Courage is the choice and willingness to confront agony, danger, uncertainty, or intimidation. Physical courage is bravery in the face of physical pain, death or threat of death, while moral courage is the ability to act rightly in the face of popular opposition, scandal, discouragement, or personal loss; the classical virtue of fortitude is translated "courage", but includes the aspects of perseverance and patience. In the Western tradition, notable thoughts on courage have come from philosophers, Plato, Aristotle and Kierkegaard. Much earlier, in the Hindu tradition, mythology has given many examples of bravery and courage. Ramayana and Mahabharatha have in them many examples of both physical and moral courage. In the Eastern tradition, some thoughts on courage were offered by the Tao Te Ching. More courage has been explored by the discipline of psychology. Daniel Putman, a professor at the University of Wisconsin - Fox Valley, wrote an article titled "The Emotions of Courage". Using a text from Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics as the basis for his article, he discusses the relationship between fear and confidence in the emotion of courage.
"First, in feelings of confidence the mean is bravery. The excessively fearless person is nameless...while the one, excessively confident is rash. He states that "courage involves deliberate choice in the face of painful or fearful circumstances for the sake of a worthy goal". With this realization, Putman concludes that "there is a close connection between fear and confidence". Fear and confidence in relation to courage can determine the success of a courageous goal, they can be seen as the independent variables in courage, their relationship can affect how we respond to fear. In addition, the confidence, being discussed here is self-confidence. Putman states that: "The ideal in courage is not just a rigid control of fear, nor is it a denial of the emotion; the ideal is to judge a situation, accept the emotion as part of human nature and, we hope, use well-developed habits to confront the fear and allow reason to guide our behavior toward a worthwhile goal." When trying to understand how fear and confidence play into courage, we need to look back at Aristotle's quote.
According to Putman, Aristotle is referring to an appropriate level of fear and confidence in courage. "Fear, although it might vary from person to person, is not relative and is only appropriate if it "matches the danger of the situation"."The same goes for confidence in that there are two aspects to self-confidence in a dangerous situation. "a realistic confidence in the worth of a cause that motivates positive action." "knowing our own skills and abilities. A second meaning of appropriate confidence is a form of self-knowledge."Without an appropriate balance between fear and confidence when facing a threat, one cannot have the courage to overcome it. Putman states "if the two emotions are distinct excesses or deficiencies in either fear or confidence can distort courage." As noted above, an "excess or deficiency of either fear or confidence, can distort courage". According to Putman, there are four possibilities: "Higher level of fear than a situation calls for, low level of confidence". Someone like this would be perceived as coward.
Someone like this would be perceived as rash. The third possibility can occur if someone experienced a traumatic experience that brought about great anxiety for much of their life; the fear that they experience would be inappropriate and excessive. Yet as a defensive mechanism, the person would show excessive levels of confidence as a way to confront their irrational fear and ""prove" something to oneself or other". So this distortions could be seen as a coping method for their fear. "Excessively low level of fear and low level of confidence.". For the last possibility, it can be seen as hopelessness. Putman says this is similar to "a person on a sinking ship". "This example is of a person who has low confidence and low self-regard who loses all fear". The distortion of low fear and low confidence can occur in a situation where an individual accepts what is going to happen to them. In regards to this example, they lose all fear because they know death is unavoidable and the reason it is unavoidable is because they do not have the ability to handle or overcome the situation.
Thus, Daniel Putman identifies fear and courage as being intertwined and that they rely on distinct perceptions: "the danger of the situation "the worthiness of the cause "and the perception of one's ability." The early Greek philosopher Plato set the groundwork for how courage would be viewed to future philosophers. Plato's early writings found in Laches show a discussion on courage, but they fail to come to a satisfactory conclusion on what courage is. During the debate between three leaders, including Socrates, many definitions of courage are mentioned. "…a man willing to remain at his post and to defend himself against the enemy without running away…""…a sort of endurance of the soul…" "…knowledge of the grounds of fear and hope..." While many definitions are given in Plato's Laches, all are refuted, giving the reader a sense of Plato's argument style. Laches is an early writing of Plato's. In this early w
The temperance movement is a social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Participants in the movement criticize alcohol intoxication or promote complete abstinence, with leaders emphasizing alcohol's negative effects on health and family life; the movement promotes alcohol education as well as demands new laws against the selling of alcohols, or those regulating the availability of alcohol, or those prohibiting it. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the temperance movement became prominent in many countries English-speaking and Scandinavian ones, it led to Prohibition in the United States from 1920 to 1933. In the late-seventeenth century, alcohol was a vital part of colonial life as a beverage and commodity for men and children. Drinking was accepted and integrated into society. Despite that, drunkenness was common and not seen as a social problem; the attitudes towards alcohol began to change in the late eighteenth century. One of the reasons for the shifting attitudes was the necessity for sober laborers to operate heavy machinery, developed as a result of the Industrial Revolution.
