SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Celadrin (joint cream)

Celadrin is a proprietary blend of esterified fatty acids carbons and the name of a topical analgesic drug that contains this cream and is used for osteoarthritis. The only active ingredient in this over-the-counter drug formulation is menthol, however celadrin is mentioned on a specific brand as functional ingredient, it is distributed by Imagenetix of California. A human study showed that one week of treatment with a topical cream consisting of cetylated fatty acids and menthol was effective for reducing pain and improving functional performance in individuals with arthritis of the knee and wrist. Another human study concluded that compared to placebo, CFA provides an improvement in knee range of motion and overall function in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. An in vitro study that investigated the effects of glucosamine and celadrin on platelet function concluded that glucosamine and celadrin may inhibit platelet aggregation in some individuals via aspirin-like effects as well as inhibition of ADP receptor P2Y1, but not P2Y12 The antiplatelet effects of cealdrin mean that theoretically celadrin may interact with blood thinners, although this interaction has not been studied, it is doubtful if this interaction occurs with the topical application of celadrin where the systemic absorbance is low

Tuileries Palace

The Tuileries Palace was a royal and imperial palace in Paris which stood on the right bank of the River Seine. It was the usual Parisian residence of most French monarchs, from Henry IV to Napoleon III, until it was burned by the Paris Commune in 1871. Built in 1564, it was extended until it closed off the western end of the Louvre courtyard and displayed an immense façade of 266 metres. Since the destruction of the Tuileries, the Louvre courtyard has remained open and the site is now the location of the eastern end of the Tuileries Garden, forming an elevated terrace between the Place du Carrousel and the gardens proper. After the accidental death of Henry II of France in 1559, his widow Catherine de' Medici planned a new palace, she sold the medieval Hôtel des Tournelles, where her husband had died, began building the palace of Tuileries in 1564, using architect Philibert de l'Orme. The name derives from the tile kilns or tuileries which had occupied the site; the palace was formed by a range of narrow buildings.

During the reign of Henry IV, the building was enlarged to the south, so it joined the long riverside gallery, the Grande Galerie, which ran all the way to the older Louvre Palace in the east. During the reign of Louis XIV, major changes were made to the Tuileries Palace. From 1659 to 1661 it was extended to the north by the addition of the Théâtre des Tuileries. From 1664 to 1666 the architect Louis Le Vau and his assistant François d'Orbay made other significant changes, they transformed Philibert de l'Orme's facades and central pavilion, replacing its grand central staircase with a colonnaded vestibule on the ground floor and the Salle des Cents Suisses on the floor above and adding a rectangular dome. A new grand staircase was installed in the entrance of the north wing of the palace, lavishly decorated royal apartments were constructed in the south wing; the king's rooms were on the ground floor, facing toward the Louvre, the queen's on the floor above, overlooking the garden. At the same time, Louis' gardener, André Le Nôtre, redesigned the Tuileries Garden.

The Court moved into the Tuileries Palace in November 1667, but left in 1672, soon thereafter went to the Palace of Versailles. The Tuileries Palace was abandoned and used only as a theatre, but its gardens became a fashionable resort of Parisians; the boy-king Louis XV was moved from Versailles to the Tuileries Palace on 1 January 1716, four months after ascending to the throne. He moved back to Versailles on 15 June three months before his coronation. Both moves were made at the behest of the Regent, the duc d'Orléans; the king resided at the Tuileries for short periods during the 1740s. On 6 October 1789, during the French Revolution, Louis XVI and his family were forced to leave Versailles and brought to the Tuileries where they were kept under surveillance. For the next two years the palace remained the official residence of the king. On 9 November 1789, the National Constituent Assembly the Estates-General of 1789, had moved its deliberations from the tennis court at Versailles to the Tuileries, following the removal of the court to Paris.

The Tuileries' covered riding ring, the Salle du Manège, home to the royal equestrian academy, provided the largest indoor space in the city. The royal family tried to escape after dark, on 20 June 1791, but were captured at Varennes and brought back to the Tuileries; the following year, on 10 August 1792, the palace was stormed by an armed mob, which overwhelmed and massacred the Swiss Guard as the royal family fled through the gardens and took refuge with the Legislative Assembly. The Paris National Guard defended the King, but the daughter of King Louis XVI claimed that many of the guard were in favor of the revolution. In November 1792, the Armoire de fer incident took place at the Tuileries Palace; this was the discovery of a hiding place at the royal apartments, believed to contain the secret correspondence of Louis XVI with various political figures. The incident created a considerable scandal; the Tuileries accommodated the Constituent Assembly, its successor, the National Convention and, in 1795, the Council of Five Hundred of the Directoire until the body moved to the Palais-Bourbon in 1798.

In 1799, the Jacobin Club du Manège had its headquarters there. The Committee of Public Safety met in the Pavillon de Flore. A courtier of a era could summon up nightmarish visions of the palace's Salle de Spectacle, or theater, where many Convention sessions were held during the Reign of Terror: At night a single lamp illumined this huge deserted hall, peopled with terrible memories; these I would muse over as I stopped at the spot once occupied by the chair of the president, where Boissy d'Anglas had saluted the bleeding head of Feraud, where Thuriot had listened impassively to the outburst of Robespierre at bay: "President of assassins, once more I ask your ear!" I saw in imagination the "Mountain," the "Plain," the crowded tribunes. When Napoleon Bonaparte came into power in 1799, he made the Tuileries the official residence of the First Consul and the imperial palace. In 1808, Napoleon began constructing the northern gallery which connected to the Louvre, enclosing a vast square; as Napoleon I's chief residence, the Tuilerie