Genghis Khan was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. After founding the Empire and being proclaimed "Genghis Khan", he launched the Mongol invasions that conquered most of Eurasia. Campaigns initiated in his lifetime include those against the Qara Khitai and Khwarazmian, Western Xia and Jin dynasties; these campaigns were accompanied by large-scale massacres of the civilian populations – in the Khwarazmian and Western Xia controlled lands. By the end of his life, the Mongol Empire occupied a substantial portion of Central China. Before Genghis Khan died, his grandsons split his empire into khanates. Genghis Khan died in 1227 after defeating the Western Xia. By his request, his body was buried in an unmarked grave somewhere in Mongolia, his descendants extended the Mongol Empire across most of Eurasia by conquering or creating vassal states in all of modern-day China, the Caucasus, Central Asia, substantial portions of Eastern Europe and Southwest Asia.
Many of these invasions repeated the earlier large-scale slaughters of local populations. As a result, Genghis Khan and his empire have a fearsome reputation in local histories. Beyond his military accomplishments, Genghis Khan advanced the Mongol Empire in other ways, he decreed the adoption of the Uyghur script as the Mongol Empire's writing system. He practiced meritocracy and encouraged religious tolerance in the Mongol Empire, unified the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. Present-day Mongolians regard him as the founding father of Mongolia. Genghis Khan was known for the brutality of his campaigns, is considered by many to have been a genocidal ruler. However, he is credited with bringing the Silk Road under one cohesive political environment; this brought easy communication and trade between Northeast Asia, Muslim Southwest Asia, Christian Europe, expanding the cultural horizons of all three areas. Genghis Khan was related on his father's side to Khabul Khan and Hotula Khan, who had headed the Khamag Mongol confederation and were descendants of Bodonchar Munkhag.
When the Jurchen Jin dynasty switched support from the Mongols to the Tatars in 1161, they destroyed Khabul Khan. Genghis Khan's father, Yesügei, emerged as the head of the ruling Mongol clan; this position was contested by the rival Tayichi'ud clan. When the Tatars grew too powerful after 1161, the Jin switched their support from the Tatars to the Keraites. Little is known about Genghis Khan's early life, due to the lack of contemporary written records; the few sources that give insight into this period contradict. Genghis Khan's birth name, Temüjin, was derived from the Mongol word temür meaning "of iron", while jin denotes agency. Temüjin thus means "blacksmith". Genghis Khan was born in 1162 in Delüün Boldog, near the mountain Burkhan Khaldun and the rivers Onon and Kherlen in modern-day northern Mongolia, close to the current capital Ulaanbaatar; the Secret History of the Mongols reports that Temüjin was born grasping a blood clot in his fist, a traditional sign that he was destined to become a great leader.
He was the second son of his father Yesügei, a Kiyad chief prominent in the Khamag Mongol confederation and an ally of Toghrul of the Keraite tribe. Temüjin was the first son of his mother Hoelun. According to the Secret History, Temüjin was named after the Tatar chief Temüjin-üge whom his father had just captured. Yesukhei's clan was Borjigin, Hoelun was from the Olkhunut sub-lineage of the Khongirad tribe. Like other tribes, they were nomads. Temüjin's noble background made it easier for him to solicit help from and consolidate the other Mongol tribes. Temüjin had three brothers Hasar and Temüge, one sister Temülen, two half-brothers Begter and Belgutei. Like many of the nomads of Mongolia, Temüjin's early life was difficult, his father arranged a marriage for him and delivered him at age nine to the family of his future wife Börte of the tribe Khongirad. Temüjin was to live there serving the head of the household Dai Setsen until the marriageable age of 12. While heading home, his father ran into the neighboring Tatars, who had long been Mongol enemies, they offered him food that poisoned him.