Anthony Benezet suggested abstinence from alcohol in 1775. As early as the 1790s, physician Benjamin Rush researched the danger that drinking alcohol could lead to disease that leads to a lack of self-control and he cited abstinence as the only treatment option. Rush condemned the use of distilled spirits; as well as addiction, Rush noticed the correlation that drunkenness had with disease, death and crime. According to, “Pompili, Maurizio et al,” there is increasing evidence that, aside from the volume of alcohol consumed, the pattern of the drinking is relevant for health outcomes. Overall, there is a causal relationship between alcohol consumption and more than 60 types of diseases and injuries. Alcohol is estimated to cause about 20–30% of cases of esophageal cancer, liver cancer, cirrhosis of the liver, homicide and motor vehicle accidents. After the American Revolution, Rush called upon ministers of various churches to act in preaching the messages of temperance. However, abstinence messages were ignored by Americans until the 1820s.
In the eighteenth century, there was a "Gin Craze" in the Kingdom of Great Britain. The bourgeoisie became critical of the widespread drunkenness among the lower classes. Motivated by the bourgeoisie's desire for order, amplified by the population growth in the cities, the drinking of gin became the subject of critical national debate. In the early nineteenth-century United States, alcohol was still regarded as a necessary part of the American diet for both practical and social reasons. On one hand, water supplies were polluted, milk was not always available, coffee and tea was expensive. On the other hand, social construct of the time made. Drunkenness was not a problem, because people would only drink small amounts of alcohol throughout the day, but at the turn of the nineteenth-century and subsequent intoxication became an issue that led to the disintegration of the family. Early temperance societies associated with churches were located in upstate New York and New England, but only lasted a few years.
These early temperance societies called for moderate drinking, but had little influence outside of their geographical areas. In 1743, John Wesley, the founder of the Methodist Churches, proclaimed "that buying and drinking of liquor, unless necessary, were evils to be avoided". In 1810, Calvinist ministers met with a seminary in Massachusetts to write articles about abstinence from alcohol to use in preaching to their congregations; the Massachusetts Society for the Suppression of Intemperance was formed in 1813. The organization only accepted men of high social standing and encouraged moderation in alcohol consumption, its peak of influence was in 1818, but the MSSI ended in 1820 and made no significant mark on the future of the temperance movement. Other small temperance societies appear in the 1810s, but had little impact outside their immediate regions and they disbanded soon after, their methods had little effect in implementing temperance, drinking increased until after 1830. The temperance movement began at a national level in the 1820s, having been popularized by evangelical temperance reformers and among the middle classes.
There was a concentration on advice against hard spirits rather than on abstinence from all alcohol and on moral reform rather than legal measures against alcohol. An early temperance movement began during the American Revolution in Connecticut and New York state, with farmers forming associations to ban whiskey distilling; the movement spread to eight states, advocating temperance rather than abstinence and taking positions on religious issues such as observance of the Sabbath. After the American Revolution there was a new emphasis on good citizenship for the new republic. With the Evangelical Protestant religious revival of the 1820s and'30s, called the Second Great Awakening, social movements began aiming for a perfect society; this included temperance. The Awakening brought with it an optimism about moral reform, achieved through volunteer organizations. Although the temperance movement was nonsectarian in principle, the movement consisted of church-goers; the temperance movement promoted temperance and emphasized th
Yoga is a group of physical and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India. Yoga is one of the six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophical traditions. There is a broad variety of yoga schools and goals in Hinduism and Jainism; the term "yoga" in the Western world denotes a modern form of Hatha yoga, consisting of the postures called asanas. The origins of yoga have been speculated to date back to pre-Vedic Indian traditions; the chronology of earliest texts describing yoga-practices is unclear, varyingly credited to Upanishads. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali date from the first half of the 1st millennium CE, but only gained prominence in the West in the 20th century. Hatha yoga texts emerged around the 11th century with origins in tantra. Yoga gurus from India introduced yoga to the West, following the success of Swami Vivekananda in the late 19th and early 20th century with his adaptation of yoga tradition, excluding asanas. In the 1980s, a different form of modern yoga, with an increasing number of asanas and few other practices, became popular as a system of exercise across the Western world.
