Kamid al lawz
Kamid al lawz is located in West Bekaa, Lebanon. Its population numbers several thousand Sunni, people; this town was the site of major German archaeological excavations between 1963 and 1981. One of the most important sites in Lebanon where archaeologists found and recorded many spectacular buildings, which are important to the history of the region. Paleolithic material was found alongside Heavy Neolithic on through to the late Neolithic period, becoming a seat of state in the Bronze Age and continuing until the Byzantine era, a German team from the University of Freiburg has conducted more recent excavations and studies. Numerous urban structures such as defense systems, palaces, private dwellings and cemeteries were uncovered. Archaeologists found everyday objects such as pottery, as well as jewelry and other luxury items; the most important finds were documents written in cuneiform script on clay tablets dated to the 14th century BC. The village of Kamed el-Loz lies on top of settlements built in the Achaemenid and Roman periods.
The site has been determined to be the city of Kumidi in the Amarna letters. It was used as a residence to Egyptian officials to oversee the southern Levantine kings for the pharaoh. South of the village we find a necropolis or burial place that dates to this era. Just outside Kamed-El-Loz is a large Umayyad Caliphate-era quarry visible from the road. Rock-cut tombs can be seen here, as well as Aramaic inscriptions; the quarry provided stones for the eighth-century city of Anjar and was worked by Eastern Christians from Iraq who were brought to the Beqaa for this purpose. The archaeological site of Kamid al lawz I is located 2 kilometres north-east of the village of Kamed Loz and 4.5 kilometres north-northeast of Joub Jannine. The site showed a direct transition from Paleolithic material, mixed with flints from an aceramic, vigorous culture, little recorded in the archaeological record called the Qaraoun culture inhabiting the area at the start of the Neolithic Revolution. Heavy Neolithic flints from this culture collected here included scrapers and axes along with a large amount of debris.
List of cities of the ancient Near East Penner, Silvia, Kāmid el-Lōz 19. Die Keramik der Spätbronzezeit: Tempelanlagen T3 bis T1, Palastanlagen P5 bis P1/2, Königsgrab und "Königliche Werkstatt", Saarbrücker Beiträge zur Altertumskunde 63, Bonn: R. Habelt, 2006. ISBN 3-7749-3220-4, OCLC 180962628, 2006. Huehnergard, John, “A Byblos Letter, Probably from Kamid el-Loz”, ZA 86, pp. 97–113, 1996. Lilyquist, Christine, “Objects Attributable to Kāmid el-Lōz and Comments on the Date of Objects in the ‘Schatzhaus’”, in Adler, W. Kāmid el-Lōz 11 – Das ‘Schatzhaus’ im Palastbereich: Die Befunde des Königsgrabes, Saarbrücker Beiträge zur Altertumskunde 47, Bonn: Habelt, pp. 207–220, 1994. Lilyquist, Christine, “Stone Vessels at Kāmid el-Lōz, Lebanon: Egyptian, Egyptianizing or Non-Egyptian? A Question at Sites from the Sudan to Iraq to the Greek Mainland”, in Hachmann, R. Kāmid el-Lōz 16 – ‘Schatzhaus’-Studien, Saarbrücker Beiträge zur Altertumskunde 59, Bonn: Habelt, pp. 133–73, 1996. Maurer, Alfred Werner.
“Reise in den Orient zur Grabung Kamid el-Loz, Lebanon 1973”, Philologus Verlag Basel2006. Hachmann, Rolf. “Kāmid el-Lōz und die Amarna-Zeit oder vom Sinn und Unsinn der Kulturgeschichte und ihrer Erforschung” Saarbrücken 1972. Hachmann, Rolf, “Der Palast eines syrischen Kleinkönigs der späten Bronzezeit in Kāmid el-Lōz” in: D. Papenfuss u. V. M. Strocka: Palast und Hütte. Beiträge zum Bauen und Wohnen im Vor - und Frühgeschichtlern. Mainz: pp. 21–41, 1982. Hachmann, Rolf, “Frühe Phöniker im Libanon – 20 Jahre Ausgrabung in Kāmid el-Lōz” Institut für Vor- und Frühgeschichte und Vorderasiatische Archäologie der Universität des Saarlandes, Saarbrücken 1983, ISBN 3-8053-0771-3 u. ISBN 3-8053-0772-1. Kamed El Laouz, Localiban Kāmid el-Lōz. Institut für Vor- und Frühgeschichte und Vorderasiatische Archäologie Informationen zu den Grabungen 1963–1981. Freiburg University website, includes links to annual excavation reports from Kamid el-Loz inclut des liens vers les rapports annuels d'excavation de Kamid el-Loz
In archaeology, a tell, or tel, is an artificial mound formed from the accumulated refuse of generations of people living on the same site for hundreds or thousands of years. A classic can be up to 30 metres high. Tells are most associated with the archaeology of the ancient Near East, but they are found elsewhere, such as Central Asia, Eastern Europe, West Africa and Greece. Within the Near East, they are concentrated in less arid regions, including Upper Mesopotamia, the Southern Levant and Iran, which had more continuous settlement. A tell is an artificial hill created by many generations of people living and rebuilding on the same spot. Over time, the level rises; the single biggest contributor to the mass of a tell are mud bricks. Excavating a tell can reveal buried structures such as government or military buildings, religious shrines, homes, located at different depths depending on their date of use, they overlap horizontally, vertically, or both. Archaeologists excavate tell sites to interpret architecture and date of occupation.