Upon learning this, Temüjin returned home to claim his father's position as chief. But the tribe abandoned the family, leaving it without protection. For the next several years, the family lived in poverty, surviving on wild fruits, ox carcasses and other small game killed by Temüjin and his brothers. Temujin's older half-brother Begter began to exercise power as the eldest male in the family and would have the right to claim Hoelun as wife. Temujin's resentment erupted during one hunting excursion when Temüjin and his brother Khasar killed Begter. In a raid around 1177, Temujin was captured by his father's former allies, the Tayichi'ud, enslaved with a cangue. With the help of a sympathetic guard, he escaped from the ger at night by hiding in a river crevice; the escape earned Temüjin a reputation. Soon, Jelme and Bo'orchu joined forces with him, they and the guard's son Chilaun became generals of Genghis Khan. At this time, none of the tribal confederations of Mongolia were united politically, an
The Secret History of the Mongols
The Secret History of the Mongols is the oldest surviving literary work in the Mongolian language. It was written for the Mongol royal family some time after the 1227 death of Genghis Khan; the author is anonymous and originally wrote in the Mongolian script, but the surviving texts all derive from transcriptions or translations into Chinese characters that date from the end of the 14th century and were compiled by the Ming dynasty under the title The Secret History of the Yuan Dynasty. Known as Tobchiyan in the History of Yuan; the Secret History is regarded as the single most significant native Mongolian account of Genghis Khan. Linguistically, it provides the richest source of pre-classical Middle Mongolian; the Secret History is regarded as a piece of classic literature in both Mongolia and the rest of the world. The work begins with a semi-mythical genealogy of Genghis Khan; the description of Temüjin's life begins with the kidnapping of his mother, Hoelun, by his father Yesügei. It covers Temüjin's early life following his birth around 1160.
The latter parts of the work deal with the campaigns of conquest of Genghis and his third son Ögedei throughout Eurasia. It relates, it contains 13 chapters: Temüjin's origin and childhood. Temüjin's teenage years. Temujin takes the title Genghis Khan. Genghis Khan struggles against Tayichiud. Genghis Khan destroys the Tatars and tangles with Ong Khan Destruction of the Khereid The fate of Ong Khan Escape of Kuchlug and a defeat of Jamukha. Establishment of the empire and imperial guard. Conquest of the Uyghur and forest peoples. Conquest of the Jin Dynasty, the Tanghut, the Sartuul and Russia Temüjin's death and Ögedei's reign; the death of Genghis KhanSeveral passages of the Secret History appear in different versions in the 17th-century Mongolian chronicle Altan Tobchi. Scholars of Mongolian history consider the text hugely important for the wealth of information it contains on the history, language and varied aspects of the Mongol culture. In terms of its value to the field of linguistic studies, it is considered unique among the Mongol texts as an example free from the influence of Buddhism prevalent in texts.
It is valued for its vivid and realistic depictions of daily tribal life and organization of Mongol civilization in the 12th and 13th centuries, complementing other primary sources available in the Persian and Chinese languages. The only surviving copies of the work are transcriptions of the original Mongolian text with Chinese characters, accompanied by a in-line glossary and a translation of each section into Chinese. In China, the work had been well known as a text for teaching Chinese to read and write Mongolian during the Ming dynasty and the Chinese translation was used in several historical works, but by the 1800s, copies had become rare. Baavuday Tsend Gun was the first Mongolian scholar to transcribe The Secret History of the Mongols into modern Mongolian, in 1915–17; the first to discover the Secret History for the west and offer a translation from the Chinese glossary was the Russian sinologist Palladiy Kafarov. The first translations from the reconstructed Mongolian text were done by the German sinologist Erich Haenisch and Paul Pelliot.
Tsendiin Damdinsüren translated the chronicle into Khalkha Mongolian in 1947. B. I. Pankratov published a translation into Russian in 1962. Arthur Waley published a partial translation of the Secret History, but the first full translation into English was by Francis Woodman Cleaves, The Secret History of the Mongols: For the First Time Done into English out of the Original Tongue and Provided with an Exegetical Commentary; the archaic language adopted by Cleaves was not satisfying to all and, between 1972 and 1985, Igor de Rachewiltz published a fresh translation in eleven volumes of the series Papers on Far Eastern History accompanied by extensive footnotes commenting not only on the translation but various aspects of Mongolian culture. In 2015, de Rachewiltz published an open access version of his previous translation, The Secret History of the Mongols: A Mongolian Epic Chronicle of the Thirteenth Century, a full translation but omits the extensive footnotes of his previous translations; the Secret History of the Mongols has been published in translation in over 30 languages by researchers.