Yoga in Indian traditions, however, is more than physical exercise. One of the six major orthodox schools of Hinduism is called Yoga, which has its own epistemology and metaphysics, is related to Hindu Samkhya philosophy. Many studies have tried to determine the effectiveness of modern yoga as a complementary intervention for cancer, schizophrenia and heart disease; the results of these studies have been inconclusive. On December 1, 2016, yoga was listed by UNESCO as an intangible cultural heritage; the Sanskrit noun योग yoga is derived from the root yuj "to attach, harness, yoke". The word yoga is cognate with English "yoke"; the spiritual sense of the word yoga first arises in Epic Sanskrit, in the second half of the 1st millennium BCE, is associated with the philosophical system presented in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, with the chief aim of "uniting" the human spirit with the Divine. The term kriyāyoga has a technical meaning in the Yoga Sutras, designating the "practical" aspects of the philosophy, i.e. the "union with the supreme" due to performance of duties in everyday life.
According to Pāṇini, the term yoga can be derived from either of two roots, yujir yoga or yuj samādhau. In the context of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, the root yuj samādhau is considered by traditional commentators as the correct etymology. In accordance with Pāṇini, Vyasa who wrote the first commentary on the Yoga Sutras, states that yoga means samādhi. According to Dasgupta, the term yoga can be derived from either of two roots, yujir yoga or yuj samādhau. Someone who practices yoga or follows the yoga philosophy with a high level of commitment is called a yogi or yogini; the term yoga has been defined in various ways in the many different Indian philosophical and religious traditions. The ultimate goal of Yoga is moksha, although the exact definition of what form this takes depends on the philosophical or theological system with which it is conjugated. According to Jacobsen, Yoga has five principal meanings: a disciplined method for attaining a goal. According to David Gordon White, from the 5th century CE onward, the core principles of "yoga" were more or less in place, variations of these principles developed in various forms over time: a meditative means of discovering dysfunctional perception and cognition, as well as overcoming it for release from suffering, inner peace and salvation.
White clarifies that the last principle relates to legendary goals of "yogi practice", different from practical goals of "yoga practice," as they are viewed in South Asian thought and practice since the beginning of the Common Era, in the various Hindu and Jain philosophical schools. The origins of yoga are a matter of debate. There is no consensus on its chronology or specific origin other than that yoga developed in ancient India. Suggested origins are the Indus Valley Civilization and pre-Vedic Eastern states of India, the Vedic period (1500–5
Nicholas Stone was an English sculptor and architect. In 1619 he was appointed master-mason to James I, in 1626 to Charles I. During his career he was the mason responsible for not only the building of Inigo Jones' Banqueting House, but the execution of elaborate funerary monuments for some of the most prominent of his era that were avant-garde by English standards; as an architect he worked in the Baroque style providing England with some of its earliest examples of the style, not to find favour in the country for another sixty years, only fleetingly. He worked in a context where most sculptors in stone were "mason-sculptors", in modern terms combining sculpture with architecture; the quality of his sculptural work is variable because much of it was done by his workshop colleagues. Netherlandish influence was dominant in English sculpture, in Stone's training, but the importation of classical antiquities by collectors influenced his work. There continued to be few sculpture commissions other than tombs in England during his career, he developed the English types of the previous century.
Nicholas Stone was born in the son of a quarryman of Woodbury, near Exeter. He was first apprenticed to a Dutch-born London mason working in Southwark, London; when the sculptor Hendrik de Keyser, master mason to the City of Amsterdam, visited London in 1606, Stone was introduced to him and contracted to work for him in Holland, where he married de Keyser's daughter and worked with his son Pieter. Stone is thought to have made the portico to the Westerkerk in Amsterdam. In 1613 he returned to London with Bernard Janssens, a fellow pupil of de Keyser and settled in Long Acre, St Martin-in-the-Fields, where he established a large practice and workshops and soon became the leading English sculptor of funeral monuments. Stone owed his early success in London in part to Inigo Jones, the King's Surveyor, under whom he first worked at Holyrood Palace, Edinburgh, in 1616, which led to the spectacular contract, for building Jones's Banqueting House, that placed him in the forefront of London builders.