List of tells Archaeological site Tells portal Lloyd, Seton. Mounds of the Near East. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press – via Internet Archive
Iaat is a town and municipality located in the Beqaa Valley of Lebanon famous for its Corinthian column. The column stands at 18 meters; the location of the Pillar is 4 miles northwest of the Baalbek ruins, between the towns of Baalbek and Chlifa. At one point a plaque was installed on the northern side of the monument; the column is widely believed in local legend to be related to St. Helena. George F. Taylor classified it among a group of Temples of the Beqaa Valley and noticed that the position of the Iaat column was equidistant between the temples of Baalbek and Qasr el Banat. Whilst technically not being a temple, Taylor suggested that the column might have been placed where it is as a victory column to mark the site of a great ancient battle, he noted a cartouche on the sixth cylinder of the column. Iaat, Localiban http://www.lebanon.com/tourism/iaat.htm http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/lebanon/Mouhafazat/Beqaa/Caza/Baalbeck/iaat.htm Iaat on middleeast.com
Beit Mery is a Lebanese town overlooking the capital Beirut. The town has been a summer mountain resort since the times of the Phoenicians and the Romans; the name derives from Aramaic and means "The house of my Lord". On one of the three hills of Beit Mery along the Lebanon Western mountain range are the ruins of the old Phoenician and Roman temples that were erected in the same general area in what is now known as Deir El-Qala'a. At present, a Christian church and monastery sit on top of parts of the old Roman temple. Les Scouts Du Liban Groupe Sainte Marie Beit Mery is one of the biggest movement in town and it is located in College des Freres since 1969. Beit Mery is home to a Lebanese Red Cross First Aid Center; the town is the site of the annual Al Bustan festival, held in the theatre of the Al Bustan hotel. The festival was created in 1994 by owner of the hotel. Among the artists who performed at the festival, Julian Lloyd Webber, Gautier Capuçon, Gianluca Marciano, Virginia Tola, Inva Mula, Helikon Opera, Stile Antico, Evelyn Glennie, Boris Berezovsky, Khatia Buniatishvili, Alondra de la Parra, Oliver Poole, Anna Tifu.
The residents of Beit Mery are Christian and Druze. Beit Mery occupies a hill, 700–750 meters above sea level, which gives the town views of the Beirut peninsula and part of Lebanon's Mediterranean coast, it has an area of 5.48 km2. Since 2000 Beit Mery is 16 km away from Beirut; the Roman rulers of Lebanon made Beit Mery their summer resort due to its high location and summer weather. There are two prehistoric archaeological sites in Beit Meri where flint industries have been found by Jesuit archaeologists:1) Beit Mery I is on the right bank of the Beirut River, south southwest of the town at an altitude of 125 metres above sea level, it was found by Jesuit Father Dillenseger. The material was donated to the Saint Joseph University by the French Faculty of Medicine.2) Beit Mery II is east of the road from Beit Mery to Deir el Qala'a on a sloping plateau facing the junction of the Nahr Meten and Nahr Jamani. It was found by M. Gautier. V. Hankey recovered some retouched blades from this area, but what makes important Beit Mery -even for tourism- are the scattered ruins of the Roman era, that lasted five centuries plus the two of the byzantine era.