In 2004 the Government of Mongolia decreed that the copy of The Secret History of the Mongols covered with golden plates was to be located to the rear part of the Government building. The Secret History of the Mongol Queens: How the Daughters of Genghis Khan Rescued His Empire, a 2010 book by Jack Weatherford B. Sumiyabaatar, "Монголын Нууц Товчоо. Үсгийн галиг", "The Transliteration of the Mongolian Secret History", 965 pp. 1990 B. Sumiyabaatar, "Монголын Нууц Товчооны хэлбэрсудлал", "The Morphology of the Mongolian Secret History ", 3144 pp. 1997 B. Sumiyabaatar, "Чингисийн алтан ургийн Угийн бичиг ба Гэрийн уеийн бичмэл", "The Genealogy
Family tree of Genghis Khan
The family tree of Genghis Khan is listed below. This family tree only does not reach the present. Genghis Khan appears in the middle of the tree, Kublai Khan appears at the bottom of the tree; the Borjigin family was the royal family of the Mongol Empire, dating back to the 13th and 14th centuries. Only selected, prominent members are shown. Khagans are in bold; this section is divided in a series of sub-sections for better understanding. The first part traces Genghis Khan's lineage back to the dawn of the Mongolian people, while the second part accounts for his notable descendants; the first part is based on the written accounts of The Secret History of the Mongols, a semi-mythical and semi accurate work of history. The second part is based on the work of several different scholars and historians, which are, in most cases and conflicting; the index preceding the individual's name represents the number of generations since a common ancestor. Borte Chino and his wife was Gua Maral 1. Bat Tsagan - was the son of Borte Chino and Gua Maral 2.
Tamacha - was the son of Bat Tsagan 3. Horichar Mergen - was the son of Tamacha 4. Uujim Buural - was the son of Horichar Mergen 5. Sali Hachau - was the son of Uujim Buural 6. Yehe Nidun - was the son of Sali Hachau 7. Sem Sochi - was the son of Yehe Nidun 8. Harchu - was the son of Sem Sochi 9. Borjigidai Mergen - was the son of Harchu, his wife was Mongoljin Gua 10. Torogoljin Bayan - was the son of Borjigidai Mergen, his wife was Borogchin Gua 11. Duva Sokhor - was the first son of Torogoljin Bayan 11. Dobun Mergen - was the second son of Torogoljin Bayan, his wife was Alan Gua 12. Belgunudei - was the first son of Dobun Mergen and Alan Gua 12. Bugunudei - was the second son of Dobun Mergen and Alan Gua--- 12. Bukhu Khatagi - was the first son of Alan Gua, conceived after the death of Dobun Mergen 12. Bukhatu Salji - was the second son of Alan Gua, conceived after the death of Dobun Mergen 12. Bodonchar Munkhag - was the third son of Alan Gua, conceived after the death of Dobun Mergen 13. Habich Baghatur - was the son of Bodonchar Munkhag 14.
Menen Tudun - was the son of Habich Baghatur 15. Hachi Hulug - was the son of Menen Tudun 16. Khaidu - was the son of Hachi Hulug 17. Baishinkhor Dogshin - was the first son of Khaidu 18. Tumbinai Setsen - was the son of Baishinkhor Dogshin 19. Khabul Khan - was the first son of Tumbinai Setsen, Khan of the Khamag Mongol 20. Ohinbarhag - was the first son of Khabul Khan 20. Bartan Baghatur - was the second son of Khabul Khan 21. Mengitu Hiyan - was the first son of Bartan Baghatur 21. Negun Taiji - was the second son of Bartan Baghatur 21. Yesugei - was the third son of Bartan Baghatur, his wife was Hoelun 22. Temujin - was the first son of Yesugei and Hoelun, Khan of the Khamag Mongol 22. Hasar - was the second son of Yesugei and Hoelun 22. Hachiun - was the third son of Yesugei and Hoelun 22. Temuge - was the fourth son of Yesugei and Hoelun 22. Behter - was the first son of Yesugei and his lesser wife Sochigel 22. Belgutei - was the second son of Yesugei and his lesser wife Sochigel 21. Daridai - was the fourth son of Bartan Baghatur 20.
