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A temenos is a piece of land cut off and assigned as an official domain to kings and chiefs, or a piece of land marked off from common uses and dedicated to a god, a sanctuary, holy grove or holy precinct: the Pythian race-course is called a temenos, the sacred valley of the Nile is the Νείλοιο πῖον τέμενος Κρονίδα, the Acropolis of Athens is the ἱερὸν τέμενος.. The word derives from the Greek verb τέμνω, “I cut"; the earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek, te-me-no, written in Linear B syllabic script. The Latin equivalent was the fanum; the concept of temenos arose in classical antiquity as an area reserved for worship of the gods. Some authors have used the term to apply to a sacred grove of trees, isolated from everyday living spaces, while other usage points to areas within ancient urban development that are parts of sanctuaries. A temenos is physically marked by a peribolos fence or wall as a structural boundary; the peribolos was just a set of marker stones demarcating the boundary, or a light fence, the earliest sanctuaries appear to have begun as a peribolos around a sacred grove, cave or other feature, with an altar but no temple or cult image.

But as Greek sanctuaries became more elaborate large stone walls with gateways or gatehouses were built around important sanctuaries, though the most famous, the Athens Acropolis, was a palace and military citadel turned into a sanctuary. A temenos enclosed a sacred space called a hieron. Greeks could find asylum within a sanctuary and be under the protection of the deity and could not be moved against their will. A large example of a Bronze Age Minoan temenos is at the Juktas Sanctuary of the palace of Knossos on ancient Crete in present-day Greece, the temple having a massive northern temenos. Another example is at the temenos of Zeus. There were many temene of Apollo. In religious discourse in English, temenos has come to refer to a territory, receptacle or field of deity or divinity. C. G. Jung relates the temenos to the spellbinding or magic circle, which acts as a'square space' or'safe spot' where mental'work' can take place; this temenos resembles among others a'symmetrical rose garden with a fountain in the middle' in which an encounter with the unconscious can be had and where these unconscious contents can safely be brought into the light of consciousness.

In this manner one can meet one's own Shadow, Animus/Anima, Wise Old Wo/Man and the Self, names that Jung gave to archetypal personifications of unconscious contents which seem to span all cultures. Bruniquel Cave Kiva Kshetra Molyneaux, Brian Leigh & Piers Vitebsky. Sacred Earth, Sacred Stones: Spiritual Site And Landscapes, Ancient Alignments, Earth Energy. London, England: Duncan Baird Publishers. ISBN 1-903296-07-2. Jung, C. G.. Psychology and Alchemy, Collected Works, Volume 12, Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01831-6

Subtalar joint

In human anatomy, the subtalar joint known as the talocalcaneal joint, is a joint of the foot. It occurs at the meeting point of the calcaneus; the joint is classed structurally as a synovial joint, functionally as a plane joint. The talus is oriented obliquely on the anterior surface of the calcaneus. There are two points of articulation between the two bones: one anteriorly and one posteriorly: At the anterior talocalcaneal articulation, a convex area of the talus fits on a concave surface of the calcaneus; the posterior talocalcaneal articulation is formed by a concave surface of the talus and a convex surface of the calcaneus. There are three articulating facets between the talus and the calcaneus, delineated as the anterior and posterior facets; the sustentaculum tali forms the floor of middle facet, the anterior facet articulates with the head of the talus, sits lateral and congruent to the middle facet. The posterior facet is the largest of the three, separated from the others by the tarsal canal.

The main ligament of the joint is the interosseous talocalcaneal ligament, a thick, strong band of two joined fibers that bind the talus and calcaneus. It runs through a canal between the articulations of the two bones. There are four additional ligaments that form weaker connections between the calcaneus; the anterior talocalcaneal ligament attaches at the neck of the talus on the front and lateral surfaces to the superior calcaneus. The short band of the posterior talocalcaneal ligament extends from the lateral tubercle of the talus to the upper medial calcaneus; the short, strong lateral talocalcaneal ligament connects from the lateral talus under the fibular facet to the lateral calcaneus, runs parallel to the calcaneofibular ligament. The medial talocalcaneal ligament extends from the medial tubercle of the talus to the sustentaculum tali on the medial surface of the calcaneus. A synovial membrane lines the capsule of the joint, the joint is wrapped in a capsule of short fibers that are continuous with the talocalcaneonavicular and calcaneocuboid joints of the foot.