Throughout his life, Stone recorded his work in two journals. These journals record all his works and patrons, provide in unequalled detail documentation of the career of an architect of the period. A list of works by Stone's relative John Stoakes includes some work known not to have been designed by Stone, including Inigo Jones' Banqueting House, but permits some attributions, noted below; this amount of information available concerning Stone has led to his importance to English architecture being overstated. However, the documentation does prove that by 1629 he was England's foremost sculptor and that by the end of his life he held comparable status in architecture, his first appointment in the royal Office of Works was as "master mason and architect" to Windsor Castle in April 1626. A consistent private patron over a period of many years was Sir William Paston, modernizing his Elizabethan seat at Oxnead, Norfolk. Paston commissioned from Stone the monument to his mother in the church at Paston, the family's ancient seat.
The simpler monument by Stone of Sir Edmund Paston, without the effigy and achievement of arms, stands beside his wife's. Oxnead was emptied of its treasures, sold off and all but demolished, but in 1809 its long-term tenant, John Adey Repton, made a conjectural drawing of it, based on the foundations and recollections of local inhabitants, illustrated in W. H. Bartlett and John Britten's Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain 1809, following p. 98. His view is centered on the terraced parterres, in the lowest of which, he says, stood the fountain of two tiers of bold opposed scrolls supporting a shallow basin, re-erected after the Oxnead sale at the rival Norfolk house, Blickling Hall. Repton's drawing showed the banqueting house constructed as a wing. Underneath this was a vaulted apartment, called the Frisketting room from the Italian'frescati', a cool grotto." Repton's drawing shows a building of three bays articulated by a giant order, with large rectangular windows over the basement windows and oval windows, recalled by local people, in a mezzanine above.
Stone provided a magnificent chimneypiece that cost £80 and another for the banqueting house, a balcony with two door surrounds and an architrave in Portland stone, a "copper branch"— a cast bronze candelabrum— weighing 166 pounds, an achievement of the Paston arms. There were many miscellaneous carved furnishings, picture frames and stands for tables and paving-stones, busts of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina. For the gardens he provided figures of Venus and Cupid, Flora, and, to guard the garden front door, a large figure of Cerberus on a pedestal, all long gone, but Stone's Hercules— and others— are preserved in the gardens at Blickling. In the garden Stone erected a large iron pergola painted surmounted by eight gilded balls. In 1638, he sent his son, Nicholas Stone the younger, to Italy, whence there returned an elevation of a new garden house ju
Humility is the quality of being humble. Dictionary definitions accentuate humility as a low sense of unworthiness. In a religious context humility can mean a recognition of self in relation to a deity or deities, self-debasement with subsequent submission to said deity as a member of that religion. Outside of a religious context, humility is defined as being "unselved", a liberation from consciousness of self, a form of temperance, neither having pride nor indulging in self-deprecation. Humility is an outward expression of an appropriate inner, or self regard, is contrasted with humiliation, an imposition external, of shame upon a person. Humility may be misappropriated as ability to suffer humiliation through self-denouncements which in itself remains focus on self rather than low self-focus. Humility, in various interpretations, is seen as a virtue which centers on low self-preoccupation, or unwillingness to put oneself forward, so it is in many religious and philosophical traditions, it contrasts with narcissism and other forms of pride and is an idealistic and rare intrinsic construct that has an extrinsic side.
The term "humility" comes from the Latin word humilitas, a noun related to the adjective humilis, which may be translated as "humble", but as "grounded", or "from the earth", since it derives from humus. See the English humus; the word "humble" may be related to feudal England where the lowest cuts of meat, or'umbles',', to say whatever was left over when the upper classes had taken their parts, were provided to the lowest class of citizen. The term'humble pie,' meaning to exist in a lowly station, may derive from this definition. Aidos, in Greek mythology, was the daimona of shyness and humility, she was the quality. Rabbi Lord Jonathan Sacks states that in Judaism humility is an appreciation of oneself, one's talents and virtues, it is not the effacing of oneself to something higher. Humility is not to think lowly of oneself. In recognition of the mysteries and complexities of life, one becomes humbled to the awesomeness of what one is and what one can achieve. Rabbi Pini Dunner discusses. In recognizing our worth as people, Rabbi Dunner shows that looking into the zillions of stars in the sky, in the length and history of time, you and I are insignificant, like dust.
