Alinda was an ancient inland city and bishopric in Caria, in Asia Minor, now a Latin Catholic titular bishopric. It is situated near Demircideresi, on a hilltop which commands the modern-day town of Karpuzlu, Aydın Province, in western Turkey, Alinda could have been an important city since the second millennium BC and has been associated with Ialanti that appears in Hittite sources. It was this fortress which was held by the exiled Carian Queen Ada and she greeted Alexander the Great here in 334 BC. The prior name of Alinda was restored by at least 81 BC and it appears as Alinda in Ptolemys Geographia of the 2nd century AD. Alinda remained an important commercial city, minting its own coins from the third century BC to the 3rd century AD, stephanus records that the city had a temple of Apollo containing a statue of Aphrodite by Praxiteles. Alinda has a necropolis of Carian tombs and has partially excavated. Alinda appears on Byzantine lists of bishoprics and it was a suffragan of the Metropolitan of Stauropolis, the capital of the Roman province of Caria, but was to fade
Aphrodisias was a small ancient Greek city in the historic Caria cultural region of western Anatolia, Turkey. It is located near the village of Geyre, about 100 km east/inland from the coast of the Aegean Sea. Aphrodisias was named after Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love, who had here her unique cult image, according to the Suda, a Byzantine encyclopedic compilation, before the city became known as Aphrodisias it had three previous names, Lelégōn Pólis, Megálē Pólis, and Ninóē. Sometime before 640, in the Late Antiquity period when it was within the Byzantine Empire and blue grey Carian marble was extensively quarried from adjacent slopes in the Hellenistic and Roman periods, for building facades and sculptures. Marble sculptures and sculptors from Aphrodisias became famous in the Roman world, the site is in an earthquake zone and has suffered a great deal of damage at various times, especially in severe tremors of the 4th and 7th centuries. An added complication was that one of the 4th century earthquakes altered the water table, evidence can be seen of emergency plumbing installed to combat this problem.
Aphrodisias never fully recovered from the 7th century earthquake, and fell into disrepair, part of the town was covered by the modern village of Geyre, some of the cottages were removed in the 20th century to reveal the older city. A new Geyre has been built a distance away. In Byzantine times the city was renamed Stauropoli meaning “the city of the cross”, another bishop, Theopropios, is mentioned by an inscription. Bishops are known from the Notitia Episcopatuum of pseudo-Epiphanius, the town was home to the martyrs Diodorus and Rodopiano during the persecution of Diocletian. In the 7th century Stauropolis had twenty-eight suffragan bishops and twenty-six at the beginning of the 10th century, surviving acta record that between 1356 and 1368 it was without a metropolitan, but was under the administration of the metropolitan of Bizye. In 1369 metropolitan reappears as the recipient of the churches of Miletus and Antioch on the Maeander, isaias of Stauropolis attended the Council of Florence and fled to avoid signing the decree of union.
Stauropolis remains a Roman Catholic titular metropolitan see of the former Roman province of Caria, the Temple of Aphrodite was a focal point of the town, but the character of the building was altered when it became a Christian basilica. The Aphrodisian sculptors became renowned and benefited from a supply of marble close at hand. The school of sculpture was very productive, much of their work can be seen around the site, many full-length statues were discovered in the region of the agora, and trial and unfinished pieces pointing to a true school are in evidence. Sarcophagi were recovered in locations, most frequently decorated with designs consisting of garland. Pilasters have been showing what are described as peopled scrolls with figures of people, birds. A monumental gateway, or tetrapylon, leads from the main street of the town into a large forecourt in front of the Temple or Sanctuary of Aphrodite
Aigai, Aigaiai was an ancient Greek, Roman and bishopric in Aeolis. Aegae is mentioned by both Herodotus and Strabo as being a member of the Aeolian dodecapolis and it was an important sanctuary of Apollo. Aigai had its brightest period under the Attalid dynasty, which ruled from nearby Pergamon in the 3rd, the remains of the city are located near the modern village of Yuntdağı Köseler in Manisa Province, Turkey. The archaeological site is situated at a high altitude almost on top of Mount Gün. Initially the city was a possession of the Lydian Empire and the Achaemenid Empire when it conquered the former, in the early third century BC it became part of the Kingdom of Pergamon. It changed hands from Pergamon to the Seleucid Empire, but was recaptured by Attalus I of Pergamon in 218 BC, in the war between Bithynia and Pergamon, it was destroyed by Prusias II of Bithynia in 156 BC. After a peace was brokered by the Romans, the city was compensated with hundred talents, under the rule of Pergamon a market building and a temple to Apollo were constructed.
