Telford Ice Rink
Telford Ice Rink is located in the £250m Southwater Complex in Telford, England. The ice rink is home to English Premier Ice Hockey League team the Telford Tigers. Saint Quentin Gate, Shropshire, TF3 4JQ, England Telford Tigers Telford And Wrekin Leisure official website Template:Telford
The Blackburn Hawks, are a British ice hockey team based in Blackburn, Lancashire. They are members of the EIHA Moralee Conference, have played in the British National League and the English League Premier Division, their home ice is the 3,200 seat Blackburn Arena. The Blackhawks played their first game on 28 October 1990, in which the Blackhawks defeated Oxford City Stars 6–3; the game was played as a non-import challenge match, where no professional players born outside of the United Kingdom were iced. During the 1990–91 season that followed, all Blackhawks games were played away since the newly built Blackburn Arena had not yet been completed; the first home game played on 26 January 1991, coincidentally resulted in a 6–3 victory against Oxford. The first goal scored at the Arena was by the Blackhawks' Dan Holden, an offensive defenceman who accrued a total of 116 points over the course of the season; the Blackhawks highest points scorer in 1990–91 was Fred Perlini, who contributed 132 points in just 21 games.
Other notable players were Gary Shearman Trevor Foster, Georgie Powell, Paul Fleury. Under manager Keith Purvis and coach Pete Murray, the Blackhawks finished fourth place in the English League Division One and received a promotion due to the collapse of Solihull in the Heineken League. A promising start to the 1991–92 season saw ex- Toronto Maple Leafs coach Doug McKay take over the running of the team. However, his tenure was short-lived due to financial problems, soon the Blackhawks were left without a manager. By the end of the season, the Blackhawks were relegated back into the English League Division One. In 1992–93, the team began to rebuild under the new name of the Blackburn Hawks. Canadian Glenn Knight took up the reins as player-coach, but soon passed the responsibility to the new addition to the team, ex-AHL forward Steve Moria; the team's financial situation was improved following a buy out by Peel Holdings, the firm owning the site on which Blackburn Arena is situated. This change in financial status allowed for an influx of new imports.
The Hawks competed well and fought hard until the last weekend of the season, just missing out on a playoff spot. The early season demolition of the Milton Keynes Kings was not only the greatest shock defeat of the season but made the Hawks a feared and recognised team, it has been dubbed a "tremendous season and one that the Hawks's faithful should remember for a long time to come" and is taken to be the birth of competitive hockey in Blackburn. Prior to the start of the 1994–95 season, the Hawks were again left in turmoil due to the sudden departure of Steve Moria for the Swindon Wildcats. Inexperienced forward Mark Stokes volunteered himself for the role of player-coach; this season was the year of the Hawks' most disastrous B&H Cup campaign, with six successive defeats. However, the Hawks headlined for other reasons; the British Ice Hockey Association imposed bans on the new imports Sverre Sears, Matt Zilinskas, Jeff Winstanley after they appeared on the front page of the Lancashire Evening Telegraph following a late night naked skating session.
This led to their dismissal from the club, prompted a shakeup in staffing. Ex-Toronto Maple Leaf Rocky Saganiuk arrived. Sangiuk brought in Trent Casey, Darren Durdle, Tony Cimellaro, but the Hawks' leaky defence contributed to their relegation to Division Two come the end of the season. However, a last minute re-structure of the league meant that the team began the new season back in division one. Before the 1995–96 campaign began, it became apparent that Saganiuk was not to return, electing to stay in Canada. Under the management of Mike Cockayne, the Hawks secured sponsorship with Thwaites Beer, began the season sporting new look red and yellow uniforms. For the first time, the Hawks took top place in the league, with the most important result being a 12–9 victory over the newly formed Manchester Storm; the match was played at the Nynex Arena in front of a record-breaking crowd of 9,500, watched by millions on Sky TV, in what was the first live UK hockey match to be shown on satellite television in the UK.
In the season the Hawks again visited the Nynex Arena in a league title decider that generated another British attendance record of 16,280. The 1996–97 season gave the Hawks yet another new coach in Jim Pennycook, one of the most experienced players in the British game; the season saw the start of the well-televised Ice Hockey Superleague, which split British ice hockey teams according to their financial position. Blackburn were not part of this new wave, instead competed in the Northern Premier League of the BNL, limited to three imports; the Hawks' difficulties began right at the start of the season, losing two of their three imports before the end of November. Pennycook played most of the season through injury and suffered from a depleted roster after Christmas with only eight players available for some games, they made a couple of new signings before the transfer deadline, finish the season in a mid-table position. For the 1997–98 season, another name change was brought in, with the intention of promoting the team across the County.