Rabbi Dunner states that Moses wrote in the Torah, "And Moses was exceedingly humble, more than any man on the face of the earth." How is it possible to be humble and write you are the most humble? The conclusion is, it is not in denial of your talents and gifts but to recognize them and live up to your worth and something greater. It is in the service to others, the greatest form of humility; as illustrated in the person of Moses, who leads the nation of Hebrews out of slavery in Egypt and to the “Promised Land”, humility is a sign of Godly strength and purpose, not weakness. Of this great leader, the Bible states, “For Moses was a man exceeding meek above all men that dwelt upon earth". Moses is venerated by Jewish and Muslim adherents alike. Amongst the benefits of humility described in the Hebrew Bible, shared by many faiths, are honor, prosperity, the protection of the Lord and peace. In addition, "God opposes the proud but gives grace to the humble" New Testament exhortations to humility are found in many places, for example "Blessed are the meek", "He who exalts himself will be humbled and he who humbles himself will be exalted", as well as and throughout the Book of James.
In Jesus Christ's behavior in general and submission to unjust torture and execution in particular, are held up as examples of righteous humility: "Who, when he was reviled, did not revile: when he suffered, he threatened not: but delivered himself to him that judged him justly."1 Peter 2:23, C. S. Lewis writes, in Mere Christianity, that pride is the "anti-God" state, the position in which the ego and the self are directly opposed to God: "Unchastity, greed and all that, are mere fleabites in comparison: it was through Pride that the devil became the devil: Pride leads to every other vice: it is the complete anti-God state of mind." In contrast, Lewis contends. This is popularly illustrated by a phrase wrongly attributed to Lewis, "Humility is not thinking less of yourself, but thinking of yourself less." This is an apparent paraphrase, by Rick Warren in "The Purpose Driven Life", of a passage found in "Mere Christianity:" Lewis writes, regarding the humble man, Do not imagine that if you meet a humble man he will be what most people call "humble" nowadays: he will not be a sort of greasy, smarmy person, always telling you that, of course, he is nobody.
All you will think about him is that he seemed a cheerful, intelligent chap who took a real interest in what you said to him. If you do dislike him it will be because you feel a little envious of anyone who seems to enjoy life so easily, he will not be thinking about humility: he will not be thinking about himself at all. St. Augustine stresses the importance of humility in the study of the Bible, with the exemplars of a barbarian Christian slave, the apostle Paul, the Ethiopian eunuch in Acts 8. Both learner and teacher need to be humble, because they learn and teach what belongs to God (DDC, pro
Virtue is moral excellence. A virtue is a trait or quality, deemed to be morally good and thus is valued as a foundation of principle and good moral being. Personal virtues are characteristics valued as promoting individual greatness. In other words, it is a behavior. Doing what is right and avoiding what is wrong; the opposite of virtue is vice. The four classic cardinal virtues in Christianity are temperance, prudence and justice. Christianity derives the three theological virtues of faith and love from 1 Corinthians. Together these make up the seven virtues. Buddhism's four brahmavihara can be regarded as virtues in the European sense; the Japanese Bushidō code is characterized by up to ten virtues, including rectitude and benevolence. The ancient Romans used the Latin word virtus to refer to all of the "excellent qualities of men, including physical strength, valorous conduct, moral rectitude." The French words vertu and virtu came from this Latin root. In the 13th century, the word virtue was "borrowed into English".
During Egyptian civilization, Maat or Ma'at spelled māt or mayet, was the ancient Egyptian concept of truth, order, law and justice. Maat was personified as a goddess regulating the stars and the actions of both mortals and the deities; the deities set the order of the universe from chaos at the moment of creation. Her counterpart was Isfet, who symbolized chaos and injustice; the four classic cardinal virtues are: temperance: σωφροσύνη prudence: φρόνησις courage: ἀνδρεία justice: δικαιοσύνη This enumeration is traced to Greek philosophy and was listed by Plato in addition to piety: ὁσιότης, with the exception that wisdom replaced prudence as virtue. Some scholars consider either of the above four virtue combinations as mutually reducible and therefore not cardinal, it is unclear whether multiple virtues were of construct, whether Plato subscribed to a unified view of virtues. In Protagoras and Meno, for example, he states that the separate virtues cannot exist independently and offers as evidence the contradictions of acting with wisdom, yet in an unjust way.
In his work Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle defined a virtue as a point between a deficiency and an excess of a trait. The point of greatest virtue lies not in the exact middle, but at a golden mean sometimes closer to one extreme than the other. However, the virtuous action is not the "mean" between two opposite extremes; as Aristotle says in the Nicomachean Ethics: "at the right times, about the right things, towards the right people, for the right end, in the right way, is the intermediate and best condition, this is proper to virtue." This is not splitting the difference between two extremes. For example, generosity is a virtue between the two extremes of miserliness and being profligate. Further examples include: courage between cowardice and foolhardiness, confidence between self-deprecation and vanity. In Aristotle's sense, virtue is excellence at being human. Seneca, the Roman Stoic, said. Thus, in considering all consequences, a prudent person would act in the same way as a virtuous person.