In 129 BC the Kingdom of Pergamon became part of the Roman Empire, the city was destroyed by an earthquake in 17 AD and received aid for reconstruction from emperor Tiberius. Ægæ was important enough in the Roman province of Asia Prima to become one of the many suffragans of its capital Ephesuss Metropolitan Archbishopric, the diocese was nominally restored in 1933 as titular bishopric. The plateau is surrounded by a wall with a length of 1.5 kilometers, on the eastern side are the remains of the three-story indoor market with a height of 11 meters and a length of 82 meters. The upper floor of the Hellenistic building was renovated in Roman times, the partially overgrown remains of many other buildings are scattered over the site. These include the acropolis which is out in terraces, a Macellum, a gymnasium, a bouleuterion. About five kilometers to the east the foundations of a sanctuary of Apollo are found on the banks of the river flows around the ruins. It was an Ionic order peripteros temple from the first century BC, a cella which is six meters high and three monoliths still remain.
The first western visitors of Aigai were William Mitchell Ramsay and Salomon Reinach in 1880 and they reported about their visit in the Journal of Hellenic Studies and the Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique. They were followed by Richard Bohn and Carl Schuchhardt, who examined the site as a part of the excavations in Pergamon, since 2004 the site is being excavated by Ersin Doğer of Ege University in Izmir. By 2010 the access road, the bouleuterion, the odeon, numerous water pipes, for the coming years it is planned to re-erect the market halls facade with the original stones
Didyma was an ancient Greek sanctuary on the coast of Ionia. It contained a temple and oracle of Apollo, the Didymaion, in Greek didyma means twin, but the Greeks who sought a twin at Didyma ignored the Carian origin of the name. Next to Delphi, Didyma was the most renowned oracle of the Hellenic world and its establishment preceded literacy and even the Hellenic colonization of Ionia. Mythic genealogies of the origins of the Branchidae line of priests, designed to capture the origins of Didyma as a Hellenic tradition, date to the Hellenistic period. The ruins of Didyma are located a distance to the northwest of modern Didim in Aydin Province, Turkey. Didyma was the largest and most significant sanctuary on the territory of the classical city Miletus. To approach it, visitors would follow the Sacred Way to Didyma, along this route were ritual waystations, and statues of male and female members of the Branchidae family, as well as animal figures. Some of these statues, dating to the 6th century BC, are now in the British Museum, also, as Wilamowitz suggested, there may be a connection to Cybele Dindymene, the Cybele of Mount Dindymon.
Excavations by German archaeologists have uncovered a major sanctuary dedicated to Artemis, the 6th century Didymaion, dedicated to Apollo, enclosed a smaller temple that was its predecessor, which archaeologists have identified. Its treasury was enriched by gifts from Croesus, Apollo was worshipped in nearby Miletus under the name Delphinius. At Didyma, he was worshipped as Didymeus and his other names in the area were Philesios, and Carinus. Until its destruction by the Persians in 494 BC, Didymas sanctuary was administered by the family of the Branchidae, who claimed descent from an eponymous Branchos, the priestess, seated above the sacred spring, gave utterances that were interpreted by the Branchidae. Both Herodotus and Pausanias dated the origins of the oracle at Didyma before the Ionian colonization of this coast, though the sanctuaries of Delphi and Ephesus were swiftly rebuilt, Didyma remained a ruin until the first steps of restoration were undertaken in 334 BC. After his capture of Miletus in 334 BC, Alexander the Great reconsecrated the oracle and placed its administration in the hands of the city, where the priest in charge was annually elected.
Vitruvius recorded a tradition that the architects were Paeonius of Ephesus, whom Vitruvius credited with the rebuilding of the Temple of Artemis there, the peripteral temple was surrounded by a double file of Ionic columns. With a pronaos of three rows of four columns, the approaching visitor passed through a regularized grove formed of columns. The door usually leading to a cella was replaced by a wall with a large upper opening through which one could glimpse the upper part of the naiskos in the inner court. This was the location of an ancient spring, the naiskos—which was itself a small temple, containing in its own small cella the bronze image of the god—and a grove of laurels
Pliny the Elder
In the latter number will be my uncle, by virtue of his own and of your compositions. Pliny is referring to the fact that Tacitus relied on his uncles now missing work on the History of the German Wars. The wind caused by the sixth and largest pyroclastic surge of the eruption would not allow his ship to leave the shore, and Pliny probably died during this event. Plinys dates are pinned to the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD79 and a statement of his nephew that he died in his 56th year, Pliny was the son of an equestrian, Gaius Plinius Celer, and his wife, Marcella. Neither the younger nor the elder Pliny mention the names and their ultimate source is a fragmentary inscription found in a field in Verona and recorded by the 16th century Augustinian monk Onofrio Panvinio at Verona. The reading of the inscription depends on the reconstruction, but in all cases the names come through, whether he was an augur and whether she was named Grania Marcella are less certain. Jean Hardouin presents a statement from a source that he claims was ancient, that Pliny was from Verona.