However, attendances failed to improve, many fans expressed disapproval of the new name. A number of staffing issues and roster changes saw the Hawks finish bottom of the league and last in the play-offs. At the start of the 1998–99 season, the team found themselves competing in yet another new league, the English League Premier Division; this was a league set up for teams that wanted to compete but on a smaller budget than those i
Coventry Blaze are an ice hockey team based in Coventry, England. They compete in the British Elite Ice Hockey League and play their home games at the SkyDome Arena; the club was founded in 1965 as the Solihull Barons and renamed to Solihull Blaze in 1996. At the turn of the millennium the club relocated to the SkyDome Arena and became Coventry Blaze. Blaze have won four Elite Ice Hockey League Championships since the formation of the league in 2003; the Solihull Barons evolved into Solihull Blaze before the start of the 1996–97 season, finishing second in the southern division of the British National League during the league's inaugural season. For the following season the team joined the newly formed "national division" of the English National Ice Hockey League for its inaugural season; this season was one of the most successful on record as Blaze were victorious in both competitions and their respective play-offs. Nine goals in each leg of the play off final against Chelmsford Chieftains gave Blaze their third trophy of the season.
The Blaze left the ENIHL along with the rest of the national division during the course of the 1998-99 season, with the division becoming the English Premier League. In November 1998, they were losing finalists in the English Cup, but the side were once again crowned league champions in March with a victory in Chelmsford on 20 March. Play-off success followed in April with a 5–3 two-legged victory over season-long rivals, Milton Keynes Kings. For the following season Blaze returned to the BNL. In May 2000, the club announced that they would be heading to new a new 3,600-seater stadium, the Coventry SkyDome Arena, for the 2000–01 BNL campaign; this was done for the purpose of attracting a larger fan base to the team. With eight new players on board the Blaze started their inaugural season at the Skydome with a decent run in the Benson & Hedges Cup and, after losing in their opening BNL game, proceeded to set an impressive pace in the league competition throughout October and November; the loss of key players, Craig Chapman and Steve Chartrand at the turn of the year were possible contributions to a dip in form which resulted in an eventual fourth-place finish.
In the playoffs Blaze were unable to repeat the previous years semi-final appearance. However, the most important factor of the year was the growth in fan base from a few hundred at the start of the year to over 2000 by the end of the play-offs. Season 2001–02 saw few changes in the line up The Season started with a run of good results in the Findus Challenge Cup which saw Blaze qualify for the Semi-Finals; this run included the first return visit to Hobs Moat Road in Solihull to take on the reformed Barons. An injury to Andrew McNiven saw ex-Steeler/Panther/Giant Steve Roberts join up with the Blaze. An impressive October/November saw; the Finals weekend of the Challenge Cup saw Blaze comeback from 3–0 down in the semi-final to beat Basingstoke Bison and go on to meet Fife in the final, which the Flyers went on to win. Returning to the league, the Blaze continued in fine form throughout splitting results with the Stars. Stars greater consistency, their ability not to drop points against mid-table teams left them top of the league with the Blaze runners-up again.
The Play-Offs saw the Blaze top their qualification group and beat Guildford Flames over the two legged semi-final. The Final saw them take on the Stars and lose out by the narrowest of margins, 8–7, over the two legs, for the third time in the season Blaze were runners-up. Season 2002–03 saw another evolution not revolution in the playing staff with Jody Lehman replacing Burt in goal, Joel Poirier replacing the departed Roberts, GB forward Ashley Tait joining the team. Blaze entered the Ice Hockey Superleague Challenge Cup at the start of the season, ran a couple of ISL teams close; the Findus Challenge Cup saw Blaze into the Finals where they met the Newcastle Vipers, but the result was a 0–3 loss. A run of form following the defeat saw the Blaze wrap up the league title with a victory in Dundee; this was followed up with an unbeaten play-offs run, the Final being contested against Cardiff Devils, a narrow victory in Cardiff was followed by a first capacity crowd at the Skydome for a triumphant night that saw Blaze lift their second trophy of the year.