In Beit Mery there it is what’s left of a Roman temple that once matched the grandeur of Baalbek’s temples and Niha’s fortress. A church dedicated to St. John the Baptist, was built over the temple’s remains in the 18th century. You can still see the original stonework in the remaining columns that adorn the square at the church’s entrance. Though it suffered a great deal of damage during the Civil War, the site has since been dutifully restored and maintained for cultural and touristic events; the monastery has proved an ideal locale for concerts, art exhibitions, poetry nights, social gatherings. In town, below the monastery, you will find smaller temples dedicated to various Roman deities, in addition to public Roman baths with their terra cotta pipes. There are some remains of a Byzantine city that dates back to the 5th and 6th centuries. Lebanon Ministry of Tourism The town has ancient Roman and Byzantine ruins as well as the historic Maronite Monastery of Saint John the Baptist, built in 1750.
The town, only 16 km from Beirut, continues to be a summer resort in Lebanon with a landmark hotel, the Al Bustan. Pine forests surround the town. Restaurants with views of the valleys and the sea make Beit Mery a favorite summer spot. Beit Meri, Localiban https://web.archive.org/web/20080705115753/http://www.beitmery.com/
Jbaa, is a town in Lebanon located about 22 km from Sidon and 64 km from Beirut. It is part of the Nabatieh Governorate. Jbaa is situated on the great Safi Mountain, rises over 770 metres from the sea level and begins to rise to 900 metres in the district of "Ein-Elsataoun"; the village covers over 3,000 acres. Surrounding the village is gorgeous greenery including diverse trees walnut trees that spread around most of the town houses; this town's name means "the hill or highland" in the Aramaic language. The addition to its name of Al-Halaweh relates to its natural beauty. Jbaa is the capital of Iqlim al-Tuffah, was the Directorate of Independence during the French mandate over Lebanon. In the 20th century, it became known as a resort for the peoples of Nabatieh and Sidon and the rest of the Jabal Amel area. Jbaa has a number of restaurants and hotels because of its many natural springs: Ein-elteen, Kabiy, Ein-Arkez, Hoelh-spring, spring-Abboud, Spring-Valley and Albsis. Evidence shows. During the Islamic period, the village was a center for the growth of Shia Islam.
Scholars would come from all over to study religious doctrine in Jbaa. An important inhabitant at this time was Zayn al-Din al-Juba'i al-Amili, one of the greatest scholars in Shi'ism. During the 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war, Jbaa became a safe haven for Christian refugees fleeing Druze aggression in Mount Lebanon; the notables of the village had offered protection to the fleeing Christians and granted asylum to those running from persecution. In the year 1889 scientific and social development enveloped Jbaa; the government established the Turkish primary school for males and another for females in the remnants of Almenakrh Castle, located in the center of Jbaa. In 1922 after the First World War, the golden age of education in the town begun with the establishment of a branch of the secondary school established by Hassan Kamel Al-Sabbah. Difficult times in the Nabatieh caused many students from surrounding area to come to Jbaa because of its safety, so the number of students reached 870 students.
It became a secondary school in the year 1981/1982. Jbaa was famous for its festivals, which were held in the summer and people gathered from all over Lebanon. There would be ongoing parties in Jbaa during the lasting peace in the 1960s and 1970s. Jbaa became a home and a haven for the people of Nabatieh caza at the beginning of the first Israeli war during the 1977/1982 period; the following Israeli war spread to the village and 80% of inhabitants moved to Sidon and Beirut in the year 1985. After its liberation from the Israeli occupation in 2000, there was a renovation to most of the village which saw the revival of cafes and restaurants to have a prosperous summer season and revive the old days and times. Jbaa has a Roman cemetery south west of the town, used by Christians in the past. There are still remains of an old Christian monastery in the central part of the town. There was a mosque build by the Second Martyr, Zayn al-Din al-Juba'i al-Amili, destroyed leaving nothing but a painting of the old history of restoration.
A new mosque was built on the ashes of the old one in the modern town center. Other sites include a fortress built by the rulers in the town, subsequently used as a Srai by the Turkish government as a school in the late nineteenth century. After that a modern primary school was built on the ashes in the year 1958, the remainder were used as the basis wall to the modern secondary School. A Neolithic archaeological site was discovered in Jbaa on the road to Nabatieh at around1,500 metres above sea level; the site is credited as having been discovered by Von Heidenstam although the material in the Archaeological Museum of the American University of Beirut is marked with name of "Hajji Khallaf" who may well have sold the pieces to Von Heidenstam. The majority of the flint tools found were Heavy Neolithic of the Qaraoun culture along with an example each of a polished tipped axe and adze that are thought to be neolithic. Two other series from the site include two Lower Paleolithic bifaces and several Middle Paleolithic flints.