Hutugtu Monhor - was the third son of Khabul Khan 20. Hotula Khan - was the fourth son of Khabul Khan, Khan of the Khamag Mongol 20. Hulan - was the fifth son of Khabul Khan 20. Hadan - was the sixth son of Khabul Khan 20. Todoi - was the seventh son of Khabul Khan 19. Semsochule - was the second son of Tumbinai Setsen 20. Ardi Barlas - was the first son of Semsochule 20Chirhya Lynhua - was the second son of Khaidu 18. Sengun Bilge - was the son of Chirhya Lynhua 19. Ambaghai Khan - was the son of Sengun Bilge, Khan of the Khamag Mongol 17. Chaujin Ortagai - was the third son of Khaidu Temujin - Founder and Khagan of the Mongol Empire 01. Jochi - Ruler of the Ulus of Jochi 02. Orda - Founder and Khan of the White Horde 03. Sartaqtai 04. Qonichi - Khan of the White Horde 05. Bayan - Khan of the White Horde 06. Sasi-Buqa - Khan of the White Horde 07. Erzen - Khan of the White Horde 08. Chimtai - Khan of the White Horde 03. Qonqiran - Khan of the White Horde 02. Batu - Founder and Khan of the Blue Horde and ruling Khan of the Golden Horde 03.
Sartaq - Khan of the Blue Horde and ruling Khan of the Golden Horde 04. Ulaghchi - Khan of the Blue Horde and ruling Khan of the Golden Horde 03. Toqoqan 04. Tartu 05. Tole-Buqa - Khan of the Blue Horde and ruling Khan of the Golden Horde 04. Mongke-Temur - Khan of the Blue Horde and ruling Khan of the Golden Horde 05. Toqta - Khan of the Blue Horde and ruling Khan of the Golden Horde 05. Toghrilcha 06. Oz-Beg - Khan of the Blue Horde and ruling Khan of the Golden Horde 07. Tini-Beg - Khan of the Blue Horde and ruling Khan of the Golden Horde 07. Jani-Beg - Khan of the Blue Horde and ruling Khan of the Golden Horde 08. Berdi-Beg - Khan of the Blue Horde and ruling Khan of the Golden Horde 08. Qulpa - Khan of the Blue Horde and ruling Khan of the Golden Horde 08. Nawruz-Beg - Khan of the Blue Horde and ruling Khan of the Golden Horde 04. Tode-Mongke - Khan of the Blue Horde and
Tolui, was the fourth son of Genghis Khan by his chief khatun Börte. His ulus, or territorial inheritance, at his father's death in 1227 was the homelands in Mongolia, it was he who served as civil administrator in the time it took to confirm Ögedei as second Great Khan of the Mongol Empire. Before that he had served with distinction in the campaigns against the Jin dynasty, the Western Xia and the Khwarezmid Empire, where he was instrumental in the capture and massacre at Merv and Nishapur, he is a direct ancestor of most of the Ilkhanids. Tolui never used the title of Khagan himself. Tolui was awarded the title of Khagan by his son Möngke and was given a temple name by his other son Kublai, when he established the Yuan dynasty a few decades later. During the rise of Genghis Khan, Tolui was too young to be involved in the battles. Tolui was killed by a Tatar when he was about five years of age, he was saved by two companions of Genghis. In 1203, His father bestowed on Tolui the niece of Ong Khan.
Their first son Möngke was born in 1209. He first entered combat against the Jin dynasty in 1213, scaling the walls of Dexing with his brother-in-law Chiqu. In 1221, Genghis Khan dispatched him to Khorasan in Iran; the cities in this area had revolted several times. The defenders of Nishapur killed Toquchar, the brother-in-law of Tolui in November 1220. Tolui's army evacuated Nishapur onto the plains, he ordered the total massacres of Merv. When Genghis Khan was deciding who should succeed him, he had trouble choosing between his four sons. Tolui had amazing military skills and was successful as a general, but Genghis Khan chose Ögodei, more capable politically. Genghis Khan felt. Tolui was with his father on campaign against Xi Xia in 1227. After Genghis Khan's death, Tolui supervised the Mongol Empire for two years; the Mongol nobles accepted this because of the tradition that the youngest son inherits his father's properties, because Tolui had the largest and most powerful army in central Mongolia at the time.