The joint allows inversion and eversion of the foot, but plays no role in dorsiflexion or plantarflexion of the foot. It is considered a plane synovial joint commonly referred to as a gliding joint; the subtalar joint can be considered a combination of the anatomic subtalar joint discussed above, the talocalcaneal part of the talocalcaneonavicular joint. This is the more common view of the subtalar joint; when both of these articulations are accounted together, it allows for pronation and supination to occur. The subtalar joint is susceptible to arthritis when it has been affected by sprains. Symptoms of subtalar joint arthritis include pain when walking, loss of motion through the joint's range of motion, difficulty walking on uneven surfaces. Physical therapy and surgery are the main treatment options; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 352 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Calais-Germain, Blandine. "Anatomy of Movement", Eastland Press, 1993. ISBN 0-939616-17-3 Sub_talar_joint at the Duke University Health System's Orthopedics program

Tay Bridge

The Tay Bridge carries the railway across the Firth of Tay in Scotland between Dundee and the suburb of Wormit in Fife. Its span is 2.75 miles. It is the second bridge to occupy the site. Plans for a bridge over the Tay to replace the train ferry service emerged in 1854, but the first Tay Bridge did not open until 1878, it was a lightweight lattice design of low cost with a single track. On 28 December 1879, the bridge collapsed in high winds; the incident is one of the greatest bridge-related engineering disasters to have occurred. An enquiry determined, it was replaced by a second bridge constructed of iron and steel with a double-track parallel to the remains of the first bridge. Work commenced on 6 July 1883 and the bridge was opened in 1887; the new bridge was subject to extensive testing by the Board of Trade. In 2003, the bridge was strengthened and refurbished, winning a British Construction Industry Engineering Award to mark the scale and difficulty of the project. Proposals to build a bridge across the Tay date to 1854 but it was not until 15 July 1870 that the North British Railway Tay Bridge Act received royal assent.

On 22 July 1871, the foundation stone of the bridge was laid. The bridge was designed by engineer Thomas Bouch, who received a knighthood following the bridge's completion; the bridge was a lattice-grid design, combining wrought iron. The design had been used by Thomas W. Kennard in the Crumlin Viaduct in South Wales in 1858, after the use of cast iron in The Crystal Palace; the Crystal Palace was not as loaded as a railway bridge. An earlier cast-iron design, the Dee bridge collapsed in 1847, having failed because of poor use of cast-iron girders. Gustave Eiffel used a similar design to create several large viaducts in the Massif Central in 1867; the original design was for lattice girders supported by brick piers resting on the bedrock, shown by trial borings to lie at no great depth under the river. At either end of the bridge, the single track ran on top of the bridge girder, most of which lay below the pier tops. At the centre section of the bridge, the railway ran inside the bridge girder, above the pier tops to give clearance for the passage of sailing ships.

To accommodate thermal expansion, there were non-rigid connections between piers. As the bridge extended out into the river, by December 1873, it became clear that the bedrock lay much deeper. Bouch redesigned the bridge to increase the span of the girders; the pier foundations were no longer resting on bedrock. To reduce the weight that the ground underneath the caissons would have to support, the brick piers were replaced by open lattice iron skeleton piers; each pier had multiple cast-iron columns taking the weight of the bridging girders, with wrought iron horizontal braces and diagonal tiebars linking the columns to give rigidity and stability. The basic concept was well known, having been used by Kennard in the Crumlin Viaduct in South Wales in 1858. Bouch had used the technique for viaducts, including the Belah Viaduct ) on the South Durham & Lancashire Union Railway line over Stainmore, but for the Tay Bridge with the largest practicable caissons, the pier dimensions were constrained by their size.