The population includes 10,000 inhabitants. Families include: Abou Haidar, Al-Horr, Aquil, Barakat, Fawaz, Ghamloush, Harb, Horchi, Issa, Jawed, Karaki, Khafaja, Mahmoudy, al-Moussawi, Muhieddine, Nasser, Noureddine, Ramadan, Safawi, Wehbe, Yassine and more. Notable people are Hassan Kamel Al-Sabbah, Deputy Mohamad Raad. Jbaa - Ain Bou Souar, Localiban
Akkar plain foothills
The Akkar plain foothills are the location of several surface archaeological sites found between Halba and Adbe in Akkar Governorate, Lebanon. The sites were found in neogene conglomerates above the 200 metres contour on Louis Dubertret's geological map and mentioned by R. Wetzel and J. Haller in 1945; the materials found. The tools were classified as Chelleo-Acheullean however Lorraine Copeland suggested them reclassified as a Heavy Neolithic assemblage of the Qaraoun culture in light of more modern research
The Neolithic, the final division of the Stone Age, began about 12,000 years ago when the first development of farming appeared in the Epipalaeolithic Near East, in other parts of the world. The division lasted until the transitional period of the Chalcolithic from about 6,500 years ago, marked by the development of metallurgy, leading up to the Bronze Age and Iron Age. In Northern Europe, the Neolithic lasted until about 1700 BC, while in China it extended until 1200 BC. Other parts of the world remained broadly in the Neolithic stage of development, although this term may not be used, until European contact; the Neolithic comprises a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops and of domesticated animals. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, "new" and λίθος líthos, "stone" meaning "New Stone Age"; the term was coined by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. Following the ASPRO chronology, the Neolithic started in around 10,200 BC in the Levant, arising from the Natufian culture, when pioneering use of wild cereals evolved into early farming.
The Natufian period or "proto-Neolithic" lasted from 12,500 to 9,500 BC, is taken to overlap with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic of 10,200–8800 BC. As the Natufians had become dependent on wild cereals in their diet, a sedentary way of life had begun among them, the climatic changes associated with the Younger Dryas are thought to have forced people to develop farming. By 10,200–8800 BC farming communities had arisen in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa and North Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a narrow range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat and spelt, the keeping of dogs and goats. By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, the use of pottery. Not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order: the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery.
In other parts of the world, such as Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia, independent domestication events led to their own regionally distinctive Neolithic cultures, which arose independently of those in Europe and Southwest Asia. Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture. In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC. Early development occurred from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC; the prehistoric Beifudi site near Yixian in Hebei Province, contains relics of a culture contemporaneous with the Cishan and Xinglongwa cultures of about 6000–5000 BC, neolithic cultures east of the Taihang Mountains, filling in an archaeological gap between the two Northern Chinese cultures. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square yards, the collection of neolithic findings at the site encompasses two phases.
The Neolithic 1 period began around 10,000 BC in the Levant. A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe, dated to around 9500 BC, may be regarded as the beginning of the period; this site was developed by nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes, as evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity, may be the oldest known human-made place of worship. At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres, contain limestone pillars carved with animals and birds. Stone tools were used by as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs. Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Jericho, West Bank, Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, Byblos, Lebanon; the start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree. The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming. In the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, early seed selection and re-seeding occurred; the grain was ground into flour. Emmer wheat was domesticated, animals were herded and domesticated.
In 2006, remains of figs were discovered in a house in Jericho dated to 9400 BC. The figs are of a mutant variety that cannot be pollinated by insects, therefore the trees can only reproduce from cuttings; this evidence suggests that figs were the first cultivated crop and mark the invention of the technology of farming. This occurred centuries before the first cultivation of grains. Settlements became more permanent, with circular houses, much like those of the Natufians, with single rooms. However, these houses were for the first time made of mudbrick; the settlement had a surrounding stone wall and a stone tower. The wall served as protection from nearby groups, as protection from floods, or to keep animals penned; some of the enclosures suggest grain and meat storage. The Neolithic 2 began around 8800 BC according to the ASPRO chronology in the Levant; as with the PPNA dates, there are two versions from the same laboratories noted above. This system of terminology, however, is not convenient for southeast Anatolia and settlements of the middle Anatolia basin.
A settlement of 3,000 inhabitants was found in th