Tolui supported the choice of the next Khagan by election, Ögedei was chosen, fulfilling his father's wishes. Tolui campaigned with Ögedei in north China, serving as strategist and field commander in 1231–32. Two armies had been dispatched to besiege the capital of the Jin. After most of the Jin's defences were breached, they returned north. According to The Secret History of the Mongols, Tolui sacrificed himself in order to cure Ögödei from a severe illness during a campaign in China; the shamans had determined that the root of Ögödei's illness were China's spirits of earth and water, who were upset that their subjects had been driven away and their land devastated. Offering land and people had only led to an aggravation of Ögödei's illness, but when they offered to sacrifice a family member, Ögödei got better immediately. Tolui died directly after consuming a cursed drink. However, Ata-Malik Juvayni says. More important than himself was the role of his family, the Toluids, in shaping the destinies of the Mongol Empire.
Through his Nestorian Christian wife Sorghaghtani Beki, Tolui fathered Möngke, Ariq Böke, Hulagu. The first three of these would all go on to claim the title of Great Khan, while Hulagu founded the Ilkhanate and Kublai the Yuan dynasty of China, it was the rivalry between Tolui's own sons and Ariq Böke, that fragmented the power of the empire and set the western khanates against each other in the Toluid Civil War between 1260 and 1264. Rivalry between the Toluids and the sons of Ögedei and Jochi caused stagnation and infighting during the regency periods after the deaths of Ögedei and his son Güyük. Möngke posthumously awarded his father the title of Khagan in 1252; when Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty in 1271, he had his father Tolui placed on the official record as Ruizong. Tolui's line ruled Mongolia and south Mongolia from 1251 to 1635, Mongolia until 1691, he and his wife are honored beside Genghis Khan at the mausoleum constructed in the 1950s by the Chinese Communists in Inner Mongolia.
Tolui had many concubines and wives including Lingqun khatun, but the chief one was Sorghaghtani Beki, the mother of Tolui's four ruling sons. Tolui's sons included: the Great Khan of the Mongol Empire. Qutuqtu Kublai, the Great Khan of the Mongols and the Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty. Hulagu, the first Ilkhan of Mongol Persia. Ariq Böke, Khagan claimant, supported by the traditionalist Mongols against Kublai. Bujek, he died earlier. Nothing is known much about him except his role in Mongol invasion of Europe in 1236–41 and Möngke's election in 1250. Mukha Satukhtai Sabukhtai Möngke Khan Kublai Khan Hulagu Khan Yuan dynasty Ilkhanate Northern Yuan dynasty
Jochi was a Mongolian army commander, the eldest son of Genghis Khan, one of the four sons by his principal wife Börte, though issues concerning his paternity followed him throughout his life. An accomplished military leader, he participated in his father's conquest of Central Asia, along with his brothers and uncles. There is some question as to Jochi's true paternity. Shortly after Börte's marriage to Genghis Khan, she was abducted by members of the Mergid confederation, she was given to a certain Chilger Bökh, the brother of the Yehe Chiledu, as a spoil of war. She remained in Chilger Bökh's captivity for a few months. Shortly afterwards she gave birth to Jochi. By all accounts, Genghis Khan treated Jochi as his first son, but a doubt always remained whether Temüjin or Chilger Bökh was the real father of Jochi; this uncertainty about his paternity was not without consequences. Jochi's descendants, although they formed the oldest branch of Genghis Khan's family, were never considered for the succession in claiming their father's heritage and there were signs of estrangement between Jochi and Genghis Khan.
In 1207, Jochi conquered several of the forest peoples in Siberia, extending the northern border of the Mongol Empire for the first time. On behalf of his father, Jochi led two campaigns against the Kyrgyz, in 1210 and in 1218. Jochi played a major role in the Khwarezm war of 1219–1221 in Central Asia – his forces captured the towns of Signak and Yanikant in April, 1220, during this war. Subsequently, he was given the command of operation against the city of Urgench, the capital of the Khwarezmian Empire. Here the siege of the town suffered delays because Jochi engaged in extensive negotiation with the town to persuade it to surrender peacefully and to save it from destruction. Jochi's brother Chagatai regarded this action as militarily unsound: Chagatai wanted to destroy the city but Genghis Khan had promised the city to Jochi after his victory; this difference of opinion on military affairs deepened a rift between Chagatai. Genghis Khan appointed Ögedei as the commander of the operation. Ögedei resumed the operations vigorously – capturing and destroying the town and massacring its inhabitants.