Shortly after the final, Blaze announced their move into the newly formed Elite Ice Hockey League, commenced preparations for their first season in the top flight of British ice hockey. Season 2003–04 saw another major change in the club's progress as they took part in their first season as a top-flight club in the newly formed Elite League. Coach Paul Thompson stayed true to the team which had won the double in the BNL the year before, replacing only three players; the first game of the league saw another first for the club as they flew to their game in Belfast and beat the previous year's Superleague playoff champions. A 6–1 win over Sheffield in October and
Shropshire is a county in the West Midlands of England, bordering Wales to the west, Cheshire to the north, Staffordshire to the east, Worcestershire and Herefordshire to the south. Shropshire Council was created in 2009, a unitary authority taking over from the previous county council and five district councils; the borough of Telford and Wrekin has been a separate unitary authority since 1998 but continues to be included in the ceremonial county. The county's population and economy is centred on five towns: the county town of Shrewsbury, culturally and important and close to the centre of the county; the county has many market towns, including Whitchurch in the north, Newport northeast of Telford and Market Drayton in the northeast of the county. The Ironbridge Gorge area is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, covering Ironbridge, Coalbrookdale and a part of Madeley. There are other historic industrial sites in the county, such as at Shrewsbury, Broseley and Highley, as well as the Shropshire Union Canal.
The Shropshire Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty covers about a quarter of the county in the south. Shropshire is one of England's most rural and sparsely populated counties, with a population density of 136/km2; the Wrekin is one of the most famous natural landmarks in the county, though the highest hills are the Clee Hills and the Long Mynd. Wenlock Edge is another significant geological landmark. In the low-lying northwest of the county overlapping the border with Wales is the Fenn's, Whixall and Bettisfield Mosses National Nature Reserve, one of the most important and best preserved bogs in Britain; the River Severn, Great Britain's longest river, runs through the county, exiting into Worcestershire via the Severn Valley. Shropshire is landlocked and with an area of 3,487 square kilometres is England's largest inland county; the county flower is the round-leaved sundew. The area was once part of the lands of the Cornovii, which consisted of the modern day counties of Cheshire, north Staffordshire, north Herefordshire and eastern parts of Powys.
This was a tribal Celtic iron age kingdom. Their capital in pre-Roman times was a hill fort on the Wrekin. Ptolemy's 2nd century Geography names one of their towns as being Viroconium Cornoviorum, which became their capital under Roman rule and one of the largest settlements in Britain. After the Roman occupation of Britain ended in the 5th century, the Shropshire area was in the eastern part of the Welsh Kingdom of Powys, it was annexed to the Angle kingdom of Mercia by King Offa in the 8th century, at which time he built two significant dykes there to defend his territory against the Welsh or at least demarcate it. In subsequent centuries, the area suffered repeated Viking incursions, fortresses were built at Bridgnorth and Chirbury. After the Norman conquest in 1066, major estates in Shropshire were granted to Normans, including Roger de Montgomerie, who ordered significant constructions in Shrewsbury, the town of which he was Earl. Many defensive castles were built at this time across the county to defend against the Welsh and enable effective control of the region, including Ludlow Castle and Shrewsbury Castle.
The western frontier with Wales was not determined until the 14th century. In this period, a number of religious foundations were formed, the county falling at this time under the Diocese of Hereford and that of Coventry and Lichfield; some parishes in the north-west of the county in times fell under the Diocese of St. Asaph until the disestablishment of the Church in Wales in 1920, when they were ceded to the Lichfield diocese; the county was a central part of the Welsh Marches during the medieval period and was embroiled in the power struggles between powerful Marcher Lords, the Earls of March and successive monarchs. The county contains a number of significant towns, including Shrewsbury and Ludlow. Additionally, the area around Coalbrookdale in the county is seen as significant, as it is regarded as one of the birthplaces of the Industrial Revolution; the village of Edgmond, near Newport, is the location of the lowest recorded temperature in England and Wales. Shropshire is first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle annal for 1006.