Hardouin cites the conterraneity of Catullus, additional efforts to connect Celer and Marcella with other gentes are highly speculative. Hardouin is the scholar to use his unknown source. He kept statues of his ancestors there, a statue of Pliny on the facade of the Duomo of Como celebrates him as a native son. He had a sister, who married into the Caecilii and was the mother of his nephew, Pliny the Younger, whose letters describe his work and study regimen in detail. In one of his letters to Tacitus, Pliny the Younger details how his uncles breakfasts would be light and simple following the customs of our forefathers. This shows that Pliny the Younger wanted it to be conveyed that Pliny the Elder was a good Roman and this statement would have pleased Tacitus. Two inscriptions identifying the hometown of Pliny the Younger as Como take precedence over the Verona theory, one commemorates the youngers career as imperial magistrate and details his considerable charitable and municipal expenses on behalf of the people of Como.
Another identifies his father Lucius village as Fecchio near Como and it is likely therefore that Plinia was a local girl and Pliny the Elder, her brother, was from Como. Gaius was a member of the Plinii gens and he did not take his fathers cognomen, but assumed his own, Secundus. As his adopted son took the same cognomen, Pliny founded a branch, no earlier instances of the Plinii are known. In 59 BC, only about 82 years before Plinys birth, Julius Caesar founded Novum Comum as a colonia to secure the region against the Alpine tribes, whom he had been unable to defeat
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning administration. When now used in a sense, it refers to a territorial unit of administration. This structure of governance is known as episcopal polity. The word diocesan means relating or pertaining to a diocese and it can be used as a noun meaning the bishop who has the principal supervision of a diocese. An archdiocese is more significant than a diocese, an archdiocese is presided over by an archbishop whose see may have or have had importance due to size or historical significance. The archbishop may have authority over any other suffragan bishops. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the bishopric is used to describe the bishop himself. Especially in the Middle Ages, some bishops held political as well as religious authority within their dioceses, in the organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. With the adoption of Christianity as the Empires official religion in the 4th century, a formal church hierarchy was set up, parallel to the civil administration, whose areas of responsibility often coincided.
With the collapse of the Western Empire in the 5th century, a similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was largely retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division, modern usage of diocese tends to refer to the sphere of a bishops jurisdiction. As of January 2015, in the Catholic Church there are 2,851 regular dioceses,1 papal see,641 archdioceses and 2,209 dioceses in the world, in the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy. Eastern Orthodoxy calls dioceses metropoleis in the Greek tradition or eparchies in the Slavic tradition, after the Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as provinces and this usage is relatively common in the Anglican Communion.
Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics and these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory. The Lutheran Church-International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure and its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes. The Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States, in the COGIC, each state is divided up into at least three dioceses that are all led by a bishop, but some states as many as seven dioceses
Probably dating from the 6th century BC, Euromus was a member of the Chrysaorian League during Seleucid times. Euromus minted its own coins from the 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD, the ruins contain numerous interesting buildings, the most outstanding of which is the temple of Zeus Lepsinos from the reign of Emperor Hadrian. Archaeologists have found terra cotta shards indicating that the site had its origins back at least to the 6th century BC. Carian rock-cut tombs are found at Euromus. Blue Guide, The Aegean and Mediterranean Coasts, pp. 321–3
Amorium was a city in Phrygia, Asia Minor which was founded in the Hellenistic period, flourished under the Byzantine Empire, and declined after the Arab sack of 838. It was situated on the Byzantine military road from Constantinople to Cilicia and its ruins and höyük are located under and around the modern village of Hisarköy,13 kilometers east of the district center, Emirdağ, Afyonkarahisar Province, Turkey. Amorium is the Latinized version of its original Greek name Amorion, arab/Islamic sources refer to the city as ʿAmmūriye. Under Ottoman rule the site, which never regained importance, was called Hergen Kale, the city minted its own coins beginning between 133 BC to 27 BC until the 3rd century AD, indicating its maturity as a settlement and military importance during the pre-Byzantine period. Amorium must have been prestigious and prosperous, but early historical records that mention the city are strictly limited to a reference by Strabo, although it is expected that new discoveries will shed light on the citys Roman period and before.
The city was fortified by the emperor Zeno in the 5th century and its strategic location in central Asia Minor made the city a vital stronghold against the armies of the Arab Caliphate following the Muslim conquest of the Levant. The city was first attacked by Muʿāwiya in 646 and it capitulated to ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Khalid in 666 and was occupied by Yazid I in 669, retaken by Constans IIs general Andreas. Over the next two centuries, it remained a frequent target of Muslim raids into Asia Minor, especially during the sieges of 716 and 796. It became capital of the thema of Anatolikon soon after, in 742-743, it was the main base of Emperor Constantine V against the usurper Artabasdos, and in 820, an Amorian, Michael II, ascended the Byzantine throne, establishing the Amorian dynasty. This began the period of the citys greatest prosperity, when it became the largest city in Asia Minor, the town was rebuilt, but was burned by Thamal al-Dulafi in 931. Nonetheless, it remained an active Byzantine city at least into the 11th century, following the Battle of Manzikert, it was devastated by the Seljuks and a large proportion of its inhabitants were killed.