The differences in tactics between Jochi and Chagatai in early 1221 added to their personal quarrel about the succession. To settle the matter, Genghis Khan called the political and military council called a "kurultai" - a formal meeting used both in familial matters and in matters of state. Temüjin had won election/appointment as Khan of his tribe during a kurultai, he called them during his early campaigns to garner public support for his wars – such meetings were key to Genghis Khan's legitimacy. Tribal tradition was critical; as Genghis Khan's first-born son, Jochi was favored to rule the clan and the empire after his father died. At the familial kurultai called in 1222, Chagatai raised the issue of Jochi's legitimacy. At that meeting, Genghis Khan made. However, he worried. By early 1223 Genghis Khan had selected his third son, as his successor. For the sake of preserving the Empire, both Jochi and Chagatai agreed, but the rift between them never healed, their rift would politically divide the European part of the Mongol Empire from its Asian part permanently.
During the autumn of 1223 Genghis Khan started for Mongolia after completing the Khwarezm campaign. Ögedei and Tolui went with him but Jochi withdrew to his territories north of Aral and Caspian Seas. There he would not see his father again in his lifetime. Though the histories are unclear, there is evidence that Jochi conspired against Genghis, that Genghis in return pondered a pre-emptive strike; when Genghis Khan returned home he sent for Jochi. When the latter refused to obey and asked a pardon Genghis Khan sent Chagatai and Ögedei against him, but before it came to open hostilities, news came that Jochi had died in February 1226. Genghis Khan had divided his empire into khanates among his four surviving sons during his lifetime. Jochi was entrusted with the westernmost part of the empire lying between Ural and Irtysh rivers. In the Kurultai of 1229 following Genghis Khan's death, this partition was formalized and Jochi's family was allocated the lands in the west up to'as far as the hooves of Mongol horses had trodden'.
Following the Mongol custom, Genghis Khan bequeathed only four thousand'original' Mongol troops to each of his three elder sons and 101,000 to Tolui, his youngest son. Jochi's descendants extended their empire with the help of auxiliary troops from the subjugated populations which happened to be Turkic; this was the chief reason. Jochi's inheritance was divided among his sons, his sons Orda and Batu founded the White Horde and the Blue Horde and would combine their territories into the Kipchak Khanate or Golden Horde. Another of Jochi's sons, received territories that lay north of Batu and Orda's Ülüs. Genghis Khan had made Jochi responsible for the conduct of the community hunt. Hunting was a large scale military exercise designed for the training of the army, it encompassed thousands of square kilometers o
Güyük was the third Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, the eldest son of Ögedei Khan and a grandson of Genghis Khan. He reigned from 1246 to 1248. Güyük received military training and served as an officer under his grandfather Genghis Khan and his father Ögedei Khan, he married Oghul Qaimish of the Merkit clan. In 1233, Güyük, along with his maternal cousin Alchidai and the Mongol general Tangghud, conquered the short-lived Dongxia Kingdom of Puxian Wannu, a rebellious Jin official, in a few months. After the death of Güyük‘s uncle Tolui, Ögedei proposed that Sorghaghtani, the widow of Tolui, marry his son Güyük. Sorghaghtani declined. Güyük participated in the invasion of Russia and Central Europe in 1236–1241 with other Mongol princes, including his cousin Batu and half-brother Kadan, he led his corps in the lengthy siege of the Ossetian capital Maghas. During the course of the conquest, Güyük quarreled violently with Batu at the victory banquet and screamed at him, "Batu is just an old woman with a quiver".