The origin of the name is the Old English Scrobbesbyrigscīr, which means "Shrewsburyshire". The name may, therefore, be derived indirectly from a personal name such as Scrope. Salop is an old name for Shropshire used as an abbreviated form for post or telegrams, it is thought to derive from the Anglo-French "Salopesberia", it is replaced by the more contemporary "Shrops" although Shropshire residents are still referred to as "Salopians". Salop however, is used as an alternative name for the county town, which shares the motto of Floreat Salopia; when a county council for the county was first established in 1889, it was called Salop County Council. Following the Local Government Act 1972, Salop became the official name of the county; the name was not well-regarded locally however, a subsequent campaign led by a local councillor, John Kenyon, succeeded in having both the county and council renamed as Shrops
The Belfast Giants are an ice hockey team from Belfast, Northern Ireland that compete in the Elite Ice Hockey League. As of the 2018-19 season, they are the current Elite League Champions and Challenge Cup winners, their main sponsor is Stena Line and home games are played at the SSE Arena Belfast. The Giants have won 11 major honours, including five league championship titles, as well as three Erhardt Conference titles; the Giants played their first match against Ayr on 1 December. Members of the now defunct Superleague, the Giants won the championship in 2001–02 and were play-off champions in 2002–03. With the Superleague's demise, there were concerns that the Giants would not survive because of major financial problems which had developed. Running up debts of £600,000 and facing the threat of liquidation creditors voted to accept 20p in the pound allowing the club to continue. One company was believed to be owed nearly £65,000. However, with the creation of the new Elite Ice Hockey League for the 2003–04 season, the Giants survived.
The Giants finished 4th in the league's first season, but failed to reach the post-season play-offs.. The Giants finished runners up in the 2004–05 season behind the Coventry Blaze but were winners of the Cross-over League Cup, played with teams from the BNL. In 2005, The Giants unveiled NHL All-Star and Olympic Gold Medal winner, Theo Fleury who made his debut against the Edinburgh Capitals; the Giants won 11–2, with Fleury scoring a hat-trick. With 4 additional assists and a fight, he was named man of the match. Besides Fleury, several other players who played in the NHL have played for the Giants. Kevin Westgarth is the latest incumbent from the NHL to don the Giants jersey, arriving from the Calgary Flames after several seasons in North America's top league. One corner of the SSE Arena is known as'Boomerang Corner' and a large group of fans who generate noise, bang drums and start most of the chants sit there, it is named in memory of long time Giants fan Stewart Boone. Any fans are invited to watch the game from the ‘Boomerang Corner’ as this section of the stadium is not reserved seating.
There used to be a traditional 4 sided scoreboard suspended over centre ice, but this has been replaced by two large video screens, one behind "Boomerang Corner" and the opposite corner of the arena for scores, info etc. Two traditional scoreboards are located near the other two corners. With an average attendance of around 4,561, the Giants are one of twelve Elite league ice hockey squads in the UK, they are the 3rd best supported team in the 70th in Europe. The average attendance in the Elite Ice Hockey League is 2,678. Sectarianism had long been seen as a significant problem in some sports in Northern Ireland; when the club was established, the Belfast Giants were keen that the club not attach itself to a particular faith or community, instead wanting to represent Belfast as a whole. A number of policies were subsequently introduced to try to ensure this. Particular clothing, which might have displayed a person's political or religious affiliation, were banned and flags were not permitted to be brought into the arena.
The national anthem of the United Kingdom, traditionally played before games at other arenas in the Elite League, is not played before Giants games. These policies have been successful and the Giants have built a large and enthusiastic fanbase who did not have to fear the sectarianism that marred other sports in Northern Ireland. Sponsors: Stena Line Boojum Founded: 2000 into the British Ice Hockey Superleague Primary Arena: SSE Arena Belfast, Training Arena: Dundonald International Ice Bowl Uniform Colours: White, Teal, Black Logo Design: shows Finn McCool with a hockey stick. Mascot: Finn McCool Motto: "In the land of the Giants, everyone is equal". Last Updated: 17 October 2018 4 Shane Johnson 11 Colin Ward 16 Rob Stewart 18 Graeme Walton 19 Colin Shields 27 Paxton Schulte 44 Todd Kelman 2 Brock Matheson 5 Will Colbert 9 Andrew Fournier 14 Theoren Fleury — former Stanley Cup-winning NHL player 14 Daymen Rycroft 14 Mike Forney — 2015–17 15 Scott Champagne 17 Gregory Stewart 24 Noah Clarke 15 Kevin Westgarth — former Stanley Cup-winning NHL player 43 Derrick Walser — former NHL defenceman and Belfast player/coach 2015–17 50 Matt Nickerson — former NHL draft pick, played for Belfast for two seasons - 2015–17 5 Jérôme Gauthier-Leduc — former Buffalo Sabres draft pick, played for Belfast February–June 2017 91 David Rutherford — played for Belfast between January 2016 and July 2017 before retiring.