Emperor Alexios I Komnenos defeated the Seljuks at Amorium in 1116 and it remained an important place in the 12th-14th centuries according to al-Idrisi and Hamdallah Mustawfi. Amorium was a bishopric at latest by 431, when its bishop, the acts of the earlier First Council of Constantinople were signed by a priest, Tyrannus, of Amorium. Theophilus was part of the mission that Photius sent to Rome about 20 years earlier, in the Notitiae Episcopatuum of Pseudo-Epiphanius, Amorium appears as a suffragan of Pessinus, capital of Galatia Salutaris. It appears with the rank in another of the end of the 8th century. There is no longer any mention of the see in the 14th-century Notitiae Episcopatuum, no longer a residential bishopric, Amorium is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. Following the 838 sack,42 officers and notables of Amorium were taken as hostages to Samarra, refusing to convert to Islam, they were executed there in 845, and became canonized as the 42 Martyrs of Amorium.
Amoriums site was unknown, though its name appears on many maps of the 18th and 19th centuries
Second Council of Nicaea
The Second Council of Nicaea is recognized as the last of the first seven ecumenical councils by both West and East. Orthodox and Old Catholics unanimously recognize it, Protestant opinions on it are varied and it met in AD787 in Nicaea to restore the use and veneration of icons, which had been suppressed by imperial edict inside the Byzantine Empire during the reign of Leo III. His son, Constantine V, had held the Council of Hieria to make the suppression official, the veneration of icons had been banned by Byzantine Emperor Constantine V and supported by his Council of Hieria, which had described itself as the seventh ecumenical council. The emperors vigorous enforcement of the ban included persecution of those who venerated icons, Constantines iconoclastic tendencies were shared by Constantines son, Leo IV. After the latters death, his widow, Irene of Athens, as regent for her son, began its restoration, moved thereto by personal inclination. However, a council, claiming to be ecumenical, had abolished the veneration of icons, Pope Adrian I was invited to participate, and gladly accepted.
However, the intended for the oriental patriarchs could not even be delivered to them. The Roman legates were an archbishop and an abbot, both named Peter, in 786, the council met in the Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople. However, soldiers in collusion with the opposition entered the church, as a result, the government resorted to a stratagem. Under the pretext of a campaign, the bodyguard was sent away from the capital — disarmed and disbanded. The council was summoned to meet, this time in Nicaea. The council assembled on September 24,787 at the church of Hagia Sophia and it numbered about 350 members,308 bishops or their representatives signed. Tarasius presided, and seven sessions were held in Nicaea, first Session — Three bishops, Basilius of Ancyra, Theodore of Myra and Theodosius of Amorium begged for pardon for the heresy of iconoclasm. Second Session — Papal legates read the letters of Pope Hadrian I asking for agreement with veneration of images, third Session — Other bishops having made their abjuration, were received into the council.
Fourth Session — Proof of the lawfulness of the veneration of icons was drawn from Exodus 25,19 sqq, ezekiel 41,18, and Genesis 31,34, but especially from a series of passages of the Church Fathers, the authority of the latter was decisive. Fifth Session — It was claimed that the iconoclast heresy came originally from Jews, sixth Session — The definition of the pseudo-Seventh council was read and condemned. Seventh Session — The council issued a declaration of faith concerning the veneration of holy images, and exhibited on the walls of churches, in the homes, and in all conspicuous places, by the roadside and everywhere, to be revered by all who might see them. For the more they are contemplated, the more they move to fervent memory of their prototypes, eighth Session — The last session was held in Constantinople at the Magnaura Palace
Atarneus was an ancient Greek city in the region of Aeolis, Asia Minor. It lies on the mainland opposite the island of Lesbos, northeast of the town of Dikili in modern-day Turkey, Atarneus flowered in the 4th century BC, when it was the seat of government of Hermias of Atarneus, ruling over the area from Atarneus to Assos. The city was deserted by inhabitants in the 1st century AD, the city is known by many for its association with the life of Aristotle. After the death of his father, Aristotle was cared for and educated by Proxenus of Atarneus, at the Academy Aristotle made friends with Hermias, who was to become the ruler of Atarneus. Indeed, after the death of Plato, Aristotle went to stay with Hermias, foss, C. S. Mitchell, G. Reger, R. Talbert, T. Elliott, S. Gillies