Güyük and Büri, a grandson of Chagatai, stormed out of the banquet and rode away swearing and cursing. When word reached the Great Khan, they were recalled for a time to Mongolia. Ögedei threatened to have his son Güyük executed. Ögedei calmed down and admitted Güyük into his ger. Ögedei criticized Güyük, "Do you think that the Russians surrendered because how mean you were to your own men.... Because you captured one or two warriors, you think, but you didn't capture a single kid goat." Ögedei reprimanded his son harshly for mistreating his soldiers. Güyük was dispatched again to Europe. In the meantime, Ögedei had died, his widow Töregene had taken over as regent, a position of great influence and authority that she used to advocate for her son Güyük. Batu withdrew from Europe so that he might have some influence over the succession, but despite his delaying tactics, Töregene succeeded in getting Güyük elected Khan in 1246; when Genghis Khan's youngest brother, Temüge, threatened the Great Khatun Toregene in an attempt to seize the throne, Güyük came to Mongolia from Emil to secure his position immediately.
Güyük's enthronement on 24 August 1246, near the Mongol capital at Karakorum, was attended by a large number of foreign ambassadors: the Franciscan friar and envoy of Pope Innocent IV, John of Plano Carpini and Benedict of Poland. According to John of Plano Carpini, Güyük's formal election in a great kurultai, or diet of the tribes, took place while his company was at a camp called Sira Orda, or "Yellow Pavilion," along with 3,000 to 4,000 visitors from all parts of Asia and eastern Europe, bearing homage and presents, they afterwards witnessed the formal enthronement at another camp in the vicinity called the "Golden Ordu," after which they were presented to the emperor. Mosul submitted to him; when the papal envoy John of Plano Carpini protested Mongol attacks on the Catholic kingdoms of Europe, Güyük stated that these people had slain Mongol envoys in the time of Genghis Khan and Ogedei Khan. He claimed that "from the rising of the sun to its setting, all the lands have been made subject to the Great Khan", proclaiming an explicit ideology of world conquest.
The Khagan wrote a letter to Pope Innocent IV on the relations between the Church and the Mongols. "You must say with a sincere heart:'We will be your subjects. You must in person come with your kings, all together, without exception, to render us service and pay us homage. Only will we acknowledge your submission, and if you do not follow the order of God, go against our orders, we will know you as our enemy." According to the account by John of Plano Carpini, Genghis Khan's daughter or the aunt of the Khagan was executed for poisoning Ogedei. Güyük followed his father's policy and had Fatima arrested and executed for bewitching his brother Koden and Abd-ur-Rahman was beheaded for corruption. Of the provincial officials appointed under Toregene, only the Oirat official Arghun Aqa remained. Güyük had Temüge's case investigated by Orda Khan and Möngke, they had him executed. Güyük replaced the child khan Qara Hülëgü of the Chagatai Khanate with his favorite cousin Yesü Möngke to secure his position.
He restored his father's officials, Mahmud Yalavach, Masud Beg and Chinqai to positions in the provinces. Güyük reversed several unpopular edicts of his mother the regent and made a capable khan, appointing Eljigidei in Persia in preparation for an attack on Baghdad and the Ismailis and pursuing the war against the Song Dynasty, he was insecure and won the disapproval of his subjects by executing several high-ranking officials of the previous regime for treason. The Seljuk princes struggled incessantly for the throne of the Sultanate of Rum. Despised by Izz-ad-Din, Rukn ad-Din Kilij Arslan IV came to Mongolia. Güyük ordered. A darughachi with 2,000 Mongol troops was sent to enforce this decision; when both David Narin and David Ulu summoned before Güyük in Karakorum, he made David Ulu the senior king and divided the Kingdom of Georgia between them. After the treaty signed by the Mongols a
The Western Xia or Xi Xia known to the Mongols as the Tangut Empire and to the Tangut people themselves and to the Tibetans as Mi-nyak, was an empire which existed from 1038 to 1227 in what are now the northwestern Chinese provinces of Ningxia, eastern Qinghai, northern Shaanxi, northeastern Xinjiang, southwest Inner Mongolia, southernmost Outer Mongolia, measuring about 800,000 square kilometres. Its capital was Xingqing, until its destruction by the Mongols in 1227. Most of its written records and architecture were destroyed, so the founders and history of the empire remained obscure until 20th-century research in the West and in China; the Western Xia occupied the area round the Hexi Corridor, a stretch of the Silk Road, the most important trade route between North China and Central Asia. They made significant achievements in literature, art and architecture, characterized as "shining and sparkling", their extensive stance among the other empires of the Liao and Jin was attributable to their effective military organizations that integrated cavalry, archery, shields and amphibious troops for combat on land and water.
