to back this claim; the name "Tallahassee" is a Muskogean language word translated as "old fields" or "old town". It was an expression of the Creek people who migrated from areas of Georgia and Alabama to this region in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, under pressure from European-American encroachment on their territory, they found large areas of cleared land occupied by the Apalachee tribe.
During the First Seminole War, General Andrew Jackson fought two separate skirmishes in and around Tallahassee, Spanish territory. The first battle took place on November 12, 1817. Chief Neamathla, of the village of Fowltown just west of present-day Tallahassee, had refused Jackson's orders to relocate. Jackson responded by entering the village, burning it to the ground, driving off its occupants; the Indians retaliated, killing 50 soldiers and civilians. Jackson reentered Florida in March 1818. According to Jackson's adjutant, Colonel Robert Butler, they "advanced on the Indian village called Tallahasse two of the enemy were made prisoner." Florida became an American territory in September 1821, in accordance with the Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819. The first session of the Legislative Council of the Territory of Florida met on July 22, 1822 at Pensacola, the former capital of West Florida. Members from St. Augustine, the former capital of East Florida, traveled fifty-nine days by water to attend; the second session was in St. Augustine, western delegates needed 28 days to travel perilously around the peninsula to reach Pensacola.
During this session, delegates decided to hold future meetings at a halfway point. Two appointed commissioners selected Tallahassee, at that point an Apalachee settlement abandoned after Andrew Jackson burned it in 1818, as a halfway point. In 1824 the third legislative session met there in a crude log building serving as the capitol. From 1821 through 1845, during Florida's territorial period, the rough-hewn frontier capital developed as a town; the Marquis de Lafayette, French hero of the American Revolution, returned to the United States in 1824 for a tour. The U. S. Congress voted to give him $200,000, US citizenship, the Lafayette Land Grant, 36 square miles of land that today includes large portions of Tallahassee. In 1845 a Greek revival masonry structure was erected as the Capitol building in time for statehood. Now known as the "old Capitol", it stands in front of the high-rise Capitol building, built in the 1970s. Tallahassee was in the heart of Florida's Cotton Belt—Leon County led the state in cotton production—and was the center of the slave trade in Florida.
During the American Civil War, Tallahassee was the only Confederate state capital east of the Mississippi River, not captured by Union forces, the only one n
U.S. Route 23 in Georgia
U. S. Route 23 in the U. S. state of Georgia, is a north–south United States highway that travels from the St. Marys River south-southeast of Folkston to the North Carolina state line, in the northern part of Dillard. US 23 is signed concurrently with various state highways, it uses SR 4 from Florida to a point north of Alma, SR 15 from Florida to Racepond, SR 23 in Folkston, SR 121 from Folkston to Racepond, SR 520 and SR 38 in Waycross, SR 19 from north of Alma to Lumber City, SR 135 Truck in Hazlehurst, SR 27 from Hazlehurst to Eastman, SR 165 in Chauncey, SR 27 Bus. and SR 117 in Eastman, SR 87 from Eastman to Macon, SR 257 in the Empire area, SR 112 near Cochran, SR 19 from East Macon to the northern part of Macon, SR 540 from East Macon to the eastern part of Macon, SR 11/SR 49 in Macon, SR 87 from Macon to Flovilla, SR 42 from Flovilla to Atlanta, SR 16 and SR 36 in Jackson, SR 138 in the Stockbridge area, SR 10 from Atlanta to Druid Hills, SR 8 from Atlanta to Decatur, SR 155 from Decatur to the Brookhaven–Chamblee line, SR 13 from the Brookhaven–Chamblee line to the Sugar Hill–Buford line, SR 20 within Buford, SR 365 from Buford to east-southeast of Clarkesville, SR 15 from northwest of Cornelia to the North Carolina state line, SR 2 in Clayton.