The same rationale was expressed by Plato in Meno, when he wrote that people only act in ways that they perceive will bring them maximum good. It is the lack of wisdom. In this way, wisdom is the central part of virtue. Plato realized that because virtue was synonymous with wisdom it could be taught, a possibility he had earlier discounted, he added "correct belief" as an alternative to knowledge, proposing that knowledge is correct belief, thought through and "tethered". The term "virtue" itself is derived from the Latin "virtus", had connotations of "manliness", "honour", worthiness of deferential respect, civic duty as both citizen and soldier; this virtue was but one of many virtues which Romans of good character were expected to exemplify and pass on through the generations, as part of the Mos Maiorum. Romans distinguished between the spheres of private and public life, thus, virtues were divided between those considered to be in the realm of private family life, those expected of an upstanding Roman citizen.
Most Roman concepts of virtue were personified as a numinous deity. The primary Roman virtues, both public and private, were: Auctoritas – "spiritual authority" – the sense of one's social standing, built up through experience and Industria; this was considered to be essential for a magistrate's ability to enforce order. Comitas – "humour" – ease of manner, courtesy and friendliness. Constantia – "perseverance" – military stamina, as well as general mental and physical endurance in the face of hardship. Clementia – "mercy" – mildness and gentleness, the ability to set aside previous transgressions. Dignitas – "dignity" – a sense of self-worth, personal self-respect and self-esteem. Disciplina – "discipline" – considered essential to military excellence. Firmitas – "tenacity" – strength of mind, the ability to stick to one's purpose at hand without wavering. Frugalitas – "frugality" – economy and
Vanity is the excessive belief in one's own abilities or attractiveness to others. Prior to the 14th century it did not have such narcissistic undertones, meant futility; the related term vainglory is now seen as an archaic synonym for vanity, but meant boasting in vain, i.e. unjustified boasting. In many religions, vanity, in its modern sense, is considered a form of self-idolatry in which one likens oneself to the greatness of God for the sake of one's own image, thereby becomes separated and in time divorced from the Divine grace of God. In Christian teachings, vanity is an example of one of the seven deadly sins. In the Bahai Faith, Baha'u'llah uses the term'vain imaginings'. Philosophically, vanity may be a broader form of pride. Friedrich Nietzsche wrote that "vanity is the fear of appearing original: it is thus a lack of pride, but not a lack of originality." One of Mason Cooley's aphorisms is. Vanity hungry is spiteful." In Western art, vanity was symbolized by a peacock, in Biblical terms, by the Whore of Babylon.
During the Renaissance, vanity was invariably represented as a naked woman, sometimes seated or reclining on a couch. She attends to her hair with mirror; the mirror is sometimes held by a putto. Symbols of vanity include jewels, gold coins, a purse, the figure of death; some depictions of vanity include scrolls that read Omnia Vanitas, a quotation from the Latin translation of the Book of Ecclesiastes. Although the term vanitas meant not obsession by one's appearance, but the ultimate fruitlessness of humankind's efforts in this world, the phrase summarizes the complete preoccupation of the subject of the picture. "The artist invites us to pay lip-service to condemning her," writes Edwin Mullins, "while offering us full permission to drool over her. She admires herself in the glass, while we treat the picture that purports to incriminate her as another kind of glass—a window—through which we peer and secretly desire her." The theme of the recumbent woman merged artistically with the non-allegorical one of a reclining Venus.
In his table of the Seven deadly sins, Hieronymus Bosch depicts a bourgeois woman admiring herself in a mirror held up by a devil. A painting attributed to Nicolas Tournier, which hangs in the Ashmolean Museum, is An Allegory of Justice and Vanity: a young woman holds a balance, symbolizing justice. Johannes Vermeer's painting Girl with a Pearl Earring is sometimes believed to depict the sin of vanity, because the young girl has adorned herself before a glass without further positive allegorical attributes. All is. An optical illusion, the painting depicts. Upon closer examination, it reveals itself to be a young woman gazing at her reflection in the mirror. In the film The Devil's Advocate, Satan claims that "vanity is his favourite sin"; such artistic works served to warn viewers of the ephemeral nature of youthful beauty, as well as the brevity of human life and the inevitability of death