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams consisting of six players each: one goaltender, five players who skate up and down the ice trying to take the puck and score a goal against the opposing team. Ice hockey is most popular in Canada and eastern Europe, the Nordic countries and the United States. Ice hockey is the official national winter sport of Canada. In addition, ice hockey is the most popular winter sport in Belarus, the Czech Republic, Latvia, Slovakia and Switzerland. North America's National Hockey League is the highest level for men's ice hockey and the strongest professional ice hockey league in the world; the Kontinental Hockey League is much of Eastern Europe. The International Ice Hockey Federation is the formal governing body for international ice hockey, with the IIHF managing international tournaments and maintaining the IIHF World Ranking.
Worldwide, there are ice hockey federations in 76 countries. In Canada, the United States, Nordic countries, some other European countries the sport is known as hockey. Ice hockey is believed to have evolved from simple stick and ball games played in the 18th and 19th century United Kingdom and elsewhere; these games were brought to North America and several similar winter games using informal rules as they were developed, such as "shinny" and "ice polo". The contemporary sport of ice hockey was developed in Canada, most notably in Montreal, where the first indoor hockey game was played on March 3, 1875; some characteristics of that game, such as the length of the ice rink and the use of a puck, have been retained to this day. Amateur ice hockey leagues began in the 1880s, professional ice hockey originated around 1900; the Stanley Cup, emblematic of ice hockey club supremacy, was first awarded in 1893 to recognize the Canadian amateur champion and became the championship trophy of the NHL. In the early 1900s, the Canadian rules were adopted by the Ligue Internationale de Hockey sur Glace, the precursor of the IIHF and the sport was played for the first time at the Olympics during the 1920 Summer Olympics.
In international competitions, the national teams of six countries predominate: Canada, Czech Republic, Russia and the United States. Of the 69 medals awarded all-time in men's competition at the Olympics, only seven medals were not awarded to one of those countries. In the annual Ice Hockey World Championships, 177 of 201 medals have been awarded to the six nations. Teams outside the "Big Six" have won only five medals in either competition since 1953; the World Cup of Hockey is organized by the National Hockey League and the National Hockey League Players' Association, unlike the annual World Championships and quadrennial Olympic tournament, both run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. World Cup games are played under NHL rules and not those of the IIHF, the tournament occurs prior to the NHL pre-season, allowing for all NHL players to be available, unlike the World Championships, which overlaps with the NHL's Stanley Cup playoffs. Furthermore, all 12 Women's Olympic and 36 IIHF World Women's Championships medals were awarded to one of these six countries.
The Canadian national team or the United States national team have between them won every gold medal of either series. In England, field hockey has been called "hockey" and what was referenced by first appearances in print; the first known mention spelled as "hockey" occurred in the 1773 book Juvenile Sports and Pastimes, to Which Are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Author: Including a New Mode of Infant Education, by Richard Johnson, whose chapter XI was titled "New Improvements on the Game of Hockey". The 1573 Statute of Galway banned a sport called "'hokie'—the hurling of a little ball with sticks or staves". A form of this word was thus being used in the 16th century, though much removed from its current usage; the belief that hockey was mentioned in a 1363 proclamation by King Edward III of England is based on modern translations of the proclamation, in Latin and explicitly forbade the games "Pilam Manualem, Pedivam, & Bacularem: & ad Canibucam & Gallorum Pugnam". The English historian and biographer John Strype did not use the word "hockey" when he translated the proclamation in 1720, instead translating "Canibucam" as "Cambuck".
According to the Austin Hockey Association, the word "puck" derives from the Scottish Gaelic puc or the Irish poc. "... The blow given by a hurler to the ball with his camán or hurley is always called a puck." Stick-and-ball games date back to pre-Christian times. In Europe, these games included the Irish game of hurling, the related Scottish game of shinty and versions of field hockey. IJscolf, a game resembling colf on an ice-covered surface, was popular in the Low Countries between the Middle Ages and the Dutch Golden Age, it was played with a wooden curved bat, a wooden or leather ball and two poles, with t