Concurrencies of US 23 with U. S. Highways in Georgia are US 1 from Florida to north of Alma, US 301 from Florida to the Folkston–Homeland line, US 82 in Waycross, US 84 in Waycross, US 221 Truck in Hazlehurst, US 341 from Hazlehurst to Eastman, US 129 Alt. from north of Cochran to Macon, US 80 from East Macon to Macon, US 129 in Macon, US 278 from Atlanta to Druid Hills, US 29/78 from Atlanta to Decatur, US 129 in Gainesville, US 441 from northwest of Cornelia to the North Carolina state line, US 76 in Clayton. Between Buford and Gainesville, it has a concurrency with Interstate 985. US 23 enters Georgia from Florida concurrent with US 1/US 301 designated as SR 4/SR 15, on a bridge over the St. Marys River. In Folkston, the routes have their first encounter with another state route the western terminus of Georgia State Route 40 at Main Street. On the opposite side of SR 40, Main Street leads to a former Atlantic Coast Line Railroad station, an popular train-watching site. North of there SR 23/SR 121 join this crowded concurrency, shortly serves as the western terminus for SR 40 Conn.
In Homeland, US 301/SR 23 heads northeast at an interchahnge into the woods of northeastern Charlton County towards Nahunta, Claxton and Sylvania, while US 23 continues to the northwest in the concurrency with US 1/SR 4/SR 15/SR 121, but not before both lanes run over bridges over the CSX Nahunta Subdivision, which runs along US 301 through Jesup. After Homeland, US 1/23 and SRs 4/15/121 run through sparse communities such as Uptonville, Mattox, where another railroad line from Folkston runs along the west side and both pass through another community named Cypress Siding. In Racepond, SR 15/SR 121, branch off to the northeast, while the US 1/23/SR 4 concurrency remains running to the northwest, crossing into Ware County along the edge of the Ware-Brantley County Line. From this point on the road is named Jacksonville Highway; the Brantley County line turns straight north somewhere in Dixon Memorial State Forest. After leaving the forest, the road starts to move away from the tracks before the intersection of Georgia State Route 177 and the gateway to Okefenokee Swamp Park.
Right after a Georgia State Trooper barracks and DMV office, the routes enter Waycross, as the run between two local motels. Passing by some automotive dealerships, fast foot restaurants and other commercial development, the road approaches US 82/SR 520 and turns west onto a concurrency with these routes while US BUS 1/23/SR BUS 4 continues northwest along Memorial Drive. After running along a bridge over the CSX Jesup Subdivision, US 84/SR 38 joins this concurrency at McDonald Street, but not before crossing another railroad bridge over the CSX Fitzgerald Subdivision, more than a block away to the west; the concurrency ends at Victory Drive and the southwest corner is the site of Waycross College. West of the city limits, US 82 becomes a divided highway as it takes US 1/23 from west to northwest as they cross Georgia State Route 122, crosses another bridge over the second railroad line from Waycross Junction; the road starts to curve west, before reaching Waresboro, US 1/23 breaks away from US 82 onto a bypass across from a local street named Fulford Road.
Using a former segment of Fulford Road and Scapa Road, the bypass winds through forestland and some farmland west of northern Deenwood and northwest of Waycross. The bypass ends at the northern terminus of US BUS 1/23/SR BUS 4 rejoins its former segment along Alma Highway to approach a series of bridges over Cox Creek and over the Satilla River. After this, it passes through a small community called Dixie Union, where it intersects a local road named Telmore-Dixie Union Road to the west and Dixie Union Road to the east. North of Bickley Highway, the road curves to the north-northeast and winds around a former segment so that it can go over a pair of bridges over another railroad line. Right after the Ware-Bacon County line and the intersection of Old Alma-Waycross Highway/Jamestown Road, the road runs over a pair of bridges over Little Hurricane Creek before the intersection with Plant Road where it curves from the northeast to the north-northwest; the divided highway, which at some point gained the name South Pierce Street, ends at Dogwood Avenue, replaced by a four-lane undivided highway with a center-left turn lane.
After the intersection with Radio St