The full title of the Western Xia as named by their own state is reconstructed as /*phiow¹-bjij²-lhjij-lhjij²/ which translates as "Great State of White and Lofty" named as "The Great Xia State of the White and the Lofty", or called "mjɨ-njaa" or "khjɨ-dwuu-lhjij". The region was known to the Tanguts and the Tibetans as Minyak."Western Xia" is the literal translation of the state's Chinese name. It is derived from its location on the western side of the Yellow River, in contrast to the Liao and Jin dynasties on its east and the Song in the southeast; the English term "Tangut" comes from the Mongolian name for the country, believed to reflect the same word as "Dangxiang" found in Chinese literature. The Tanguts came from the Tibet-Qinghai region, but migrated eastward in the 650s under pressure from the Tibetans. By the time of the An Lushan Rebellion in the 750s they had become the primary local power in the Ordos region in northern Shaanxi; the Tanguts sometimes fell under direct administration by the Tang dynasty.
As a result, the Tanguts cooperated with external powers such as the Uyghurs in opposing the Tang. The situation lasted until the 840s when the Tanguts rose in open revolt against the Tang, but the rebellion was suppressed; the Tang court was able to mollify the Tanguts by admonishing their frontier generals and replacing them with more disciplined ones. In 881 the Tangut general Li Sigong was granted control of the Dingnan Jiedushi known as Xiasui, in modern Yulin, Shaanxi for assisting the Tang in suppressing the Huang Chao Rebellion. Li Sigong was succeeded by his brother Li Sijian. After the fall of Tang in 907, the rulers of Dingnan were granted honorary titles by the Later Liang. Li Sijian died in 908 and was succeeded by his son Li Yichang, murdered by his officer Gao Zongyi in 909. Gao Zongyi was himself murdered by soldiers of Dingnan and was replaced by a relative of Li Yichang, Li Renfu. Dingnan was attacked by Qi and Jin in 910, but was able to repel the invaders with the aid of Later Liang.
Li Renfu was succeeded by his son Li Yichao. Under Li Yichao Dingnan repelled an invasion by the Later Tang. Li Yichao was succeeded by his brother Li Yixing. In 944 Li Yixing attacked the Liao dynasty on behalf of the Later Jin. In 948 Li Yixing attacked a neighboring circuit under encouragement from the rebel Li Shouzhen but retreated after Li Shouzhen was defeated. Honorary titles were given out by the Later Han to appease local commanders, including Li Yixing. In 960 Dingnan came under attack by Northern Han and repelled invading forces. In 962 Li Yixing offered tribute to the Song dynasty. Li Yixing was succeeded by his son Li Kerui. Li Kerui died in 978 and was succeeded by Li Jiyun, who died in 980 and was succeeded by Li Jipeng, who died in 982 and was succeeded by Li Jiqian. Li Jiqian rebelled against the Song dynasty in 984, after which Dingnan was recognized as the independent state of Xia. Li Jiqian was succeeded by his son Li Deming. Under Li Deming, the Xia state defeated the Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom in 1028 and forced the ruler of the Guiyi Circuit to surrender.
Li Deming was succeeded by his son Li Yuanhao. In 1036 the Xia annexed the Ganzhou Uyghur states. In 1038 Li Yuanhao declared himself the first emperor of the Great Xia with his capital at Xingqing in modern Yinchuan. What ensued was a prolonged war with the Song dynasty which resulted in several victories; however the victories came at a great cost and the Xia found itself short of manpower and supplies. In 1044 the Xia and Song came to a truce with the Xia recognizing the Song ruler as emperor in return for annual gifts from the Song as recognition of the Tangut state's power. Aside from founding the Western Xia, Li Yuanhao ordered the creation of a Tangut script as well as translations of Chinese classics into Tangut. After Emperor Jingzong of Western Xia died in 1048, his son Li Liangzuo became Emperor Yizong of Western Xia at the age of two and his mother became the regent. In 1049 the Liao dynasty vassalized it. Yizong died in 1067 and his son Li Bingchang became Emperor Huizong of Western Xia at the age of six.
Huizong's mother became regent and she invaded the Song dynasty. The invasion ended in failure, Huizong took back power from his mothe