Bouch’s pier design set six columns in a hexagon maximising the pier width but not the number of diagonal braces directly resisting sideways forces. The engineering details on the Tay Bridge were simpler and cheaper than on the earlier viaducts; the machined base of each column section docked securely into a machined enlarged section of the top of the section below. The joint was secured by bolts through matching holes on lugs or flanges on the two sections. This'spigot and faucet' configuration was used without machining, on some Tay Bridge pier columns, but on some the bolts were relied upon to ensure correct alignment. In the event, the joints were made using undersized bolts, of a smaller diameter than that which would just go through the hole; this made assembling the column easier, as the bolt holes would not need to align before inserting the bolt. However,this allowed the two members, so joined, to move relative to each other under load, weakening the column. On the Tay Bridge the diagonal bracing was by means of flat bars running from the top of one column-section diagonally down to the bottom of the adjacent column section.

The top connection was to a lug, an integral part of the column casting. The bottom connection was to two sling plates bolted to the base of the equivalent section on an adjacent column; the bar and sling plates all had matching longitudinal slots in them. The tie bar was placed between the sling plates with all three slots overlapping. A gib was secured. Two cotters, metal wedges, were positioned to fill the rest of the slot overlap, driven in hard to put the tie under tension. Horizontal bracing was provided by wrought iron channel iron; the various bolt heads were too close to each other, to the column for easy tightening up with spanners. On the Crumlin and Belah Viaducts, howeve

Konstantin Vilboa

Konstantin Petrovich Villebois was a Russian composer. The name Villebois is of French origin. Vilboa was an autodidact, he became a friend of Glinka around 1850. Vilboa wrote nearly 200 popular songs such as the duet "The seafarers" recorded by Maxim Mikhailov; these songs remained popular, for instance being sung at home by Shostakovich's engineer father. Vilboa's song collection 100 Russian National Songs was an anthology of melodies collected by playwright Alexander Ostrovsky on a River Volga steamer in 1856; this collection was used by, among other composers, Rimsky-Korsakov in his By the gate a pine tree was swaying and other songs. Vilboa wrote three operas, but only one, was staged in St. Petersburg, left the repertoire after a few weeks. Lyrics for some of Vilboa's songs at The LiederNet Archive Free scores by Konstantin Vilboa at the International Music Score Library Project

Betina Gonzalez

Betina González is an award-winning Argentine writer. Born in the Greater Buenos Aires metro area, she studied Social Communications at the University of Buenos Aires, where she worked as a professor and a researcher. In 2003 she moved to Texas to pursue an M. F. A. in creative writing at the University of Texas at El Paso. She graduated in 2006; the same year, Arte menor, her first novel, won the Clarín Annual Literary Prize for novels, one of the most important literary awards in Latin America. Among the panelists of the selection committee for Arte Menor were internationally known writers such as Nobel laureate José Saramago, Rosa Montero, Eduardo Belgrano Rawson; the book was listed among the Argentine best sellers of that year. Arte menor, a story of a daughter in search of her father’s elusive figure memory, was defined by Rosa Montero as a "A fascinating work of magic about identity and imagination, about filial love and the uncertainness of life." Eduardo Belgrano Rawson characterized the novel as a "detective story written with humor and intelligence about a daughter determined to solve the mystery of her father."

José Saramago considered that Betina Gonzalez had demonstrated, through her sense of proportion and balance, a "real command of such a complex genre as the novel." "Of this novel, Arte menor, it can be said. What comes after the title is a work of major art," stated the Portuguese author. In 2006, the Argentine National Fund for the Arts awarded Betina González the second prize for Juegos de Playa, a collection of tales formed by a novella and four short stories. Juegos de Playa, the novella that gives title to the book, explores the fears and fantasies of a little girl during the 1982 Falkland War between Argentina and the United Kingdom. Arte menor, Buenos Aires: Clarín-Alfaguara, December 2006 ISBN 950-782-945-8 Juegos de playa, Buenos Aires: Clarín-Alfaguara. Nouvelle y cuentos, 2008. Lists of writers Official web: "Escribo con rabia, con bronca, pero también con una inmensa, intransferible felicidad" Interview with Betina González "Revista Liberia" "Ninguna vida tiene una versión definitiva" Interview with Betina González Clarín "La pequeña odisea de una hija" Book review on Web Página/12 Article on the 2006 Argentine National Fund Award Clarín

Barbie Almalbis

Yvette Barbra Hontiveros Almalbis-Honasan, better known as Barbie Almalbis, is a Filipina singer-songwriter. The lead singer of the bands Hungry Young Poets and Barbie's Cradle, she pursued a solo career in 2005, releasing her self-titled compilation album, Barbie: The Singles. In 2006, she released her debut solo album, Parade, her music is characterised by a rather quirky, but endearing vocal style, guitar work. Barbie is a capable guitarist in a painter; the couple named their firstborn Noa Stina. Her sister-in-law is Kai Honasan who does vocals on the band Autotelic. In 2016, she was chosen to interpret Nica del Rosario's composition "Ambon" at the 2016 edition of Himig Handog: P-Pop Love Songs. Torpe Firewoman Tabing Ilog The Dance Goodnyt Shiny Red Balloon Belinda Bye Bye Dear Paul Money For Food Langit Na Naman Pangarap All I Need Limang Dipang Tao Everyday Idlip Independence Day Good Day Just A Smile Power over you You're My Number One Summer Day. Dahilan Give Yourself Away Overdrive Damsel Sorry Song Parading Little Miss Spider High Summer Day Pag-alis For The World 012 Credits Song Torpe Deadma Smile At Me Tabing Ilog High Just A Smile Majika Firewoman Same Ground Untitled Dahilan Parading You Learn Summerday Goodnight 012 Ostrich Cowboy Goodbye My Shadow Constellations Unraveling Always You No Police Lights Where Have You Been?

Child Of Mine Wait Til Sunday Buntala Say Goodbye Emmanuel Run For Cover My New Heart Secrets Joyful, Joyful We Are Slaves On This Train Ostrich Cowboy Tunog Acoustic Supersize Rock Tunog Acoustic 2 Tunog Acoustic 3 Ultraelectromagneticjam Tunog Acoustic 4 Bandang Pinoy, Lasang Hotdog Kami nAPO muna I-Star 15: The Best of Alternative & Rock A collaboration between Barbie Almalbis and Kitchie Nadal. The song was used for Unilever's Philippine TV Commercial of Sunsilk; the music video featured both of them. Barbie Almalbis and Pupil were chosen by Juicy Fruit as their advertising models to reach out to the younger generation in their Rockoustic Mania advertising events; the promotion included Juicy Fruit's Tugtog Mo! Band competition, Style mo! Competition by Human and Pony footwear; the collaboration between the two artists offers a fusion of Acoustic. The AVCD features the music videos and some behind the scenes look at the artists' works, it was released on August 24, 2006. The Juicy Fruit Rockoustic Mania Final Fusion event was held on November 17, at the Tanghalang Francisco Balagtas, Cultural Center of the Philippines.

The show featured performances from Barbie Almalbis and Pupil, guest bands Sugarfree and Up Dharma Down, of course, from the three finalists, WTC 11, 7th Skool. The band 7th Skool won the Tugtog Mo! Band Competition. Audio: 1. Nakakabaliw 2. Must Have Video: 1. Nakakabaliw 2. Must Have 3. MYX News PARI 19th Awit Awards Best Performance by a Female Recording Artist for "Just A Smile" Meg Magazine Teens Choice Awards Favorite Female Artist of the Year MTV Pilipinas Nominated for Best Female Artist in a Video for "Dahilan" Nominated for Best Animated Video for "Dahilan" MYX Music Awards Nominated for Favorite Female Artist Nominated for Favorite Media Soundtrack for "Just A Smile" Nominated for Favorite Collaboration for "High" with The Speaks 19th Aliw Awards Nominated for Best Major Concert - for "Barbie Rocks the Big Dome" NU Rock Awards Nominated for Artist Of The Year Nominated for Best Live Act Nominated for Vocalist Of The Year Nominated for Song Of The Year for "Dahilan" Nominated for Album Of The Year for "Parade" 12 Stone Records - Barbie's management group and Label that works with Warner Music Philippines.

Online Registry of Filipino Musical Artists and Their Works: Barbie Almalbis The Philippine Association of the Record Industry, Inc